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Lesson 19.2: The Indian Wars

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1 Lesson 19.2: The Indian Wars
Today we will discuss the struggle between Native Americans and the United States for control of the American West.

2 Vocabulary assimilation – giving up one’s own culture and taking on the culture of the majority prospector – someone looking for deposits of precious metal (e.g., gold) massacre – one-sided victory in which the losing side is wiped out reservation – land set aside by the U.S. government as the only place where Indians were allowed to live

3 Check for Understanding
What are we going to do today? What is another way of referring to a prospector? What reservations are near here? Why would a football game between the Heritage High Patriots and the New England Patriots be a massacre? Why do many people feel that new immigrants should try to assimilate?

4 What We Already Know Since Europeans first arrived in North America in the early 1500s, whites and Indians have been in conflict over land.

5 What We Already Know The hope of striking it rich rapidly drew thousands of people into any area where precious metal was discovered, no matter how remote or dangerous.

6 What We Already Know Beginning with Jackson’s Indian Removal Act in 1830, the U.S. government had forced Native American to choose between assimilation and loss of their traditional tribal lands.

7 Native American Life on the Plains
Before the arrival of Europeans in the 1500s, most Plains tribes lived in villages along rivers and streams.

8 Native American Life on the Plains
The women tended crops of beans, corn, and squash. The men hunted deer and elk and in the summer stalked the vast buffalo herds that inhabited the Plains.

9 Native American Life on the Plains
When the Spanish brought the first horses to the Great Plains, it changed the way of life of the Plains people. By the late 1700s, many Plains tribes followed a nomadic way of life tied to buffalo hunting.

10 Native American Life on the Plains
The buffalo was central to the life of Plains tribes. Its meat became the chief food in their diet, while its skins served as portable shelters called tepees.

11 Native American Life on the Plains
Plains women turned buffalo hides into clothing, shoes, and blankets and used buffalo chips (dried manure) as cooking fuel. Bones and horns became tools and bowls.

12 A Clash of Cultures In the 1830s, the federal government began moving Indians into a huge area that included almost all of the land between the Missouri River and Oregon Territory. Most treaties made by the government with Native Americans promised that this land would remain theirs “as long as grass grows or water runs.”

13 A Clash of Cultures But these treaty promises were based on the belief that white settlers were not interested in the Plains because the land was considered too dry for farming. However, as wagon trains bound for Oregon and California crossed the Great Plains in the 1850s, some pioneers saw possibilities for farming and ranching on its grasslands.

14 A Clash of Cultures Soon white settlers moved onto the prairies and prospectors swarmed into the hills looking for gold. Spurred by the ranching and mining booms, settlers pressured the federal government for more land and for protection from Native Americans in the area.

15 A Clash of Cultures In 1851, the government responded by calling several Plains tribes together near Fort Laramie in present-day Wyoming. Government officials tried to buy back some Native American land and also set boundaries for tribal lands. Beginning with the First Treaty of Fort Laramie (1851), the United States entered 52 different treaties with various Native American nations.

16 Get your whiteboards and markers ready!

17 Choose all that are true!
How did the First Treaty of Fort Laramie affect Native Americans living on the Great Plains? Government officials bought back some Native American land. Plains Indians agreed to limit their wanderings to Indian Territory (Oklahoma). Boundaries for tribal lands were established. Limits were placed on buffalo hunting by white hunters. Prospectors were given permission to mine in the Black Hills. Choose all that are true!

18 Choose all that are true!
How did federal government policy toward Native Americans change as more white settlers moved to the West? It took away land that had been given to Native Americans by treaty. It recognized Native Americans as citizens, according to the Fourteenth Amendment. It forced Native Americans onto reservations. It systematically hunted down Native Americans and killed them. Choose all that are true!

19 A Clash of Cultures But some Cheyenne and Sioux resisted, preferring conflict with settlers and soldiers to the restrictions of reservation life. In southeastern Colorado, bands of Cheyenne warriors attacked miners and soldiers.

20 A Clash of Cultures In response, about 1,200 Colorado militia led by Colonel John Chivington opened fire on a peaceful Cheyenne village along Sand Creek in 1864.

21 More than 150 Cheyenne men, women, and children were killed in what came to be known as the Sand Creek Massacre.

22 Get your whiteboards and markers ready!

23 What happened at Sand Creek?
Custer’s entire force of 7th Cavalry troopers were wiped out. Colorado militia destroyed a peaceful Indian village and killed its inhabitants. Over 300 Sioux Ghost Dancers were killed in the last battle of the Indian Wars. Captain W. J. Fetterman and 80 troopers were killed in a Sioux ambush. Cheyenne warriors attacked a mining camp in the Black Hills and killed almost 100 prospectors.

24 A Clash of Cultures The Plains tribes reacted to such attacks by raiding white settlements and homesteads.

25 A Clash of Cultures In Montana, U.S. Army construction workers building a road across Sioux hunting grounds stumbled into a deadly ambush set by Sioux warriors. Led by Captain W. J. Fetterman, all 80 troopers were killed.

26 A Clash of Cultures Incidents such as the Fetterman massacre finally forced the government to try to find a way to end the fighting. In 1868, U.S. officials signed the Second Treaty of Fort Laramie with the Sioux, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho. The treaty gave these tribes a large reservation in the Black Hills of South Dakota.

27 Get your whiteboards and markers ready!

28 Why did the Second Treaty of Fort Laramie fail?
Corrupt Indian agents cheated the Native Americans, who were forced to fight back or starve. Wovoka’s Ghost Dance visions stirred the Apache into a warlike frenzy, and Geronimo led them into an uprising. White prospectors ignored the treaty and rushed onto Sioux land after gold was discovered in the Black Hills. A group of Sioux led by Red Cloud and Sitting Bull left the reservation and attacked a Mormon settlement.

29 Battle of the Little Bighorn
In 1874, white prospectors discovered gold in the Black Hills and thousands of miners rushed onto Sioux land, ignoring the Fort Laramie treaty. Many Sioux warriors fled the reservation and united under the leadership of Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse to push back the intruders.

30 Battle of the Little Bighorn
Lieutenant Colonel George A. Custer, and the Seventh Cavalry set out to return the Sioux to the reservations.

31 Battle of the Little Bighorn
On June 25, his forces met several thousand Sioux and Cheyenne near the Little Bighorn River in Montana, and in less than two hours, Custer and his 211 men were wiped out.

32 Battle of the Little Bighorn
News of Custer’s defeat shocked the nation, and the government responded by stepping up military action. As a result, Little Bighorn was the last major Native American victory.

33 In 1877, Crazy Horse surrendered and Sitting Bull and his followers fled to Canada.
In 1881, Sitting Bull’s starving band surrendered to U.S. troops and were returned to the reservation.

34 Get your whiteboards and markers ready!

35 What happened at the Battle of the Little Bighorn?
Custer’s entire force of 7th Cavalry troopers were wiped out. Colorado militia destroyed a peaceful Indian village and killed its inhabitants. Over 300 Sioux Ghost Dancers were killed in the last battle of the Indian Wars. Captain W. J. Fetterman and 80 troopers were killed in a Sioux ambush. Cheyenne warriors attacked a mining camp in the Black Hills and killed almost 100 prospectors.

36 Which two groups of whites were most often responsible for stirring up conflict with Indians on the Great Plains? Soldiers Prospectors Missionaries Politicians Buffalo hunters Farmers Choose TWO answers!

37 What did Custer’s defeat at Little Bighorn cause the government to do?
It stepped up its military effort against the Indians. It backed down and formally recognized the Indians' rights to the Dakota territory. It temporarily withdrew the army from the Great Plains and the Black Hills. It passed the Dawes Act.

38 Resistance in the Northwest
The Nez Perce was a Northwest tribe that lived peacefully in eastern Oregon and Idaho on land guaranteed to them by an 1855 treaty. However, as white settle-ment increased, the government forced them to move to a new reservation in Idaho. Most reluctantly agreed, but a group of Nez Perce led by Chief Joseph refused fled north to seek refuge in Canada in 1877.

39 Resistance in the Northwest
For four months, the Nez Perce traveled across 1,000 miles of rugged terrain with army troops in pursuit until they were about 40 miles from the Canadian border.

40 Greatly outnumbered, exhausted and starving, the Nez Perce surrendered.
Chief Joseph spoke for his people when he said, “I will fight no more, forever.”

41 "Tell General Howard I know his heart
"Tell General Howard I know his heart. What he told me before -- I have it in my heart. I am tired of fighting. Too-hul-hul-sit is dead. Looking Glass is dead. He-who-led-the-young-men-in-battle is dead. The chiefs are all dead. It is the young men now who say 'yes' or 'no.' My little daughter has run away upon the prairie. I do not know where to find her-perhaps I shall find her too among the dead. It is cold and we have no fire; no blankets. Our little children are crying for food but we have none to give. Hear me, my chiefs. From where the sun now stands, Joseph will fight no more forever."

42 Resistance in the Southwest
In the Southwest, both the Navajos and Apaches fought against being removed to reservations. U.S. troops ended Navajo resistance in Arizona in 1863 by burning Navajo homes and crops.

43 Resistance in the Southwest
Most Navajos surrendered and nearly 8,000 took what they called the “Long Walk.” Hundreds died on a brutal journey of 300 miles to a reservation in eastern New Mexico, a parched strip of land near the Pecos River. After four years, the government allowed the Navajos to return to Arizona, where many live today.

44 Resistance in the Southwest
In the early 1870s, the government forced many Apaches to settle on a barren reservation in eastern Arizona. But a group led by Geronimo escaped the res–ervation, surviving by raiding settlers’ homes. Geronimo was captured and escaped many times but in 1886, he finally surrendered and was sent to prison.

45 A Way of Life Ends As the Native Americans of the Plains battled to remain free, the buffalo herds that they depended upon for survival dwindled. Thirty million buffalo once roamed the Plains before hired hunters began to kill the animals to feed crews building railroads.

46 A Way of Life Ends Other hunters shot buffalo as a sport or to supply Eastern factories with leather for robes, shoes, and belts. From 1872 to 1882, hunters killed more than one million buffalo each year.

47 A Way of Life Ends By the 1880s, most Plains tribes had been forced onto reservations. With their hunting grounds fast disappearing, some turned in despair to a Paiute prophet named Wovoka. He preached a vision of a new age in which whites would be removed, and all the buffalo and Indians killed by the white man would be restored. All would be as it once was before whites came.

48 A Way of Life Ends Wovoka said this new age would not come until Native Americans performed a ritual he called the Ghost Dance. Wovoka’s hopeful vision quickly spread among the Plains peoples.

49 A Way of Life Ends A group of Sioux Ghost Dancers fled the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota. White settlers and government officials began to fear that they were preparing for war. The army rounded up the Ghost Dancers, and placed them in a temporary camp along Wounded Knee Creek.

50 A Way of Life Ends On December 29, 1890, as the Sioux were giving up their weapons, someone fired a shot. The troopers responded to the gunfire, killing about 300 men, women, and children. The Wounded Knee Massacre, as it was called, was the last act of armed resistance in the West.

51 Get your whiteboards and markers ready!

52 How did the destruction of the buffalo affect Plains peoples?
It took away their primary source of food, clothing, and shelter. It shook the Indians' religious beliefs. It demonstrated to them the power of the whites' weapons. It made it easier for white settlers to establish farms and homesteads.

53 What happened at Wounded Knee Creek?
Custer’s entire force of 7th Cavalry troopers were wiped out. Colorado militia destroyed a peaceful Indian village and killed its inhabitants. Over 300 Sioux Ghost Dancers were killed in the last battle of the Indian Wars. Captain W. J. Fetterman and 80 troopers were killed in a Sioux ambush. Cheyenne warriors attacked a mining camp in the Black Hills and killed almost 100 prospectors.

54 Why was Wounded Knee a turning point in relations between Native Americans and the government?
It ended armed resistance by Native Americans in the West. It was the last major Native American victory against U.S. troops. It led the government to adopt the Dawes Plan. It was where the last of the buffalo were slaughtered by the U.S. Army.

55 The Dawes Act Fails Some white Americans had been calling for better treatment of Native Americans for years. In 1881, Helen Hunt Jackson published A Century of Dishonor, which listed the failures of the federal government’s policies toward Native Americans. Sarah Winnemucca, a Paiute reformer, lectured in the East about the injustices of reservation life.

56 The Dawes Act Fails Many well-meaning reformers felt that assimilation was the only way for Native Americans to survive. Reformers wanted to make Indians like whites—to “Americanize” them. The Dawes Act of 1887 was intended to encourage Native Americans to give up their traditional ways and become farmers. The act divided reservations into individual plots of land for each family and allowed the government to sell leftover land to white settlers.

57 The Dawes Act Fails Native American children were sent to special boarding schools where they were taught white culture. But these attempts to Americanize the children still did not make them part of white society.

58 The Dawes Act Fails In the end, the Dawes Act did little to benefit Native Americans. Not all of them wanted to be farmers, and those who did lacked the tools, training, and money to be successful. Over time, many sold their land for a fraction of its real value to white land promoters or settlers.

59 The Dawes Act Fails The situation of Native Americans at the end of the 1800s was tragic. Their lands had been taken and their culture treated with contempt. Not until decades later would the federal government recognize the importance of their way of life.

60 Get your whiteboards and markers ready!

61 What was the purpose of the Dawes Act?
To force Native Americans to assimilate by encouraging them to give up their traditional ways and become farmers To weaken Native American by starting wars between different tribes To encourage Indians to voluntarily relocate to more remote areas of the United States To persuade Canada to allow relocated Native Americans to settle within its borders

62 How did Congress try to use the Dawes Act to “Americanize” the Indians?
It establish the reservation system. It divided tribal lands into family farm plots and required Indians to become farmers. It established a scholarship fund to send promising young Indians away to college. It required newborn Native American babies to be raised in white foster families.


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