Presentation on theme: "L/O: To examine ways in which we can analyze individual words. One of key concepts is Lexis – or word-choice You may know this word, or you may be more."— Presentation transcript:
L/O: To examine ways in which we can analyze individual words. One of key concepts is Lexis – or word-choice You may know this word, or you may be more familiar with the word vocabulary. However, “lexis” has two advantages. It has an adjectival form – lexical. And it has a slightly more specific meaning than “vocabulary.” Lexis refers to “meaning” words rather than grammatical – or “glue” – words. So, “people,” “purple” are lexical; “in,” “might” are grammatical. Today, we will begin to look at lexical morphology – or, the way words, and their meanings, are built.
What could you say about the way the following words are ‘made’? Pick Unpick Unpicked Pigs Barked Unlikely Motherhood Salty Cherry Taller Chairman Hardship Player Root word: What is left when all prefixes and suffixes are removed. Also called the base word. Root/base word: pick Prefix: Un Root/base word: pick Prefix: Un- Suffix: -ed Root/base word: pig Suffix: s (pluralisation) Compound word: word: chair; man Made up of 2 free morphemes How can we begin to analyze individual words?
Key words Root/Base word: what is left when all affixes are removed Morpheme: The smallest component of a word that carries meaning Affix: Morpheme attached before or after base word to change its meaning Prefix: Affix before a base word Suffix: Affix after a base word Inflectional suffix: Suffix that changes the grammar of a noun, verb, adjective Derivational suffix: Suffix that changes the changes the word class (e.g. adjective to noun: slow – slowness. Derivational prefix: Prefix that changes the meaning of a word – e.g. pick/unpick Absolute/Comparative/Superlative: Many adjectives have three forms. Tall (absolute) Taller (comparative – “taller than…”) Tallest (superlative – the most tall) How can we begin to analyze individual words?
Which prefixes can you think of? Pre- In- Re- Con- De- Un- Pro- Im-/In- What do the prefixes mean? How do prefixes change the meaning of words? How can we begin to analyze individual words?
Two types of suffix – inflectional and derivational Inflectional suffixes are grammatical: they show how a word is being used in the sentence. They can show number: I pick She picks And they can also show tense I/We/She picked These suffixes change the grammar, but we can use a derivational prefix to change the meaning of the words – e.g., add un- to all the above. How can we begin to analyze individual words?
Derivational suffixes are lexical, like prefixes. They affect meaning by altering the word class. Examples are: darkness, headship, likeable. They can be used to form verbs, abstract nouns, concrete nouns, adverbs and adjectives. Try to come up with at least one example of each; or, can you think of common suffixes and explain the change of class they bring about? How can we begin to analyze individual words?
Quick quiz What is an affix? What are the two types of affix? What are the two types of prefix and suffix? Can you explain the difference between these? Write down two-three words with prefixes. Label the base, and label the effect of the prefix. Give two inflections of the word ‘run.’ Give two examples of the other type of suffix. Words you might like to use: happy; speed; fragile