2 Objectives Students will be… introduced to the subject of human rights move towards an understanding of the nature and extent of human rightsunderstand the meaning of the term “human rights”introduced to the UDHR and other human rights documents and to some of the Nuremberg Laws
3 Being Human? What does it mean to be human? What does it mean to be fully human? How is that different from just "being alive" or "surviving"?Based on this list, what do people need to live in dignity?Are all human beings essentially equal? What is the value of human differences?Can any of our "essential" human qualities be taken from us? For example, only human beings can communicate with complex language; are you human if you lose the power of speech?What happens when a person or government attempts to deprive someone of something that is necessary to human dignity?What would happen if you had to give up one of these human necessities?
4 Universal Declaration of Human Rights Universal Declaration of Human Rights sets the standard for how human beings should behave towards one another so that everyone’s human dignity is respected.
5 Universal Declaration On Human Rights recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of the freedom, justice, and peace in the world…Preamble Universal Declaration of Human RightsAll human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.Article 1 Universal Declaration of Human Rights
6 What are rights? Brainstorm definitions for the word right Brainstorm for the many meanings "right" can have (e.g., "correct," "opposite of left," "just.") Consider common expressions like "We’re within our rights" or "You have no right to say that." Record these different meanings on the board. What is the meaning of "right" when we speak of a human right?2. In small groups or all together, brainstorm a definition for human rights and write these possibilities on the board. Try to evolve a definition that everyone can agree upon and write it on a chart sheet by itself.
7 Declaration of Human Rights Human rights belong to all people regardless of their sex, race, color, language, national origin, age, class, religion, or political beliefs. They are universal, inalienable, indivisible, and interdependent.What is meant by universality? By inalienable? By indivisible? By interdependent?Discuss:Should human rights address only what a human being needs to survive? Why or why not?Should human rights also protect those things you classified under "conveniences and luxuries"? Why or why not?Some people in the world have only what is necessary to survive while others have luxury and convenience. Is this situation just? Is it a human rights violation?Can something be done to equalize the enjoyment of human dignity? Should something be done? If so, how? And by whom?Pose the question "What does it mean to be alive?"When does life begin? When does life end?Should the right to be living ever be taken away by the state?Is the right to live a human right?When do human rights begin and end?
8 History of Human Rights After the horrors of WWI many countries felt that an international charter on human rights would reduce the chances that such atrocities would be repeatedUnited Nations Commission on Human Rights was established1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) was drawn upAfter the horrors of World War II it was felt in many countries that an international charter on human rights would reduce the chances that such atrocities would be repeated. As a result, the United Nations Commission on Human Rights was established and by 1948, a Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) had been drawn up. The UDHR is an important document for curbing unjust behavior by governments.Though the Declaration itself is not legally enforceable, the International Conventions that emanate from it (e.g., the International Convention on Social, Economic, and Cultural Rights and the International Convention on Civil and Political Rights) and are ratified by individual countries are expected to be incorporated into appropriate national legislation which is, then, enforceable; in addition, countries that are signatories to such conventions are expected to submit reports on their national compliance to the appropriate UN body. “Watchdog” organizations also help to monitor compliance.The word rights is used in a number of different contexts to include legal, moral, and human rights. Those rights which are thought to have universal application are known as human rights.Although the concept of human rights goes back to Greek and Roman times (Stoics, jus gentium [which actually promoted slavery], English Bill of Rights , and Locke’s “Rights of Man” and the American Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen [August 26, 1789], proclaiming that “men are born and remain free and equal in rights” and that “the aim of every political association is the preservation of the natural and imprescriptible rights of man”), the phrase HUMAN rights dates from World War II.
9 Legal vs. Moral Rights Legal Rights are laid down by law Moral Rights are often taken to mean rights which are not enshrined in any formal code but which nonetheless are held to be reasonableRight to privacyRight to confidentialityLegal rights are laid down by law. Some countries (such as the U.S.) have a Bill of Rights. In others, such rights are written into their Constitutions. In still others (such as the UK), legal rights are not written down in either a Constitution or a Bill of Rights; instead, it is assumed that a person has the right to do something until a ruling to the contrary has been made by a court or by Parliament.Moral rights is often taken to mean rights which are not enshrined in any formal code but which nonetheless are held to be reasonable; examples might be the right to privacy or the right to confidentiality.
10 Limits on RightsHuman rights are not realized in some cases because of other interests of the state. Examples might include….National securityPublic health and moralsNeed to respect rights of othersIt is recognized that human rights are not realized in some cases because of other interests of the state. Rationales invoked to limit human rights include:national securitythe economic well-being of a countrypublic health and moralsthe preservation of law and orderthe need to respect the rights of othersIn view of these exceptions it becomes harder to define a list of human rights that should always apply, whatever the circumstances.
11 Where do you stand game? In Every Case In Most Cases In Some Cases . Killing is wrong.2. It is wrong to keep someone else as a slave.3. After a certain age, people should be able to marry whomever they choose.4. People should be allowed to say or write what they wish.5. All people should be treated equally. It should not depend on such things as their gender, appearance, or the country they come from.6. People in prison should be told why they are being held.7. People should be allowed to criticize the government.8. People should be allowed to talk to and meet anyone they wish.9. It is wrong to force a person to work.10. A person accused of a crime should be tried by someone who has nothing to do with the case.11. People should be allowed to travel and leave their country if they wish.12. Private letters and telephone calls should not be intercepted.13. People should be allowed to have, or not have, whatever religious beliefs they wish.14. All people have a right to belong to a country.15. All people have the right to medical help if they are ill.16. All people have a right to education. Parents have the right to choose the kind of education to be given to their children.
12 Comparing Nuremberg Laws With Human Rights Look at Nuremberg Laws passed between 1933 and 1935Do these violate human rights and if so, which ones?February Emergency laws are passed to prevent people from “acting against the country’s interests.” These allow the police or army t search any house they wish and give the government power to lock up anyone writing or making speeches which criticize what is going on. The death penalty is brought in for anyone found guilty of setting fire to a building, damaging the railways, or plotting against the government.March Jewish people are forbidden to serve on juries.April No Jew can work in government. No Jew can join the police. No Jew can work in the law courts. No Jew can work as a doctor or dentist in a hospital.June Jews are not allowed to enter cinemas, theatres, or art galleries, or to use sports facilities.July It is declared that the Nazi party will be the only party in Germany. Anyone who tries to form another political party will be sentenced to up to three years in prison.September 1933 People can inherit farm land only if they can prove there is no Jewish blood in the family going back as far as 1800.September 1935 Marriage or sexual relations between Jews and other Germans is forbidden.November 1935 Jewish people are not allowed to vote.(Note: Some students may notice that, in removing many human rights, the Nazis were not actually breaking German law. They had legally passed valid new laws which denied basic human rights. Legal rights may not be the same as human rights.)