Presentation on theme: "Ch. 1 – The Nature of Science Discovery Lab – pg. 5 Branches of Earth Science –1. Astronomy (Define) Study of objects beyond Earth’s atmosphere –2. Meteorology."— Presentation transcript:
Ch. 1 – The Nature of Science Discovery Lab – pg. 5 Branches of Earth Science –1. Astronomy (Define) Study of objects beyond Earth’s atmosphere –2. Meteorology (Define) The science of the air that surrounds the Earth. –3. Geology (Define) The study of the processes that form and change materials that make up the Earth. –4. Oceanography (Define) The study of the Earth’s oceans. Table 1-1 page 7
Earth’s Systems 1. Lithosphere – includes the crust and extreme upper part of the mantle. –What’s the difference between the crust & mantle? Crust = outermost solid layer on Earth (oceanic & continental) Mantle = just below the crust. –The core is below the mantle. Outer core is the liquid part. Inner core is the solid part made of Iron and Nickel. 2. Hydrosphere – water sections of the Earth. –What are the types of water sections. Oceans, lakes, rivers, glaciers, groundwater. –97% of the water is saltwater, leaving 3% freshwater.
3. Atmosphere – consists of the gases that surround Earth. –78% N –21% O 2 4. Biosphere – includes al the organisms on Earth and the environment they live in. –The majority of these organisms live within a few meters of the Earth’s crust These 4 systems are interdependent of each other as you can see in fig. 1-4. Activity – Scaled Model of the Earth & the 4 systems.
Methods of Scientists Scientific Method – Fig. 1-6 1.Question a. Hypothesis (define) b. variables – difference between dependent and independent. c. Develop a plan – list steps. 2. Test a. Set up a control and experimental group. b. conduct experiment & record data. 3. Analyze a. develop a chart, graph, or table. b. compare data with hypothesis - Is it supported or refuted 4. Conclude a. Re-evaluate hypothesis b. Explain your theory based on observations and data.
Measurements Activities Modeling Length – KHDMDCM Weight – gravitational pull (w=mxg) Mass – amount of matter in an object Area – (3.14)r 2 Volume – bxlxh Density – d=m/v Time – seconds Temperature – K Scientific Notation --- Practice Problems
Communicating in Science Graphs –Independent variable on (x) axis. –Dependent variable on (y) axis. Theory –An explanation based on several observation with repeated experiments. Law –A basic principle that describes the behavior of a natural phenomenon. Theories help explain laws with a repeated pattern. Laws typically use more math than theories.