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Audit Reports Chapter 3.

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Presentation on theme: "Audit Reports Chapter 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 Audit Reports Chapter 3

2 Learning Objective 1 Describe the parts of the standard unqualified audit report.

3 Parts of the Standard Unqualified Audit Report
1. Report title 2. Audit report address 3. Introductory paragraph 4. Scope paragraph 5. Opinion paragraph 6. Name of CPA firm 7. Audit report date

4 Learning Objective 2 Specify the conditions required to issue the standard unqualified audit report.

5 Conditions for Standard Unqualified Audit Report
1. All financial statements are included. 2. The three general standards have been followed in all respects on the engagement. 3. Sufficient evidence has been accumulated to conclude that the three standards of field work have been met.

6 Conditions for Standard Unqualified Audit Report
4. The financial statements are presented in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. 5. There are no circumstances requiring the addition of an explanatory paragraph or modification of the wording of the report.

7 Four Categories of Audit Reports
Standard unqualified Unqualified with explanatory paragraph or modified wording Qualified Adverse or disclaimer

8 Learning Objective 3 Understand combined reporting on financial statements and internal control over financial reporting under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

9 Sarbanes-Oxley Act This Act requires the auditor of a public
company to attest to management’s report on the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting. PCAOB Auditing standard 2 requires the audit of internal control to be integrated with the audit of the financial statements.

10 Sarbanes-Oxley Act Combined Report on Financial Statements and
Internal Control Over Financial Reporting 1. Introductory paragraph 2. Scope paragraph 3. Definition paragraph 4. Inherent limitations paragraph 5. Opinion paragraph

11 Learning Objective 4 Describe the five circumstances when an unqualified report with an explanatory paragraph or modified wording is appropriate.

12 Unqualified Report with Explanatory Paragraph
1. Lack of consistent application of generally accepted accounting principles 2. Substantial doubt about going concern 3. Auditor agrees with a departure from promulgated accounting principles 4. Emphasis of a matter 5. Reports involving other auditors

13 Consistency Versus Comparability
Changes that affect consistency and require an explanatory paragraph if they are material: 1. Changes in accounting principles 2. Changes in reporting entities 3. Corrections of errors involving principles

14 Consistency Versus Comparability
Changes that affect comparability but not consistency: 1. Changes in an estimate 2. Error corrections not involving principles 3. Variations in format and presentation of financial information 4. Changes because of substantially different transactions or events

15 Consistency Versus Comparability
The Auditing Standards Board has issued a proposal to the PCAOB to eliminate the consistency explanatory paragraph.

16 Substantial Doubt About Going Concern
1. Significant recurring operating losses or working capital deficiencies 2. Inability of the company to pay its obligations as they come due 3. Loss of major customers, the occurrence of uninsured catastrophes 4. Legal proceedings, legislation that might jeopardize the entity’s ability to operate

17 Auditor Agrees with a Departure from a Promulgated Principle
The auditor must be satisfied and must state and explain, in a separate paragraph or paragraphs in the audit report, that adhering to the principle would have produced a misleading result in that situation.

18 Emphasis of a Matter Under certain circumstances, the CPA may
want to emphasize specific matters regarding the financial statements, even though the CPA intends to express an unqualified opinion.

19 Reports Involving Other Auditors
1. Make no reference in the audit report. 2. Make reference in the report (modified wording report). 3. Qualify the opinion.

20 Learning Objective 5 Identify the types of audit reports that can be issued when an unqualified opinion is not justified.

21 Departures from an Unqualified Opinion
1. Scope limitation 2. GAAP departure 3. Auditor not independent

22 Qualified Opinion A qualified opinion report can result from
a limitation on the scope of the audit or failure to follow generally accepted accounting principles.

23 Adverse Opinion It is used only when the auditor believes
that the overall financial statements are so materially misstated or misleading that they do not present fairly the financial position or results of operations and cash flows in conformity with GAAP.

24 Disclaimer of Opinion It is issued when the auditor is unable
to be satisfied that the overall financial statements are fairly presented.

25 Learning Objective 6 Explain how materiality affects audit reporting decisions.

26 Materiality A misstatement in the financial statements
can be considered material if knowledge of the misstatement would affect a decision of a reasonable user of the statements.

27 Levels of Materiality Amounts are immaterial.
Amounts are material but do not overshadow the financial statements as a whole. Amounts are so material or so pervasive that overall fairness of the statements is in question.

28 Relationship of Materiality to Type of Opinion
Level Significance in Terms of Reasonable Users’ Decisions Type of Opinion Users’ decisions are unlikely to be affected. Immaterial Unqualified Users’ decisions are likely to be affected. Material Qualified Users’ decisions are likely to be significantly affected. Highly material Disclaimer or adverse

29 Materiality Decisions
Failure to follow GAAP Audit report Unqualified Qualified opinion only Adverse

30 Materiality Decisions
Dollar amount compared with a base Measurability Nature of the item

31 Materiality Decisions
Scope limitation Audit report Unqualified Qualified scope and opinion Disclaimer

32 Learning Objective 7 Draft appropriately modified audit reports under a variety of circumstances.

33 Discussion of Conditions Requiring Departure
Auditor’s scope has been restricted. Statements are not in conformity with GAAP. Auditor is not independent.

34 Learning Objective 8 Determine the appropriate audit report for a given audit situation.

35 Auditor’s Decision Process
Determine whether any condition exists requiring a departure from a standard unqualified report. Decide the materiality for each condition. Decide the appropriate type of report. Write the audit report.

36 Scope Restricted by Client or Other Conditions
Immaterial Material Level of Materiality Extremely Unqualified report Qualified scope, additional paragraph, and qualified opinion (except for) Disclaimer of opinion

37 Statements Not Prepared in Accordance With GAAP
Level of Materiality Immaterial Material Extremely Material Unqualified report Additional paragraph and qualified opinion (except for) Adverse opinion

38 The Auditor Is Not Independent
Level of Materiality Immaterial Material Extremely Material Disclaimer of opinion (regardless of materiality)

39 Number of Paragraphs in the Report
Standard unqualified Unqualified with explanatory paragraph 4 Unqualified shared report with other auditors 3 Qualified – opinion only Qualified – scope and opinion Disclaimer – scope limitation Adverse Type of Report

40 Learning Objective 9 Discuss the impact of e-commerce on audit reporting.

41 Impact of E-Commerce on Audit Reporting
Most public companies provide access to financial information through their home Web page. Auditors are not required to read information contained in electronic sites. Auditing standards note that electronic sites are not considered “documents.”

42 End of Chapter 3

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