Presentation on theme: "The Cold War 1945 -- 1991. The Cold War A state of political tension and military rival between nations that stops short of full-scale war. The Cold."— Presentation transcript:
The Cold War A state of political tension and military rival between nations that stops short of full-scale war. The Cold War existed between the United States and the Soviet Union following World War II.
When It began right after World War II. It was began by Joseph Stalin at Yalta in 1945. It began over Eastern Europe.
What It was a rivalry between the two superpowers – the United States and the USSR (Soviet Union – Russia) The rivalry stopped short of direct, violent confrontation because that would have meant nuclear war.
Why Did the Cold War Begin Mutual distrust. The U.S. didn’t trust the USSR and The USSR didn’t trust the U.S. There were two ideologies – communism vs. Democracy There was an arms (weapons) race. Each attempted to have more weapons than the other. There was the USSR’s intention to take over the world – especially the Third World.
Who? The Soviet Union vs The U.S. The Korean War The beginning leaders in the 1940s and 1950s are Stalin – USSR Pres. Harry Truman – U.S.
Where The First World The U.S. and its allies in Western Europe The Second World The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe The Third World – Developing countries i.e. Korea, Vietnam
Military Alliances NATO –North Atlantic Treaty Organization– 1948 – democracy Warsaw Pact – USSR and its satellites in Eastern Europe – 1955 -- communism
How Who had the bomb? – the U.S. and the USSR NATO prevented the Soviet Union from invading Western Europe. Weapons were nuclear and conventional
Hot Wars 1950 – 1953: North Korea vs South Korea (U.S.) Pres. Eisenhower got us out. 1965 – 1975: North Vietnam (communist) vs. South Vietnam (U.S.) Pres. Nixon pulled troops out and North Vietnam communist took over South Vietnam.
Asian Leaders Mao – China Ho Chi Minh – Vietnam Fidel Castro – Cuba India -- Nehru
Confrontations in Berlin, Germany 1948 – the Soviets attempt to oust the U.S. who controls West Berlin. The Soviets control East Berlin. The Soviets attempt to prevent the U.S. from bringing in supplies to the west. This is called the Berlin Blockade – JFK simply used airplanes to drop supplies to the West Berliners. We win. 1961 – the Soviets build a wall around East Berlin. It was the symbol of the Cold War.
Confrontations in Cuba 1959 – Cuban Revolution led by Fidel Castro, Cuba goes communist. 1961 – Bay of Pigs invasion. The CIA tried to overthrow Castro’s government. It failed. 1962 – Cuban Missile Crisis – the Soviet Union put nuclear missiles in Cuba, aimed at the U.S.! This was the most dangerous and scary moment of the Cold War.
Africa & Middle East leaders Nasser – Egypt Lumumba – Congo Shah of Iran Ayatollah Khomeini – Iran Sadat – Egypt Begin -- Israel
The CIA vs. the KGB Whenever it looked like a country was going communist, the CIA overthrew their government. 1954 – Iran, Guatemala 1973 – Chile
Revolts in Eastern Europe Called “the Eastern Block”. 1956 – Hungary – crushed by Soviet troops and tanks. 1968 – Czechoslovakia – crushed by Soviet troops and tanks. Nicknamed “Prague Spring.” 1981 – Poland – Gorbachev did not crush the uprising! It was led by Lech Walesa and the Solidarity Party.
The Middle East (Southwest Asia) 1948 – Israel – The U.S. backed Israel. The USSR supported the Arab nations that attacked Israel. 1979 – Iran – The U.S. backed the Shah of Iran. USSR supported Ayatollah Khomeini
Who Ended the War? President Ronald Reagan – the Soviet Union is “The Evil Empire.” “Star Wars” Pope John Paul II – he was Polish and the first non- Italian pope in 500 years. The pope encouraged Poland to rise up. It did and the Soviets did nothing. In Germany the people tore down the Berlin Wall. Gorbachev – the Soviet leader allowed freedom of speech. Their economy crumbled as did communism.