4What is an ecosystem?All living & non-living things that interact in an environment
5Biotic is living things in an ecosystem EcosystemsBiotic is living things in an ecosystemAbiotic is nonliving things in an ecosystem.
6What are Some Types of Ecosystems? Terrestrial EcosystemsTerrestrial ecosystems are ecosystems on land.They can be as big as a continent, or as small as an island!They make up about 28% of the entire World’s ecosystems.
7Examples of Terrestrial Ecosystems ForestsDesertsGrasslandsForest:Desert:Grassland:
8Aquatic EcosystemsThere is something special about aquatic ecosystems.There is actually two different types of aquatic ecosystems.One type is freshwater –such as pond , rivers and streamsThe other type is saltwater.Both types, however, are ecosystems that are in the water.Picture retrieved from:Aquatic information retrieved from:And:
9Saltwater EcosystemsSaltwater ecosystems are again in the water, but unlike freshwater ecosystems, saltwater ecosystems have very salty water.They also make up the vast majority of the Earth’s ecosystems.They are the world’s largest ecosystems.Some examples of saltwater ecosystems are oceans and coral reefs.Water picture retrieved from:Coral reef picture retrieved from:
20Levels of Organization in Ecosystems Species: An organism that creates a viable, fertile offspring through the process of reproduction.
21Levels of Organization in Ecosystems Population: A group of organisms of the same species living at the same place at the same time.
22Levels of Organization in Ecosystems Community: Different populations of organisms interacting with each other in the same habitat.
23Levels of Organization in Ecosystems Habitat: The place and conditions in which a population and biological community exist.
24Organization PyramidBiosphere Ecosystems Communities Population Species Organisms Organ System Organs Tissues Cells Organelles Molecules Atoms
25Importance of the habitat Organisms need to satisfy all of their needs for life within their habitats.They compete forFoodWaterShelterSpace
26Importance of the habitat Competition- interaction between individuals or populations for available resources. This usually has a negative effect for all organisms.
27Importance of the habitat NicheAn organism’s role, or “job” within the habitat and ecosystem.This includes…..- The specific area an organism inhabits- The role or function of an organism or species in an ecosystem.- The interaction of all biotic and abiotic factors relating to it.
28Biotic Abiotic Species Community Habitat Draw and complete chart!Biotic Abiotic Species Community HabitatDefinitionExample
298L 3.2Summarize the relationships among produces, consumers, and decomposers including the positive and negative consequences of such interaction.
30Food Chains and Food Webs 1 What is energy?2 Why is energy important?3 What is the ultimate source of all energy?4 What are producers and autotrophs? Examples5. How do organisms make their own food?6. What are consumers and heterotrophs?
31Food Chains and Food Webs 7. What is a primary consumer? Examples8. What is a secondary consumer? ExampleWhat are decomposers?How is energy moved through an ecosystem?What are trophic levels?What is a food chain?
32What is energy?The ability to do work.All living things need energy to survive.
33Why is energy important to an ecosystem? All organisms require energy for cell function: growth, maintenance, reproduction, locomotion, etc..For all organisms there must be: A source of energy2. A loss of usable energy
34What is the ultimate source of all energy in any ecosystem? The SUNWithout the sun most basicforms of life would not existPlants, algae, and someBacteria convert energy fromthe sun into food.
35Food Chains & Food WebsBecause of this need for energy organism in an ecosystem are connected by feeding relationships.Energy flows from the sun to organism to organismAutotrophProducerHeterotrophConsumerFood ChainFood webTrophic levelBiomassOmnivoreDecomposerHerbivoreCarnivore
37What are producers? Organism that make their own food by capturing energy fromthe sun.Lowest part of the cycleAlso called autotrophsEX: Plants, green algae, some bacteria
38How do some organisms make their own food? Photosynthesis is the process that organisms use to make their food (glucose) from the sun’s light, carbon dioxide and water.
39What are consumers?Consumers are organisms that feed on other organisms.Cannot make their food or acquire theenergy from the sun directly.Also called heterotrophsDifferent types of heterotrophs:Herbivores - VegetationOmnivores - Meat and VegetationCarnivores – MeatScavengers – meat and decaying meatDetritivores - Decaying organic matter
40What is a primary consumer? A primary consumer is an organism that eats the producer. Like a rabbit that eats a carrot.Also called Herbivores – only eats plants
41What are secondary consumers? Organisms that feed on primary consumers are secondary consumers. Also called Carnivores Ex. A wolf that eats a rabbit
42Consumers can be further divided into groups: quaternary consumer (top)tertiary consumersecondary consumerPrimary consumerThe last consumer in a chain, which is not usually eaten by any other consumer, is often referred to as the top consumer.
43What are decomposers?organisms that feed on dead organism, break them down into simple nutrients or fertilizers.Also called DetritivoresEX: fungi and bacteriaEarthworms and someinsects
51How is energy move through an ecosystem? Energy moves from one organisms to another when it is eaten.
52What are Trophic Levels Each step in this transfer of energy is know as a trophic levelThe main trophic levels are producers, consumers, and decomposers
53What is the Food Chains ?The energy flow from one trophic level to the otherA food chain is simple and directIt involves one organism at each trophic levelPrimary Consumers – eat producersSecondary Consumers – eat the primary consumersTertiary Consumer-eat the secondary consumerDecomposers – bacteria and fungi that break down dead organisms and recycle the material back into the environment
55What is a Food Web Most organisms eat more than JUST one organism When more organism are involved it is known as a FOOD WEBFood webs are more complex (not direct) and involve lots of organisms
56Transfer of EnergyWhen a zebra eats the grass, it does not obtain all of the energy the grass has (much of it is not eaten)When a lion eats a zebra, it does not get all of the energy from the zebra (much of it is lost as heat)
58Law of Thermodynamics2nd Law of Thermodynamics: energy is not transferred from one object/organism to the next with 100% efficiency.Some of the energy is lost to the environment.Energy Pyramid shows the amounts of energy that moves from one level to the next
59Ecological Pyramid only 10% of energy is passed on through consumption
60Energy FlowThe ecological pyramid shows the relative amounts of energy or matter.Producers make up the first levelConsumers make up the second, third and higher
61Energy FlowOnly about 10% of the energy available within one trophic level is transferred to organisms at the next trophic level.The other 90% is used by the organism to carry out its life processes or it is lost to the environmentBiomass is the total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level.
66Food WebNotice that the direction the arrow points the arrow points in the direction of the energy transfer, NOT “what ate what”
67Ecological PyramidAn ecological pyramid shows the relationship between consumers and producers at different trophic levels in an ecosystemShows the relative amounts of energy or matter contained at each trophic levelThe Pyramid shows which level has the most energy and the highest number of organisms
68Energy TransferOnly about 10% of energy is transferred from one level to the nextThe other 90% is used by the organism to carry out its life processes or it is lost to the environment