Presentation on theme: "Instructional System Design. The purpose of instructional design is to maximize the value of instruction for the learner especially the learner's time."— Presentation transcript:
The purpose of instructional design is to maximize the value of instruction for the learner especially the learner's time. Instruction provides a concentration of life-experience into a shortened, optimized time frame and provides feedback to ensure that learning objectives are actually being achieved. Ideally, instruction allows the knowledge, wisdom, and skills of an instructor-author to be personally communicated or demonstrated to a learner.
The Addie Instructional Design Model provides a 5 step-by-step process that helps training specialists plan and create training programs. Each step has an outcome that feeds into the next step in the sequence.
This is a functional view of ADDIE depicting the overlapping and interdependent processes — breaking out of a rigid view of sequential stages. This is a functional view of ADDIE depicting the overlapping and interdependent processes — breaking out of a rigid view of sequential stages
Analysis During analysis, the designer identifies the learning problem, the goals and objectives, the audience’s needs, existing knowledge, and any other relevant characteristics. Analysis also considers the learning environment, any constraints, the delivery options, and the timeline for the project.
Below are some of the questions that are addressed during the analysis phase:
Who is the audience and what are their characteristics? Did we identify the new behavioral outcome? What types of learning constraints exist? What are the delivery options? What are the online pedagogical considerations? What is the timeline for project completion?
Design A systematic process of specifying learning objectives. Detailed storyboards and prototypes are often made, and the look and feel, graphic design, user-interface and content is determined here.
Documentation of the project's instructional, visual, and technical design strategy Apply instructional strategies according to the intended behavioral outcomes by domain (cognitive, affective, psychomotor). Create storyboards Design the user interface and user experience Prototype creation Apply visual design (graphic design)
Development The actual creation (production) of the content and learning materials based on the Design phase
The project is reviewed and revised according to any feedback given.
List activities that will help the students learn the task. Select the delivery method such as tapes, handouts, etc. Review existing material so that we do not reinvent the wheel. Develop the instructional courseware. Synthesize the courseware into a viable training program. Validate the instruction to ensure it accomplishes all goals and objectives.
Implementation During implementation, the plan is put into action and a procedure for training the learner and teacher is developed. Materials are delivered or distributed to the student group. After delivery, the effectiveness of the training materials is evaluated.
Evaluation This phase consists of (1) formative and (2) summative evaluation. Formative evaluation is present in each stage of the ADDIE process. Summative evaluation consists of tests designed for criterion-related referenced items and providing opportunities for feedback from the users. Revisions are made as necessary.
Review and evaluate each phase (analyze, design, develop, implement) to ensure it is accomplishing what it is supposed to. Perform external evaluations (e.g. observe that the learner on the job can actually perform the tasks that were trained). Revise training system to make it better.
Rapid prototyping (continual feedback ) has sometimes been cited as a way to improve the generic ADDIE model.
At the end of the program, collect the evaluations, review the program data, prepare and report performance results. In reviewing the program data the report should include but not be limited to the number of participant learners trained, percent of participants who passed the course, and their satisfaction with the material presented and how it was presented.