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Scientists believe other vertebrates evolved from BONY LOBE-FINNED fish.

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Presentation on theme: "Scientists believe other vertebrates evolved from BONY LOBE-FINNED fish."— Presentation transcript:

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3 Scientists believe other vertebrates evolved from BONY LOBE-FINNED fish

4 Scientific American; Dec 2005; Vol 293; p100-107

5 Moist, thin skin without scales Aquatic larva changes to terrestrial adult Feet without claws Respiration with gills, lungs, skin, mouth Closed 2 loop circulation Ectothermic (cold blooded) Eggs without shells or multicellular membranes

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7 LATIN meaning KINGDOM _____________ PHYLUM ____________________________ SUBPHYLUM ___________________________ CLASS _______________________________ ORDER _____________________________ ANIMALIA CHORDATA VERTEBRATA “backbone” AMPHIBIA “double life” ANURA “without a tail”

8 Thin, moist skin – no scales Mucous glands make it “slimy” Camouflage- for protection Some have poison glands

9 Body temperature is dependent on surrounding environment

10 FAT stored in FAT BODIES provides energy

11 Nictitating membrane

12 NO CLAWS

13 DIGESTIVE WASTE (feces) = _________________ Shared EXCRETORY & REPRODUCTIVE EXIT = _____________________________ (Urine & eggs or Urine & sperm) ANUS UROGENITAL PORE

14 OPENING SHARED BY EXCRETORY, REPRODUCTIVE, & DIGESTIVE = _____________ Cloaca/Vent

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17 Sperm and egg released at same time and place Increases chances of fertilization

18 TONGUE attached at front not back like yours!

19 Connect ears to back of throat

20 GLOTTIS Opening to respiratory GULLET Opening to digestive

21 Place frog with ventral side up Make a longitudinal cut starting between the hind legs and going anteriorly to the tip of the jaw Make lateral cuts behind front legs and in front of hind legs First cut through the skin; repeat the incisions through the muscle layer

22 Females may have black & white eggs that need to be removed to see the other organs.

23 Pericardial membrane surrounds heart

24 Mesentery holds intestines together and supports all organs.

25 Store fat for energy during Hibernation Estivation Breeding

26 PYLORIC SPHINCTER CONTROLS passage of food from stomach into duodenum (intestine)

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28 STOMACH: LIVER: GALL BLADDER: Makes acid and digestive enzymes Starts digestion (grinds up food) Makes bile Stores glycogen Stores vitamins Processes toxins (including nitrogen wastes) for kidneys Stores bile

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30 PANCREAS: Makes TRYPSIN, INSULIN, GLUCAGON TRYPSIN- breaks down proteins INSULIN- tells cells to store glucose from bloodstream as glycogen GLUCAGON- tells cells to release stored glucose to blood stream

31 Produces and stores new RBC’s and processes old worn out ones

32 SMALL INTESTINE DUODENUM Receives trypsin and bile; finishes digestion ILEUM Absorbs nutrients VILLI Increase surface area

33 LARGE INTESTINE Removes water from digestive waste; concentrates feces

34 ___________________ Gets rid of nitrogen waste made by cells Nitrogen waste has different chemical forms: ___________ __________ _____________ MOST TOXIC made from LEAST TOXIC ammonia by liver needs the least water to dilute FISH HUMANS BIRDS, REPTILES AMPHIBIANS EXCRETORY AMMONIAUREAURIC ACID

35  DIGESTIVE waste- left over from undigested food travels through digestive system leaves through digestive system as feces  EXCRETORY waste- (Also called NITROGEN WASTE) Made by cells from break down of proteins travels through blood stream Leaves through excretory system as  Ammonia  Urea  uric acid (depending on type of animal)

36 Image from: http://step.sdsc.edu/projects95/Frog.Dissection/index.html KIDNEYS- Remove nitrogen waste from blood and dilute it with water to make urine; osmoregulation

37 STORES URINE MADE BY KIDNEYS LARVAE (Tadpoles) Excrete AMMONIA like fish Adult frogs excrete UREA to conserve water

38 DIGESTIVE EXCRETORY REPRODUCTIVE

39 LUNGS: GAS EXCHANGE

40 BREATHING WITH LUNGS is called PULMONARY RESPIRATION

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42 OVARIES Make eggs

43 Carries eggs to cloaca Adds jelly coating

44 MAKE SPERM

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47 Grow legs; Lose tail 2 chambers  3 chambers 1 loop  2 loops Breathe w/ gills  lungs & skin Excrete ammonia  excrete urea (gills & kidneys) (kidneys)

48 Have a LATERAL LINE Breathe with gills Excrete nitrogen waste as AMMONIA (with gills & kidneys) Have a 2 chamber heart Have a 1 loop circulatory system

49 3 chambered heart Right atrium Left atrium Ventricle

50 Images from: http://www2.volstate.edu/msd/BIO/1020/Lab7ChordateII.htm ADULT FROG: 3 chamber heart 2 loop system TADPOLES & FISH: 2 chambered heart 1 loop system

51 MAMMALS DON’T

52 Sinus venosus Atrium Ventricle Conus arteriosus    BODY organs   GILLS  Fish/Tadpole circulation

53 Sinus venosus RIGHT Atrium Ventricle Conus arteriosus      Lungs Body organs LEFT Atrium          Frog circulation

54 BRAIN


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