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Animal Organ Systems.

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Presentation on theme: "Animal Organ Systems."— Presentation transcript:

1 Animal Organ Systems

2 Anatomy Study of the form, shape , and appearance of the animal.

3 Physiology Focuses on the function of the cells, tissues, organs and systems of the body Systems of the body – skeletal, muscular, nervous, circulatory, respiratory, excretory, and digestive

4 Skeletal sytem

5 Skeletal System Protects the delicate internal organs and helps keep them properly arranged the body Bones – hard part of skeleton, made of calcium, phosphorus, and other substances Cartilage – found at the ends of bones, flexable material that lubricates the joints and cushion shocks.




9 Muscular System

10 Muscular System. Largest system in the body, making up 45% of the body weight of hogs, cattle and chickens.

11 Muscular System Locomotion Circulation Digestion Breathing

12 Muscular Types Voluntary - Controlled by thinking part of the brain
Involuntary – Automatically controlled by a lower part of the brain

13 Nervous system

14 Nervous Systems Made up of nerve tissue that conducts electrical impulses from the brain to the muscles by way of the spinal cord.

15 Central Nervous system
Brain, spinal cord, and nerves Memory, actions, and reasoning are in the brain Spinal cord is the main tissue through which the brain sends and receives messages

16 Autonomic Nervous System
Contain nerves that are connected to the involuntary muscles and organs Provides for near automatic operation of the organs

17 Peripheral nervous system
Includes all of the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord Muscles action is sent through these nerves by the brain

18 Receptors Collect information from the environment
The five sensory receptor types are Sight Hearing Touch Taste Smell

19 Circulatory system

20 Moves blood throughout the body.
Circulatory system Moves blood throughout the body. Blood is made of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.

21 Blood Plasma – 90% water Glucose, vitamins, minerals, and amino acids (proteins) Red blood cells - contain hemoglobin and are made in the bone marrow White blood cells – help fight off disease Platelets – essential for blood to clot

22 Circulatory system parts
Heart – pump that sends blood throughout the system Arteries – vessels that carry blood from the heart Capillaries – small branches from the arteries that carry blood to the cells Veins – carry blood back to the heart


24 Respiratory system

25 Respiratory system moves gases to and from the circulatory system.

26 Respiratory system cont.
Internal respiration – exchange of gases between the cells and the blood within the body External respiration – exchanges of gases in the lungs between the blood and the atmosphere

27 Respiratory system cont.
Nostrils – openings near mouth through which gases enter and leave the body Pharynx – connects the nose area with the mouth area Larynx – often called a voice box Trachea – wind pipe – connects pharynx with lungs Lungs – gas is exchanged between atmosphere and blood

28 Breathing Inspiration – Process of taking air into the lungs
Expiration – Process of moving air out of lungs

29 Excretory System

30 Rids the body of wastes from cell activity Skin Kidneys Ureter Bladder
Excretory system Rids the body of wastes from cell activity Skin Kidneys Ureter Bladder Urethra

31 Excretory system Skin - Rids the body of waste through perspiration
Kidneys – Filter the blood for wastes from cells and excess water and minerals Ureter – Tube that connects the kidney to the bladder Bladder – stores the urine made by the kidneys Urethra – tube that carries urine out of the body

32 Chicken urinary tract No bladder
2 kidneys with ureters to carry the urinary waste to the cloaca. The uric acid is discharged into the cloaca and excreted with the feces. The white pasty material in chicken droppings is considered to be urinary system excretion.

33 Ruminant and non-ruminant
Digestive systems

34 Digestive Systems Process of breaking down food into molecules that the body can absorb 2 types – Ruminant and Non- Ruminant

35 Ruminant Animals Cattle, sheep, and goats Chew their cud
Cud - a portion of food that returns from a ruminant's stomach in the mouth to be chewed for the second time

36 Non – ruminant Animals Horses, hogs, and chickens Do not chew cud

37 Digestive Systems Mouth – Food enters the body by ingestion
Esophagus – connects mouth to stomach Food and water moves by swallowing Stomach – one compartment in non-ruminants and 4 compartments in ruminants Small Intestine – absorbs nutrients and water

38 Digestive systems Large Intestine – absorbs water and makes waste more solid Anus – opening in the body through which the large intestine expels solid waste

39 Ruminants Rumen – first and largest compartment – stores a large amount of feed Aids the to help bring feed back to mouth for rechewing Reticulum – stores food and sorts out foreign materials Helps prevent hardware disease Contains bacteria to help break down feed

40 RuminANTS Omasum – has strong alls that help break food apart
Abomasum – like a non ruminant stomach Contains gastric juices that mix with feed and further break it down.


42 rUMINANTS Can use large amounts of roughages such at grass, clover and other vegetation Usually do not need large amounts of expensive grain and other concentrated feeds.

43 Chicken Digestive System
Mechanically Chemically

44 Chicken digestive tract
Beak Esophagus Crop Proventriculus Gizzard Small Intestine Pancreas Liver Caeca

45 Chicken Digestions Beak – food swallowed with out chewing
Salvia contains a starch reducing enzyme that begins to break down food. The oesophagus is a flexible tube that food passes down into the crop.

46 Chicken Digestion Crop – a pouch at the base of the neck that stores food. The esophagus continues past the crop to the proventriculus. In the proventriculus the food is mixed with acids and more digestive enzymes.

47 Chicken Digestion Gizzard – strong muscular tube that has grit to help it grind the food down. Then the food moves into the small intestine. Here enzymes from the pancreas break down the protein. Also, bile from the liver breaks down the fat. Caeca – a pair of tubes that allow fermentation of the undigested food.

48 Caeca – a pair of tubes that allow fermentation of the undigested food.
The Large Intestine absorbs water and the last remaining nutrients. Cloaca or vent is where feces, urine and eggs pass.


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