How do people influence you? Sherwood Brooks Driftwood Middle School 2010
What is Propaganda? A form of communication that may use distorted, false, or misleading information to persuade Circular reasoning Stereotyping Overgeneralization Cause and Effect Fallacy
Circular Reasoning An attempt to support a statement by repeating it in other words Example: Using video cameras to monitor school hallways is good because it feels right.
Stereotyping A stereotype is a generalization about a group of people (Racial, ethnic, religious) that doesn’t take into account individual differences
Overgeneralization A broad statement that says something is true for every case, with no exceptions.
Cause and Effect Fallacy The author makes the assumption that because one event follows another, the second was caused by the first. The school cut security staff, and two students fell down the stairs and were seriously injured.
Persuasive Techniques False Analogy – compares two things that do not have enough similarities to be a valid comparison
A means of convincing people: to buy a certain product to believe something or act in a certain way to agree with a point of view
Persuasive Techniques False premise – begins with a statement that is not true People who wear glasses are smart. Naomi wears glasses, so she is smart. If I’m made from sugar, why am I a sugar substitute?
Persuasive Techniques Red Herring – a reason that distracts from the argument
Persuasive Techniques Either/or Fallacy – assumes that there are only two alternatives. Either go to college or forget about getting a good job.
Repetition: The name of a product is repeated many times HEAD ON Apply directly to the forehead
Slogan: “Can you hear me now?” A catchy phrase or statement often used to sell a service or a product.
Bandwagon A statement suggesting that everyone is using a specific product, so you should too Persuading people to do something by letting them know others are doing it Gives impression that you will be left out if you don’t do what you are being persuaded Example: “See why so many women have switched” (Shampoo advertisement)
By using the plain-folks technique, speakers attempt to convince their audience that they, and their ideas, are "of the people." The device is used by advertisers and politicians alike. Plain Folks Propaganda is an every day person or people that sell a product.
T ransfer is a propaganda technique used when an advertiser tries to transfer our good feelings about one thing, to his product: By using positive associations you already have in one area, the advertiser doesn't have to start from scratch to create those same positive associations for its product. With transfer advertising, you can manipulate the audience's feelings about the product by choosing to highlight one fact about the product while ignoring aspects of the product that don't fit with the message you want to send to the consumer.
Testimonial A well-known person supports a product or service
Testimonial works because you feel like you can trust the words of an expert or someone who is famous.
Expert Opinion Ads using scientific sounding language to make a product seem more effective. Appeals to the audience’s intellect “Four out of five dentists recommend this toothpaste….” “Studies show that….”
Expert Opinion Experts approve this product, so you should use it “Four out of five dentists recommend sugarless gum for their patients who chew gum”
Emotional Appeal A person is made to have strong feelings about a situation or product Using the words of a famous person to persuade you “Got Milk?” “Just Say No!” Loaded words that make people feel strongly - love/hate, patriotic, loyal, un- American, socialist, bully Sports figures promoting athletic gear, sports drinks, or shoes.
Quick Review Soda is as healthy to drink as water. So I drink soda with all my meals. False Premise
Quick Review Either you vote for Ellen Green for student body president or our school activities will decline. Either/Or Fallacy
Quick Review Just as dogs need to be trained to obey commands, students need strong discipline to improve their learning. False Analogy
Quick Review Yes, animals are trapped in zoos. But what about all those people trapped in jobs they hate? Red Herring
Quick Review Plain Folks The most important part of this appeal is the speaker's portrayal of themselves as someone who has had a similar experience