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Ecosystem Model.

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Presentation on theme: "Ecosystem Model."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ecosystem Model

2 3.1 Ecosystems Factors such as food, water, shelter, and space affect populations in an ecosystem.

3 Introduction

4 What is an ecosystem? All living & non-living things that interact in an environment

5 Biotic is living things in an ecosystem
Ecosystems Biotic is living things in an ecosystem Abiotic is nonliving things in an ecosystem.

6 What are Some Types of Ecosystems?
Terrestrial Ecosystems Terrestrial ecosystems are ecosystems on land. They can be as big as a continent, or as small as an island! They make up about 28% of the entire World’s ecosystems.

7 Examples of Terrestrial Ecosystems
Forests Deserts Grasslands Forest: Desert: Grassland:

8 Aquatic Ecosystems There is something special about aquatic ecosystems. There is actually two different types of aquatic ecosystems. One type is freshwater –such as pond , rivers and streams The other type is saltwater. Both types, however, are ecosystems that are in the water. Picture retrieved from: Aquatic information retrieved from: And:

9 Saltwater Ecosystems Saltwater ecosystems are again in the water, but unlike freshwater ecosystems, saltwater ecosystems have very salty water. They also make up the vast majority of the Earth’s ecosystems. They are the world’s largest ecosystems. Some examples of saltwater ecosystems are oceans and coral reefs. Water picture retrieved from: Coral reef picture retrieved from:


11 What Do Organisms in an ecosystem need?

12 Organisms in an ecosystem need…

13 Organisms in an ecosystem need…
food shelter

14 Organisms in an ecosystem need…
food shelter AIR Water

15 Organisms in an ecosystem need…
food shelter AIR LIMITING FACTORS Space Water

16 What are limiting factors?
Limiting factors are things that can limit the size of a population Food Water shelter space

17 What are the rules of an ecosystem?
Everything is connected to everything else. 2. Everything must go somewhere in an environment

18 Organisms live together in many different levels and classifications.


20 Levels of Organization in Ecosystems
Species: An organism that creates a viable, fertile offspring through the process of reproduction.

21 Levels of Organization in Ecosystems
Population: A group of organisms of the same species living at the same place at the same time.

22 Levels of Organization in Ecosystems
Community: Different populations of organisms interacting with each other in the same habitat.

23 Levels of Organization in Ecosystems
Habitat: The place and conditions in which a population and biological community exist.

24 Organization Pyramid Biosphere Ecosystems Communities Population Species Organisms Organ System Organs Tissues Cells Organelles Molecules Atoms

25 Importance of the habitat
Organisms need to satisfy all of their needs for life within their habitats. They compete for Food Water Shelter Space

26 Importance of the habitat
Competition- interaction between individuals or populations for available resources. This usually has a negative effect for all organisms.

27 Importance of the habitat
Niche An organism’s role, or “job” within the habitat and ecosystem. This includes….. - The specific area an organism inhabits - The role or function of an organism or species in an ecosystem. - The interaction of all biotic and abiotic factors relating to it.

28 Biotic Abiotic Species Community Habitat
Draw and complete chart! Biotic Abiotic Species Community Habitat Definition Example

29 8L 3.2 Summarize the relationships among produces, consumers, and decomposers including the positive and negative consequences of such interaction.

30 Food Chains and Food Webs
1 What is energy? 2 Why is energy important? 3 What is the ultimate source of all energy? 4 What are producers and autotrophs? Examples 5. How do organisms make their own food? 6. What are consumers and heterotrophs?

31 Food Chains and Food Webs
7. What is a primary consumer? Examples 8. What is a secondary consumer? Example What are decomposers? How is energy moved through an ecosystem? What are trophic levels? What is a food chain?

32 What is energy? The ability to do work. All living things need energy to survive.

33 Why is energy important to an ecosystem?
All organisms require energy for cell function: growth, maintenance, reproduction, locomotion, etc.. For all organisms there must be: A source of energy 2. A loss of usable energy

34 What is the ultimate source of all energy in any ecosystem?
The SUN Without the sun most basic forms of life would not exist Plants, algae, and some Bacteria convert energy from the sun into food.

35 Food Chains & Food Webs Because of this need for energy organism in an ecosystem are connected by feeding relationships. Energy flows from the sun to organism to organism Autotroph Producer Heterotroph Consumer Food Chain Food web Trophic level Biomass Omnivore Decomposer Herbivore Carnivore


37 What are producers? Organism that make their own
food by capturing energy from the sun. Lowest part of the cycle Also called autotrophs EX: Plants, green algae, some bacteria

38 How do some organisms make their own food?
Photosynthesis is the process that organisms use to make their food (glucose) from the sun’s light, carbon dioxide and water.

39 What are consumers? Consumers are organisms that feed on other organisms. Cannot make their food or acquire the energy from the sun directly. Also called heterotrophs Different types of heterotrophs: Herbivores - Vegetation Omnivores - Meat and Vegetation Carnivores – Meat Scavengers – meat and decaying meat Detritivores - Decaying organic matter

40 What is a primary consumer?
A primary consumer is an organism that eats the producer. Like a rabbit that eats a carrot. Also called Herbivores – only eats plants

41 What are secondary consumers?
Organisms that feed on primary consumers are secondary consumers. Also called Carnivores Ex. A wolf that eats a rabbit

42 Consumers can be further divided into groups:
quaternary consumer (top) tertiary consumer secondary consumer Primary consumer The last consumer in a chain, which is not usually eaten by any other consumer, is often referred to as the top consumer.

43 What are decomposers? organisms that feed on dead organism, break them down into simple nutrients or fertilizers. Also called Detritivores EX: fungi and bacteria Earthworms and some insects

44 What do you think?

45 Consumer or producer?

46 What are they also called?
Consumer or producer? What are they also called?

47 Primary or secondary consumers?
What are they also called?

48 Primary or secondary consumers?
What are they also called?

49 Primary or secondary producer?

50 Producer, consumer, or decomposer?

51 How is energy move through an ecosystem?
Energy moves from one organisms to another when it is eaten.

52 What are Trophic Levels
Each step in this transfer of energy is know as a trophic level The main trophic levels are producers, consumers, and decomposers

53 What is the Food Chains ? The energy flow from one trophic level to the other A food chain is simple and direct It involves one organism at each trophic level Primary Consumers – eat producers Secondary Consumers – eat the primary consumers Tertiary Consumer-eat the secondary consumer Decomposers – bacteria and fungi that break down dead organisms and recycle the material back into the environment

54 Food Chain

55 What is a Food Web Most organisms eat more than JUST one organism
When more organism are involved it is known as a FOOD WEB Food webs are more complex (not direct) and involve lots of organisms

56 Transfer of Energy When a zebra eats the grass, it does not obtain all of the energy the grass has (much of it is not eaten) When a lion eats a zebra, it does not get all of the energy from the zebra (much of it is lost as heat)


58 Law of Thermodynamics 2nd Law of Thermodynamics: energy is not transferred from one object/organism to the next with 100% efficiency. Some of the energy is lost to the environment. Energy Pyramid shows the amounts of energy that moves from one level to the next

59 Ecological Pyramid only 10% of energy is passed on through consumption

60 Energy Flow The ecological pyramid shows the relative amounts of energy or matter. Producers make up the first level Consumers make up the second, third and higher

61 Energy Flow Only about 10% of the energy available within one trophic level is transferred to organisms at the next trophic level. The other 90% is used by the organism to carry out its life processes or it is lost to the environment Biomass is the total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level.

62 Ecological Pyramid

63 Energy Flow


65 Food Web: land and water connected

66 Food Web Notice that the direction the arrow points  the arrow points in the direction of the energy transfer, NOT “what ate what”

67 Ecological Pyramid An ecological pyramid shows the relationship between consumers and producers at different trophic levels in an ecosystem Shows the relative amounts of energy or matter contained at each trophic level The Pyramid shows which level has the most energy and the highest number of organisms

68 Energy Transfer Only about 10% of energy is transferred from one level to the next The other 90% is used by the organism to carry out its life processes or it is lost to the environment

69 Food Web

70 Ecological Pyramid Which level has the most energy?
Which level has the most organisms? Which level has the least organisms? Which level has the least energy?

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