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ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY Respiratory System. Functions of the Respiratory System Gas Exchange.

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Presentation on theme: "ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY Respiratory System. Functions of the Respiratory System Gas Exchange."— Presentation transcript:

1 ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY Respiratory System

2 Functions of the Respiratory System Gas Exchange

3 Organs of the Respiratory System Upper Respiratory Tract  Nose  Pharynx  Larynx Lower Respiratory Tract  Trachea  Bronchi  Lungs

4 Nose framework composed of bone & cartilage 2 nostrils called: external nares  where air enters the nasal cavity  rt & lt separated by nasal septum  site of nose bleeds @ internal edge: internal nares

5 Pharynx throat 3 divisions: 1. Nasopharynx  begins @ internal nares  end of soft palate 2. Oropharynx  edge of soft palate  hyoid bone 3. Laryngopharynx  hyoid bone  upper edge of esophagus

6 3 Parts of the Pharynx

7 Larynx “voice box” Cartilage Parts:  Epiglottis  Glottis  Thyroid cartilage  Cricoid cartilage

8 Larynx moves upward when you swallow   tips epiglottis over the glottis (opening of trachea)  allows food  esophagus (--/  down trachea to lungs)  if not swallowing: glottis is open allowing air  lungs  wallow.swf wallow.swf

9 Trachea “windpipe”

10 Trachea rings of cartilage maintain its shape to prevent it from closing forks into 2 bronchi

11 Bronchus each enters a lung where it branches into smaller & smaller bronchioles resembling an inverted tree

12 Bronchioles fine tubes that allow passage of air smooth muscle surrounds them  when contracts airways constrict epithelium covered with cilia & mucus  mucus traps dust, particulates  cilia beat upward removing trapped particles from airways (moves particles ~1-3 cm/hr)

13 Bronchioles

14 Gas Exchange in Lungs


16 Pulmonary Function Tests “PFTs” subject breathes into a closed system in which air is trapped w/in a bell floating in water bell moves up when patient exhales / down when they inhale

17 Pulmonary Function Tests Tidal Volume:  amt of air expired Vital Capacity:  max amt of air that can forcefully exhaled after a max inhalation

18 Spirogram


20 Anatomical Dead Space not all inspired air will get into lungs exhaling does not force all air out of the body








28 Hemoglobin helps transport oxygen, carbon dioxide, & buffer blood as carbon dioxide leaves cells & diffuses thru interstial fluid then into capillary it combines with water to form carbonic acid


30 Hgb Loading & Unloading Oxygen

31 Respiratory pH Balance

32 Respiratory Acidosis hypoventilation accumulation of CO 2 in tissues pH decreases plasma HCO 3- increases

33 Respiratory Alkalosis hyperventilation excessive loss of CO 2 pH increases plasma HCO 3- decreases CO2 in blood increases



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