2 Congress of Vienna (1814)To decide what to do with the chaos of Europe after the Napoleonic WarsPretty much four who met only informally to hash out settlement: Austria (Metternich), Prussia (Bismarck), Russia (Alexander I) and Britain + France (Talleyrand) trying to influence from the wingsVERY conservative: aim, to restore ancien regime and repudiate aims of liberals and French Revolution; spokesman of these ideals: Metternich
4 Methods: back to “good old days” Wanted “balance of power” between great powers to prevent another empire from swallowing EuropeLombardy (Napoleon seized) back to Austria +VeniceBelgium + Netherlands = kingdom of Holland as buffer vs FranceConfederacy of Germany (39 states under Austria)Prussia: territory along Rhine and half of Poland as buffer vs FranceBritain got Capetown in So. Africa, Malta, kept GibraltarRestoration of old monarchies, as much as possibleInfluence of Talleyrand: Bourbon Louis XVIII for FranceAlexander I of Russia becomes King of Poland (remainder)Strengthening of position of Austrian Habsburg monarchy
5 Concert SystemQuadruple Alliance formed for periodic meetings of participants in Congress1818: added France, changed name to “Concert system”Aim: to provide united front vs possible threat to conservative regimes:Intervention Italy 1821 to put down revolutionSpain 1823 vs agitation for liberal changeBUT fought for liberation in Greek Revolution ( ) vs Ottoman (Turks) EmpireIt worked: no major European wars first ½ of CenturyBUT vs trend of thinkingGrowth of liberalism and demand for reformIdeas of Enlightenment and Romanticism promoted individual liberty and passion for scientific research and progressConstitutionalism and right to vote for common people
6 Age of -ismsMany of the ideas and ideologies that shape our world originated or were modified in the 19th CenturyMost of these –isms deal with economics; however, many also describe or impact the social systems of class and hierarchy and imply political action. Other –isms deal with politics and imply economic action. All are interrelated.
7 Political Concepts revived or new to the 19th C Liberalism (see following slides): wanted to end inherited political and economic privileges and establish constitutional government based on legal equality and representationDemocracy: More radical than liberalism. Supported not only legal equality but also active political participation by the common manSocialism: Even more radical. Property and wealth should be redistributed according to individual needsNationalism: States should be based not on dynastic principles, but on ethnic, linguistic, and historical bonds. Shared language, ethnicity, and history is highest principle of political organization
8 Class Consciousness Owners – capitalists Non-landed middle class and white collar workers – bourgeoisieFactory and trade workers—proletariat
9 Conservatism Reactionaries (Put it back the way it was) Revolt against conservatism: Revolutions of 1848Successful revolutions in most European countriesMonarchies returned after 6 months in allBritain: party of conservatives: Tories/conservativespro landowners over commerce and middle class, monarchical, vs expanding electorate
10 Liberalism Favored changing government to improve social conditions WhigsEdmund BurkeOpposite view of Nationalism: not natural rights of man, but traditional rights inherited as part of national legacy; no right to revolt if such “rights” not protectedSupported American Revolution, but decried the French Revolution—(split Whigs over French Revolution): believed in limited monarchyLaw of unintended consequencesExample: Prussia forced to take over the Ruhr Valley which, unknowingly, has the coal reserves to allow Prussia to conquer the rest of GermanyBurke took a leading role in the debate over the constitutional limits to the executive authority of the King. He argued strongly against unrestrained royal power and for the role of political parties in maintaining a principled opposition capable of preventing abuses by the monarch or by specific factions within the government. His most important publication in this regard was his Thoughts on the Cause of the Present Discontents of May 1770. In it, Burke opposed the influence of the Court and defended party connections.He also campaigned against the persecution of Catholics in Ireland and denounced the abuses and corruption of the East India Company.In the Annual Register for 1772 (published in July 1773) Burke condemned the Partition of Poland. He saw it as "the first very great breach in the modern political system of Europe" and upsetting the balance of power in Europe.
11 Promoters of Liberal Ideals Poets/novelistsRomantic idealismNatural life superior (noble savage)Aimed at complacent middle classCharles DickensSocial conditionsHonorè de BalzacStupid middle classJane AustenAgainst classesThe Bronte sistersAgainst male domination
12 Waves of Revolutions1821 beginning in France (again)1830
13 Spain Loses her Empire Revolution of 1820 During Napoleonic Wars: Throne from Charles III to Ferdinand (son) to Charles (Napoleon) who abdicated for Napoleon’s brother JosephLiberal nationalists with British support resisted French; set up Cortes of Cadiz (legislature): wrote Constitution of 1812Limited monarchy with power in single chamber CortesCurb nobility and Catholic Church; abolish Spanish InquisitionProtected individual rightsVoting to property owners; business powers gained voiceOnly in force temporarily: rest of 19th C and much of 20th rebellions to put it in forceFerdinand VIIRestored to power at Congress of ViennaPromised to abide by constitution, but once in power, dissolved Cortes: absolutist ruleAfter several unsuccessful rebellions, 1820 successful revolution forced constitution of 1812 on kingCongress of Vienna powers met in Verona, ok’d French to invade to restore Ferdinand to absolute power1823 revoked constitution: ruthless repression of revolutionariesWhen Ferdinand died, liberals supported his daughter as Isabella II and conservative forces supported his brother, Charles = Carlist WarsAll of these wars and rebellions from Napoleonic times forward resulted in weak colonial government from Spain—colonies began declaring and fighting for independence, ending only at turn of 20th Century with Spanish American War
14 Mexican Wars for Independence Conditions in Latin America encouraging rebellion:Social stratification: peninsulares favored over criollos (Indios, mestizos, negros totally ignored and exploited by both groups)Political exploitation: best offices to peninsulares; NOT based on talent and competence
15 Simon Bolivar one of South America's greatest generals victories over the Spaniards won independence for Bolivia, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela:called El Liberator (The Liberator) and the "George Washington of South America."Educated and grew up in Europe during Napoleonic timesMarried, wife died of yellow fever, vowed never to remarryVoice for independence in Europe:Joined the group of patriots that seized Caracas in 1810 and proclaimed independence from Spain. went to Great Britain for aid,: only a promise of British neutrality. Wrote Cartagena Manifesto in which he argued that New Granada (Now Columbia, Ecuador, Panama) should help liberate Venezuela because their cause was the same and Venezuela's freedom would secure that of New Granada.took command of a Colombian force and captured Bogota in 1814, but lacked men and supplies, and new defeats led Bolivar to flee to Jamaica. In Haiti gathered a force, landed in Venezuela in 1816, took Angostra (now Ciudad Bolivar), became dictator there.
16 marched into New Granada, 1819, defeated the Spaniards in Boyar in 1819, liberating the territory of Colombia. He then returned to Angostura and led the congress that organized the original republic of Colombia (now Ecuador, Colombia, Panama, and Venezuela) and became its first president, 1819.crushed the Spanish army at Carabobo in Venezuela, 1821. marched into Educador and added that territory to the new Colombian republic. After a meeting in 1822 with San Martin, Bolivar fought for and became dictator of Peru; victory over the Spaniards at Auacucho in 1824 ended Spanish power in South America. Upper Peru became a separate state, (Bolivia, after Bolivar) in 1825. The constitution which he drew up for Bolivia is one of his most important political pronouncements.
18 Louis XVIIISon of brother of Louis XV; nephew of Louis XVI restored to power by Congress of ViennaAgreed to grant charter making him a monarch on British pattern, even though really believed in “divine right”King executive; legislative him + 2 chambered legislature: 1 appointed by him, 1 by restricted suffrageAfter Napoleon’s 100 days, Congress of Vienna took harsh measures vs FranceLost Savoyoccupation by foreign troops until paid war reparations indemnity of 700 million in gold (130 million/yr); talks brought it down to 265 million, but still more than whole annual budgetElected chamber = stubborn royalists, so Allies forced out and elected new one which sped up indemnity payments and got troops out
19 BUT suppressed press; gave double vote to the rich Military: conscription by lot, promotion by ability, Not controlled by nobilityBUT suppressed press; gave double vote to the richSpain 1821: insurrection forced king to swear by constitution; coup attempt put power in hands of extreme left; king virtual prisoner to revolutionariesAlexander and Metternich voted to intervene to stop revolutionEngland neutral, but didn’t want France interveningFr Minister of Foreign Affairs, Montmorency, secretly sent arms to Spanish royalistsEventually Louis forced into war: sent 95,000 into Spain; easily marched to Madrid and restored Ferdinand to throne—brought prestige to LouisOpposition power under ChateaubriandMinister who was upset when not supported in power, so deserted LouisLouis—horrible death from gangrene, but no childrenAncien regime king who insisted on appointment of officials, municipal leaders
20 Charles X Another nephew of Louis XVI, brother to Louis XVIII Contrasting life to LouisDissolute, unfaithful to wife; favorite mistress sister to Marie Antoinette’s friendShe died in London, made him promise to reform and find God, so influenced by confessor, whom he made cardinalLiberal at first (restored some press freedom), butGranted indemnities to emigres deprived of property 1792Declared primogeniture (opposed by peers—favored oldest sons)Wave of anticlericalism, so suppressed press againAppointed royalist, absolutist deputies
21 Downfall:National Guard demonstrations against him: Charles disbanded the guardRevolution of 1830: Address of 221 a petition from the legislature that said the king had to have support of the populace to put his policies into effect; he didn’t have itKing dissolved chamber for new elections, so his ministers resigned202 of the 221 reelected: 270 liberals vs 150 royalists in legislature4 Ordinances King’s answer/retaliationSuppressed freedom of pressDissolved new chamber illegally (hadn’t met yet)Restricted vote even furtherSet elections for September 1830
22 1830 Revolution, July Uprising Uprising in Paris: 3 days of rioting and barricades; most of deputies (legislators) and some of army sided with the people (think Les Miserables and painting “Liberty Leading the People)King abdicated and went to London in exile
24 Louis Philippe: July monarchy Liberal: father (descendant of one of sons of Louis XIV) voted for death of cousin Louis XVIDuke of Orleans; Career in armySupported Dumoriez in war vs Austria during RevolutionWhen Dumoriez deserted to Austria, he escaped to SwitzerlandExiled: traveled until Charles X restored him (not Louis—afraid of his popularity)Abdication of Charles X: Louis Philippe more or less elected king, constitutional monarchBecause of his liberal politics, he was asked to be king
25 Success in foreign policy At first, liberal: more electorate, less strict press censorship, no state religion, bourgeoise ministers,BUT took National Guard command from LaFayette (though he was the one who insisted Louis Philippe become king)Success in foreign policyMore of revolutions of 1830: Begium revolted vs Holland, offered monarchy to his son; Louis Philippe refused. Talleyrand negotiated “perpetual neutrality” of Belgium, Louis’s dau married king Leopold of Saxe Coberg (widower of dau of king of England)Social unrestIncreasing industrialization meant horrible working and living conditions in cities for laborersPeasant riots: sacked archbishop’s palaceRevolts in So France encouraged by Napoleon’s nephew, Louis NapoleonRebellion by Blanqui (anarchist) took Hotel de Ville
26 Guizot’s Conservative Position I am, for my part, a decided enemy of universal suffrage. I look upon it as the ruin of democracy and liberty. If I needed proof I would have it under my very eyes; I will not elucidate. However, I should permit myself to say, with all the respect I have for a great country and a great government, that the inner danger, the social danger by which the United States appears menaced is due especially to universal suffrage; it is that which makes them run the risk of seeing their real liberties, the liberties of everybody, compromised, as well as the inner order of their society. . GuizotChief minister under Louis Philippe: intellectual, critic, moderateLiberal until after Napoleon’s fallSupported constitutional monarchy: opposed Louis XVIII policies of absolutism and oppression1821 moderate political party: riots made him look conservative because wanted constitutional monarchy1830 rewarded for support of monarchy with jobs in government; worked way up to chief minister, but by then, politics had moved to the left, making him look very conservativeRevolution of 1848: sided with king, so although he’d already resigned, in real trouble—escaped to England, but didn’t stay longContinued as literary figure, social critic
27 Absolutist monarch to end unrest because tired of wrangling Guizot dissolved constitutionMore foreign relationsAlgeria conquered and pacifiedAnglo French friendship: Entente CordialeSon of Louis Philippe m daughter of Spanish princess vs Brit wishesSo turned to Austria for support; people upset because still traditional hatredRevolution of 1848Started with poor harvests of : bread prices up, so violent demonstrationsliberal agitators supported by humanitarian landlords, ’progressive’ clergymen, among professional men and the urban population.King made an authoritarian speech, plus parliament agitating vs Guizot: after demonstrations, Guizot resignedPut head of rebellion, Thiers, in as minister to pacify opposition, but though tried reforms, too little, too lateForced abdication of last real king of France
29 After the Revolution of 1848: 2nd Republic 13 governments in 18 yearsCaretaker government: Radicals dominated at first, then quickly lost power (only one worker among governing)Divisions in Revolutionary ranks:constituent assembly (elected by universal male suffrage), comprised moderate liberalsPeople of Paris voted only 34 radical members.Support for radical policies continued strong among the laboring and poor.On May 15, revolutionaries led by radicals François Raspail and Louis Blanqui attempted forcibly to take control of the constituent assembly.demanded intensification of the revolutioncalled on the people of France to launch an offensive revolutionary war throughout Europe to liberate all peoples still under monarchymoderate liberals easily retook control of the constituent assembly from the radical firebrands.
30 2nd Republic, continued Process of government: Unrest continued April: Constituent Assembly elected by universal manhood suffrage: moderatesConstitution set elections for single chamber of legislature + president of republicLouis Napoleon got enormous majority as PresidentUnrest continuedLouis and Assembly in conflict over policiesAssembly created jobs temporarily, then eliminated them=rioting brutally suppressedRoyalists saw chance to agitate for new kingLouis Napoleon denounced “helplessness” of conservative assembly unpopular in the countryHis term over 1852, SOSeized power 2 Dec 1851: pronounced 2nd EmpireIn plebescite (like uncle) overwhelming vote favoring Louis Napoleon
31 2nd Empire: Louis Napoleon becomes Napoleon III Relied on army to seize powerPurged Assembly and magistrates, university leaders, administrators in the government of all who didn’t support him1852 declared self emperor: ambition as 2nd Napoleon“The Empire means peace.” Didn’t want expansion of uncle, nor warSocial minded: wanted good, but his way
32 Louis Napoleon: policies and politics Positive:Time of amazing economic expansionRailroads 2,000 mi in 1800: 12,000 mi in 1870Machine tools, steam power dominateIncrease of public works, business and agriculture prosper (for rich)Tried hard to better condition of workers and peasants: granted right to strike, form unionsTried later to liberalize regime, giving gradually more power to assembly, making ministers accountable to assembly, not himNegativeMore, stronger opposition from Catholics and industrialists who didn’t like workers’ increasing strikesLost 1 million votes in election 1869
33 Foreign AffairsCrimean War: sided with Britain against Russia to shore up Ottoman Turks; Congress of Paris endedSupported Cavour vs Austria (rewarded with Nice and Savoy)Worldwide expansion into China, Indo China, AlgeriaMexico: put Habsburg Maximilian on “throne” of Mexico; didn’t work—executed
34 Franco Prussian War Bismarck manipulates the war: Hohenzollern was candidate for Spanish throneThe French issued an ultimatum to Kaiser Wilhelm I of Prussia to withdraw candidate: he did.Further aiming to humiliate Prussia, Napoleon III then required Wilhelm to renounce any possible further Hohenzollern candidature to the Spanish throne. King Wilhelm refused.Bismarck phrased the king's refusal in the famous Ems Telegram, basically a propagandized account of the negotiations between France and Prussia making Prussia and Wilhelm look patriotic, leaking the document to the press.Outraged, the French declared war on Prussia.Over a six-month campaign, the German armies defeated the French in a series of battles fought across northern France.Napoleon III went to aid of beleaguered armiesAfter a decisive defeat, Napoleon III was captured at the Battle of Sedan,Prussians to gates of Paris, shelling the city: 6 month siegeTreaty of Frankfurt (with 3rd Republic):France lost Alsace / Lorraine, had to pay 5 billion franc war indemnity
36 3rd Republic and Commune: 1870 Taking advantage of the defeat, Thiers proclaims a conservative government with the Assembly backing him, BUTWorking people demand fruits of revolution so long denied themSpecific demand of people: Paris should be self-governing, with own elected Commune, (as most French towns),Government didn’t want, because demonstrations and violence of masses of Paris.An associated but more vague wish was for a fairerway of managing the economy, summed up in the popular cry for "La Sociale!"During the siege of Paris by Prussian armymany tens of thousands of Parisians were armed members of a citizens' militia known as the “National Guard", greatly expanded to help defend the city.Battalions in the poorer districts elected own officers and possessed many cannons manufactured in Paris and paid for by public subscription.The city with National Guard had withstood the Prussian troops for six months.To end siege, Thiers government allowed Prussian occupation of Paris: people outraged, limited Prussians to tiny portion of city; Thiers worried about possible uprisingNational Guards, helped by ordinary working people, took cannons (which they regarded as theirs) away from the Prussians' areas to "safe" districts.
37 The Commune (March-May 1871) Central Committee of the National Guard became increasingly radical and gained in power,Thiers’ government could not indefinitely allow it to have four hundred cannons.Thiers ordered regular troops to seize the cannons on MontemartreThe soldiers, morale low, mixed with National Guards and localsGeneral Lecomte ordered them to fire on an unarmed crowd they dragged him from his horse. He was later shot, together with General Thomas, a hated former commander of the Guard picked up by a mob.Other military units joined uprisingThe government flees:President Thiers ordered an immediate evacuation of Paris by as many of the regular forces as would obey; by the police; and by administrators and specialists of every kind. He fled to VersaillesThiers thought about this strategy ("retreat from Paris to crush the people afterward.”) since 1848Organization of the CommuneCentral Committee of the National Guard, only effective government in Paris, almost immediately abdicated authority and arranged elections for a CommuneThe 92 members of the Commune ("Communal Council") included skilled workers, several "professionals" (such as doctors and journalists), political activists, from reformist republicans, t various socialists, to JacobinsAlthough the Paris Commune is considered a milestone in the organization of feminism, with some (women actively participated to the events), they still did not acquire right to vote, no female members of the Council.
38 What it did Only in power 60 days, so not much Put Blanqui (anarchist) as head, but he was in prison during whole timePassed the following to help the peoplethe remission of rents for the entire period of the siege (during which they had been raised considerably by many landlords);the abolition of night work in the hundreds of Paris bakeries;the abolition of the guillotinegranting of pensions to unmarried companions of National Guards killed on active service and children, if any;the free return, by the state pawnshops, of all workmen's tools pledged during the siege (concerned that skilled workers were forced to pawn r tools during the war)postponement of debt obligations, abolition of interest on the debts;right of employees to take over and run an enterprise if deserted by its owner.Separated church and state: made all church property state property and excluded religion from schools.churches were only allowed to continue their religious activity if they kept their doors open to public political meetings during the evenings.
39 ImportanceThe Paris Commune has been celebrated by anarchist and Marxist socialists continuously until the present day,high degree of workers' controlremarkable cooperation among different revolutionists.Engels identified Commune as “dictatorship of proletariat”absence of a standing army,the self-policing of the "quartiers",no longer a "state" in the old, repressive sense.
40 End of the Commune Constant attack from Versailles army Commune forms “committee of public safety” = people afraid to take authorityThough much verbal support from international radicals, no real helpStrength becomes weakness: army obeys central command; commune meant independence of each area of city; had to defend selves separatelyLet into gates of richer area of city, army took one area at a timeMany atrocities and killings by armyCommune took 50 hostages (many priests) and killed themOnce the army took the city, reprisals: Communards were shot against Communards’ Wall in a cemetery, thousands of others marched to Versailles for trials; few escaped30,000 dead, many more wounded, and perhaps as many as 50,000 later executed or imprisoned; 7,000 were exiled to uninhabited islandsMartial law for 5 years in Paris
41 3rd RepublicTried to reestablish monarchy with gson of Charles X, but he refused.New constitution:7 year President; could dissolve chamberAssemblies: lawmaking and budgetChamber of Deputies 4 years elected by universal manhood suffrageSenate –9 year terms; 1/3 elected every 3 years by limited suffrageCouncil of State (President is president) determines constitutionality of lawsRepublicans dividedOpportunists: want gradual reformRadicals: want immediate reform
42 Succession of Presidents Many only serve a few monthsJules Ferry: serves several years and makes social reformFreedom of assembly for workers, unions’Liberal freedom of the pressReorganization of departments and cantonsCompulsory state primary educationSecondary education open to girlsColonial ExpansionTunisia (1881)French Western Africa (Sudan + Dahomey)MadagascarCongo—French Equatorial AfricaIndochina(Panama, for awhile—scandal and failure)
43 Dreyfus Affair Young Jewish officer accused of treason 1894 Incriminating letters to German attache in handwriting that looked like hisCatholic and royalists and other conservatives tried to make big issue of “Jewish plot” and weakness of Republic to defend vsThough scant evidence, not allowed to see evidence vs him, judged guilty, sentenced to life exile on Devil’s islandAnother officer, Georges Picquart, questioned his guiltFound evidence to prove guilty officer Walsin Esterhazy, BUTArmy couldn’t admit failure; more interested in image than justiceTransferred Picquart to TunisiaInternational eye on French army because of Zola’s J’AccuseZola found guilty of libeling army, sentenced to prisonFled to England, where continued to rally defendersIn answer, Catholics and Conservatives claimed conspiracy of Jews and Masons to damage reputation of army, destroy FranceRe court martial 1899: found guilty again, sentenced to 10 years detentionAnother officer found additional documents forged to strengthen case vs Dreyfus (identified forger, who committed suicide).President of France pardoned him; not exonerated, however, until 1906.Consequences: opposite of what Catholics and conservatives intendedJaurez (President) support of anticlericalism: total separation of church and stateClosed monasteries and convents, seized propertyForbid church primary and secondary schoolsBroke off diplomatic relations with Vatican
44 England: less volatile, more stable in an era of change Stable constitutional monarchy under Georges and WilliamVictorian Era: long time queen – 64 year reign“Sun never sets….” EmpireMiddle class values dominateLower classes pay: rebellions that reflect the tenor of times in Europe2 party system: Tories, then Whigs, then ToriesGladstone vs Disraeli—liberal desire for reform vs conservative push to keep status quoreforms to benefit all
45 Why Reform was needed: Political abuses Social abuses “rotten boroughs”“pocket boroughs”Disenfranchisement of industrial citiesTiny, aristocratic electorateEstablished Church of privilege, not serviceSocial abusesLaissez faire economics: middle class enriching selves on the backs of the poorAg and Industrial revolution: movement to citiesHorrible living conditions, no social safety netSecularization of society: church not providing welfare, nor state, eitherChild labor, lack of educationNo political rights
46 England: Reaction to French Revolution Conservatism/ Reactionary: go back to “good old days”Combination Acts: outlaw workers organizations and unionsCorn Laws 1815 to keep profits of landowners high (as prices had been during Napoleonic wars): starvation for poor1816 abolished income tax (paid by rich) and substituted excise tax (on consumer goods—paid by everybody)Many called for abolition of Poor Laws (public relief for destitute)Liberals pushed for reform vs “rotten” boroughs, pocket boroughs, restrictions on voting and holding office; curbs on House of LordsSelection of Duke of Wellington as very conservative PMHe blocked 224 reform bills in commonsSo extreme lost own party support
47 Peterloo MassacreLeading radicals in Manchester (North industrialized, so for reform) formed the Manchester Patriotic Union to obtain parliamentary reformThey invited sympathetic speakers to an outdoor meeting for all in St. Peter’s Field, 16 Aug 1819Local leaders worried that such a gathering of reformers might end in a riot.They decided to arrange for a large number of soldiers to be in Manchester on the day of the meeting.four squadrons of cavalry of the 15th Hussars (600 men),several hundred infantrymen,the Cheshire Yeomanry Cavalry (400 men),a detachment of the Royal Horse Artillery and two six-pounder guns andthe Manchester and Salford Yeomanry (120 men)all Manchester's special constables (400 men).
48 At least 50,000 people gathered by midday. The Boroughreeve and the special constables tried to clear a path through the crowd.The 400 special constables were ordered to form two continuous lines between where the speeches were to take place, and Mr. Buxton's house where the magistrates were staying.At 1.30 p.m. the magistrates came to the conclusion that "the town was in great danger".They decided to arrest Henry Hunt (speaker) and the other leaders of the demonstration and asked for military help to do it.Trouble:As the officials moved closer to the speech area, members of the crowd began to link arms to stop them from arresting the leaders.Others attempted to close the pathway created by the special constables.Some of the soldiers now began to use their sabres to cut their way through the crowd.Officials arrested the speakers and the organisers of the meeting, as well as the newspaper reporters at the speakers’ area.The military commander reported to a town official at 1.50 p.m. When he asked Hulton what was happening, he replied: "Good God, Sir, don't you see they are attacking the Yeomanry? Disperse them."By 2.00 p.m. the soldiers had cleared most of the crowd from St. Peter's Field. In the process, eleven people were killed and about 400, including 100 women, were wounded.
50 Reformers in Manchester were appalled by the decisions of the magistrates and the behavior of the soldiers and wrote accounts of what they had witnessed.When one of them discovered that a reporter from the London Times had been arrested and imprisoned, he feared that this was an attempt by the government to suppress news of the event.He sent his report to the editor of The Times. The article that was highly critical of the magistrates and the yeomanry was published two days later.Dubbed ”Peteloo” as a contemptuous reference to WaterlooAfter the Peterloo Massacre the Home Secretary sent a letter of congratulations to the Manchester magistrates for the action they had taken.Parliament also passed the Six Acts in an attempt to make sure reform meetings like the one at St. Peter's Field did not happened again.
51 The Six Acts Forbade unauthorized public meetings Specified fines for seditious libelRequired speedy trials for political organizersAllowed oppressive measures vs “mobs”Prohibited training armed groupsOfficials could search homes of agitators in certain counties
52 Historical Sketches and Personal Recollections of Manchester (1851) Archibald Prentice “There were haggard-looking men certainly, but the majority were young persons, in their best Sunday's suits, and the light coloured dresses of the cheerful tidy-looking women relieved the effect of the dark fustians worn by the men. The " marching order," of which so much was said afterwards, was what we often see now in the processions of Sunday-school children and temperance societies. To our eyes the numerous flags seemed to have been brought to add to the picturesque effect of the pageant. Slowly and orderly the multitudes took their places round the hustings, which stood on a spot now included under the roof of the Free Trade Hall, near its south-east corner.Our company laughed at the fears of the magistrates, and the remark was, that if the men intended mischief they would not have brought their wives, their sisters, or their children with them. I passed round the outskirts of the meeting, and mingled with the groups that stood chatting there. I occasionally asked the women if they were not afraid to be there, and the usual laughing reply was - " What have we to be afraid of?“I saw Hunt arrive, and heard the shouts of the sixty thousand persons by whom he was enthusiastically welcomed, as the carriage in which he stood made its way through the dense crowd to the hustings. I proceeded to my dwelling-house in Salford, intending to return in about an hour or so to witness in what manner so large a meeting would separate.I had not been at home more than a quarter of an hour when a wailing sound was heard from the main street, and, rushing out, I saw people running in the direction of Pendleton, their faces pale as death, and some with blood trickling down their cheeks. It was with difficulty I could get any one to stop and tell me what had happened. The unarmed multitude, men, women, and children, had been attacked with murderous results by the military.
53 England: Series of Reform Acts: Great Reform Act of 1832 : passed Commons, rejected in Peers, so George IV made new peers, enough to enact it.Problem it addressed=inequality of representation in CommonsRepresentation by counties (2 each in England, 1 each in Wales, Scotland, Ireland) supposed to represent landowners;Representation elected by boroughs standing for merchant/artisans, but rotten” boroughs (little population because of Industrial Revolution redistribution of population); populous cities poorly represented; “pocket” boroughs: one aristocrat pretty much appointed the MPIncreased suffrage by 50-80%; one in six could voteRedistributed seats in Parliament to eliminate “rotten boroughs,” enfranchise cities;Reduced property restriction on eligibility for office; kept gender inequityChartist movement: coalition of workers, political activists and reformersWanted universal manhood suffrage, secret ballot, salaries for MP’s (so non rich could run)Presented Great Charter (petition) of 1839 with 2 million names, petition of grievances, demand for reform; ignored until revolution threatened2nd Reform ActReduced voting qualifications: upped electorate by 2 million1884 Reform ActUniversal manhood suffrage (but not women)
54 Reforms (continued)Poor Laws of 1834: to take care of old, infirm, unable to work by means of Work Houses, where very poor had to live, with harsh conditions (to motivate them to get OUT), overseen by Guardians chosen from mid/upper classes to collect taxes to support, get employment, oversee conditions, food, etc.Catholic Emancipation ActAfraid of Ireland as basis of Catholic/French alliance against Britain: Act of Union 1800=Ireland and England one country, but most couldn’t serve in office, because Catholic; lifted much of restrictions against Catholics in office in all Britain.Women’s Suffrage movement: wanted the VOTE1872: Emeline Pankhurst and the suffragettes had marginal successWomen voted, held office in local governments, school boards, on poor house committees, as health authorities from the late nineteenth century. Successful, so…1918 (after WWI hiatus), franchise to women over the age of 30 in 1918; but only if householders, married to a householder or had a university degree.1928: universal suffrage for all adults over 21 years of age
55 Queen VictoriaDau of 4th son of George III (first three died without children; her father died when she was young; struggle with mom and Irish duke to usurp her powerBecame queen at 18 in 1837As a girl, she was dominated by her German mother and her mother’s advisor, Irishman John Conroy. They isolated her from her more liberal (especially morally) English relatives (especially her two uncle kings, George IV and William IV), and any kind of friends.They tried to get her to sign a paper naming them regents when she came to power. She refused.As soon as she became queen, she banished her mother to a far wing of her residence and refused to see Conroy again.In early part of her reign, influenced by her first Prime Minister, Lord Melbourne, and her husband, Prince Albert, whom she married in 1840Both men taught her much about how to be a ruler in a “constitutional monarchy” where the monarch had very few powers, but much influence.Madly in love with her husband, she had 9 children, who married into most of the royal families of the great powers, including Prussia, Russia, etc.
56 Development of strong liberal movements Because of her repeated pregnancies and childbirths, she gradually (reluctantly) relinquished power to her husband, who in the German/British tradition, expected to take over power from his wife, a mere woman.This conflict created a continuing tension between Albert and Victoria, especially when she made decisions independentlyAlbert, a German foreigner, was never accepted totally; his influence in foreign affairs was particularly distrustedThe Exhibition of 1851 (showing off the world’s best technological marvels) (Crystal Palace) was his babyThe Victorian Age: in contrast to her two uncles, with influence of Albert, the monarch and her family life became a pattern of “middle class morality”When Albert died, Victoria became a recluse, staying in mourning (only wearing black)(became Mrs. Brown?)Development of strong liberal movementsIn 1870’s, (Disraeli’s influence), resumed public dutiesIdea of Constitutional monarch above politics evolved, though she often took a stand(conservative)Actually mediated between Commons and Lords during Disestablishment controversy which ended in the Irish Church Disestablishment Act of 1869 and the 1884 Reform Act.
57 Victorian Prime Ministers: Disraeli Jewish, upper middle class family; married very rich (but loved)Conservative Tory party—believed that aristocrats and poor should be allies; rich use their resources to help the poorAs PM, many reform bills to help, including Food and Drug, Health reformsImperialist; wanted British superiority; made Victoria “Empress of India”Because of his views, Victoria liked him.
58 Victorian Prime Ministers-Gladstone Aristocratic family, married to an aristocratLiberal party leader/PM; Victoria didn’t like him.Championed universal suffrage, relief for poor, Home Rule for IrelandMany reform bills passed with his support.Competitor to Disraeli: mutual dislike.
59 Russia: Enlightenment to Reactionary Alexander IEnlightened, granted more freedom to press, looked at liberating the serfsOne of powers supporting Congress of Vienna, concert systemConflict between support for “confederation of Europe,” role as defender of the Orthodox Church against the Ottoman TurksMetternich’s cynical manipulations, supported the Greeks vs the Ottoman Turks, not Concert system he helped to design, disillusioned AlexanderAlexander provoked war with Turkey: Crimean WarBecame mystic, paranoid after kidnap attempt: went to S. Russia for wife’s health, got typhus and died: rumors he became a monk
60 Crimean WarRuss struggling for control of Black Sea, port to Dardanelles into Medit Sea1823: Brit and France joined Russ in supporting Greek independence against Turkey to keep Russ from getting territory and influenceRuss war vs Turkey : Balkan “protectorate of Russ” changed to “protectorate of Europe” by concertJuly 1853: Russ seized Turkish territories (pretext: protecting Christians there vs Muslims); France and Britain (+ Sardinia = Italy) support Turkey, drive Russia outFrance willing to go to war because Napoleon III needed victory to restore his prestige at home—called on Britain to honor treaty obligations; Victoria and govt vs, but people whipped into patriotic fervorUnited powers vs Russ decide to settle Crimea once and for all, land on Crimean peninsula and attack SevastopolHorrible 18 month war: useless carnage, but stopped Russia in BalkansCharge of the light brigade: points out problem of aristocratic command of armyFlorence Nightingale: pointed up terrible medical care, corruption in war suppliers; she became a heroine to troops, but less success in carrying out reforms in England itselfFighting on Crimea, blockade and attack on Russian Baltic ports crippled Russ economyTreaty of Paris: Russ fleet out of Black Sea, Russ out of BalticsWar put end to Concert System: paved way for Germany and Italy
63 The Ottoman Empire -- Late 19c “The Sicker Man of Europe”
64 Alexander succeeded by Nicholas I (brother) 1825 Alexander assassinated brutallyNicholas opposite from their father: wanted all power, autocraticBrutally put down revolts and leadersPolish Revolution part of 1830 wave, brutally repressedLater Polish Revolution (1863-4)
65 Leadup to WWI, Russian Revolution: Alexander II (R ) and the Emancipation Edict 1861Son of Nicholas I, tried to modernize the countryEmancipated serfs, but had no way to integrate them into society, economy without much sufferingAt first allowed liberal self government of Poles, then when rebelled, clamped down violentlyTried to expand Russian territory at the expense of Turks, ChineseAbout to grant a liberal constitution when assassinated by “people’s party” assassinAlexander III (R )Reactionary autocrat who reigned so strictly, that Russia was stablilized and capitalism and the industrial revolution could take root thereKept Russia out of European wars
66 Meanwhile, in the German speaking countries…. Congress of Vienna set up the German Confederation to replace Napoleon’s Confederation of the RhineRoughly same as the old HRE, except down to 36 states from 300Each an independent entity, united mainly for “common defense,” with Diet as legislature in FrankfurtEmperor of Austria served as executive, but only represented on DietThrough a series of well picked conflicts with neighboring states, Bismarck was able to guide Prussia into absorbing the rest of what is now Germany
68 German Unification 1848-1871 Steps German Confederation with Austria ruling, Prussia separate, but strongZollverein: German trade confederation (1834-) to which all German speaking states except for Austria and some states in the Northwest (Hanover, among others) belonged:lifted trade barriers between the states, setting standard taxes, weights and measurements, and currency. Bismarck used this organization, which had no central bureaucracy or public presence for liberals to attack in revolutions, to push Prussian trade policies onto the other states, get them ready for unificationBismarck maneuvered first Denmark, then Austria into war and absorbed Schleswig and Holstein (from Denmark) Southern German territories he “wins” from Austria, along with some territories part of the German Confederation that allied with him to help with the warNorth German ConfederationGerman Empire
69 Heroes of German unification Otto von Bismarck--diplomatic geniusHelmut von Moltke--military geniusFrederick Wilhelm IV—military, not very bright married to Victoria (Victoria’s oldest)OppositionJunkers: The Prussian aristocracyAustriaEveryone else in the old HREEveryone else in Europe
70 Helmuth von Moltke Chief of Staff of Prussian Army, 1857-1878 Military GeniusPlanned for AggressionBuilt Efficient ArmyNewer rear loading “rifles”Modernized Nation for WarSaw the importance of rail transport in military mobilizationUsed telegraph to communicate with militaryGenius at TacticsDivide and Conquer“Blitzkrieg” attacksCentral Command to coordinateAlmost foiled by Kaiser’s relatives in command of some of armiesTake advantage of enemy weakness
71 Otto von Bismarck Prime Minister of Prussia 1862-1871 Imperial German ChancellorPersonality:Realpolitik“Blood and Iron”“The Iron Chancellor
72 Vintage Bismarck:The less people know about how sausages and laws are made, the better they’ll sleep at night.Never believe in anything until it has been officially denied.The great questions of the day will not be settled by speeches and majority decisions—that was the mistake of —but by blood and iron.I am bored. The great things are done. The German Reich is made.A generation that has taken a beating is always followed by a generation that deals one.Some damned foolish thing in the Balkans will provoke the next war.
74 Revolution of 1848 in Germany (the March Revolution) In the south and the west of Germany, large popular assemblies and mass demonstrations took place. They primarily demanded freedom of the press, freedom of assembly, arming of the people, and a national German parliament2 main issues of controversyliberal constitutionalismGerman unification
75 Frankfurt Parliament: May ’48-Mar.’49 Drew up moderate liberal constitution for a united GermanyToo liberal for the conservatives, too conservative for radicalsDisagreed on the issue of unification(grossdeutsch with Austria vs. kleindeutsch without Austria)Frederick Wilhelm IV of Prussia refused the crown offered him by the Parliament
77 Step one: Danish War Arose over Duchies of Schleswig & Holstein Belonged to Denmark but majority of pop. GermanPrussia & Austria declare war on Denmark, 1864
78 Step 2: Austro-Prussian war (7 weeks’ War) Bismarck promised Venetia to Italy in exchange for alliance1866 Austria defeated by Prussia at Battle of SadowaPeace of Prague, 1866
79 Bismarck at the helm:Creation of the Northern German Confederation, 1867Shortly following the victory of Prussia, Bismarck eliminated the Austrian led German Confederation.He then established a new North German Confederation which Prussia could control Peace of Prague
80 Franco-Prussian War 1870/71 Prussia wants war Payback for what Prussia lost at the Congress of ViennaBlatant grab for territory at expense of weakened FranceBUT Bismarck knows he must act quickly, or other nations will join France to stop PrussiaPretense for War: Bismarck finds a causeHohenzollern Candidacy for the Spanish throne1868 revolt in Spain.Spanish leaders wanted Prince Leopold von Hohenz. [a cousin to the Kaiser & a Catholic], as their new king.France protested & his name was withdrawn.
81 Ems Dispatch: Catalyst for War The Fr. Ambassador asked the Kaiser at Ems to apologize to Nap. III for supporting Leopold.Bismarck “doctored” the telegram from Wilhelm to the French Ambassador to make it seem as though the Kaiser had insulted Napoleon III.
82 Prussians invade France Quickly defeat the French decisively
83 Propaganda much like what would be used later in WWI Prussian soldier “abusing” French maidenPrussian “barbarian” vs French knight
84 The peace process: Napoleon III and Bismarck after the war ended
85 Consequences of the War Treaty of Frankfurt  The Second French Empire collapsed and was replaced by the Third French Republic.The Italians took Rome and made it their capital.Russia put warships in the Black Sea [in defiance of the 1856 Treaty of Paris that ended the Crimean War].France paid a huge indemnity and was occupied by German troops until it was paid.France ceded Alsace-Lorraine to Germany [a region rich in iron deposits with a flourishing textile industry].
86 Wilhelm I Succeeded Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia Shared Bismarck’s goals for a united Germany dominated by PrussiaAfter Franco Prussian War, rest of German Confederation unites with Prussia to form GermanyWilhelm crowned “kaiser” (from Caesar = emperor)
87 Germany under Bismarck Kulturkampf: Anti-Catholic Program Take education and marriage out of the hands of the clergy civil marriages only recognized.The Jesuits are expelled from Germany.The education of Catholic priests would be under the supervision of the German government.Afterwards, Bismarck carefully approached the pope to appease the Church, called rapprochement of Bismarck with Pope Leo XIII
88 Results: Bismarck’s Europe 1871-90 No more German expansionGerman alliance with AustriaGerman alliance with RussiaDiplomatic isoIation of France
89 And what about Italy? Congress of Vienna” Territories belonging to Austrian (Habsburg) Empire restoredKingdom of SardiniaPapal territories restored
90 Disunity to Union Makeup of Italy after Congress of Vienna Lombardy and Venetia (Austrian territories)PiedmontTuscanyPapal StatesKingdom of the Two Sicilies“The Duchies” (Parma & Modena)Unification of Italy and Germany two of the most significant examples of nationalismUnification of Italy was not a product of a mass movement.Majority wanted status quoThe minority that wanted unification couldn’t agree on how
91 Plans for UnificationMake Italy a confederation of states under Papal leadershipMake Italy a republic which meant expelling the Austrians (Giuseppi Mazzani)Unification by way of Piedmont-SardiniaStrong support for ideaThe people had a constitution
93 Three Stages to Italian Unification The Revolutions of 1848“The Decade of Preparation”Italian Unification
94 Step ONE: Revolutions of 1848 Republics declared throughout ItalyPiedmont tries to annex Lombardy but defeated by Austrian armyGaribaldi’s defense of the Roman Republic
95 Italian Nationalist Leaders King Victor Emmanuel IIGiuseppi Garibaldi [The “Sword”]Giuseppi Mazzini [The “Heart”]Count Cavour [The “Head”]
96 Giuseppi Mazzini (the heart: man of ideas) Italian nationalistArdent republicanTheorist and organizer of Italian Unity("Young Italy") 1831
97 Cavour (the head:genius of politics) Background:Younger son of a Sardinian noble familyArmy officerResigned and took over family estateFinancier , industrialist, founder of Bank of Turin, shipping and railway construction promoterAvid readerPersonalityEnergetic, Hard worker with a good memoryAmbitious: self-confident and utterly ruthlessDid not delegate authority
98 The political & diplomatic genius of the Risorgimento "Father of Modern Italy“1847 founded The Resurgence a political journal (moderate liberalism)Elected to the assembly 18481850 elected minister of agriculture, industry, commerce and the Navy1851 minister of financeThe political & diplomatic genius of the RisorgimentoFirst concerned about Piedmont than with the Italian QuestionPiedmont needed time to prepareCavour strengthen Piedmont’s economyReformed taxation systemBorrowed money to stimulate economy and build armySponsored construction of highways, railroads,harbors, and canals.
99 Step Two: “The Decade of Preparation” 1849-59 1852 : Cavour becomes Prime Minister of PiedmontItalian liberals accept leadership of Piedmont in unificationIf Piedmont was going to unify Italy, would have to fight AustriaCavour turned toward France for assistancePiedmont and Crimean War ( )First significant foreign policy moveWanted Britain and France as alliesHis contribution to the war allowed him to sit at the peace conferenceGave Cavour time to denounce Austria and plant seeds
100 Plans begin to take effect when: 1858 Napolean III informed Cavour of his desire for an Alliance (Plombieres)Conditions for French HelpWar on Austria be undertaken for non-revolutionary endsWar could be justifiedAcceptable European public opinionGet Austria out of Italy4 state confederation (Pope)Napoleon III’s cousin would control a state in ItalyNapoleon III would also get Piedmont’s provinces of Nice and SavoyDiscussed at Plombieres but not agreed upon until laterCost of war would be paid for by the two northern states of Italy.
101 Step 3: Italian Unification 1859-1870 Under leadership of Piedmont-SardiniaMonarchy with Enlightened Victor Emmanuel II as king
102 War of 1859 Needed a provocation for war Cavour enlisted Austrian deserters into the Sardinian armyGave refuge to fugitives of Austrian ruleEncouraged revolt with Austria1859 mobilized its army\Vienna sent ultimatum demanding demobilizationPiedmont was given three days to respondVienna had made a stupid move and moved too quicklyFrance was trying to get Piedmont to stand down, but Vienna pushed the issueThe end came quicklyBattle of Solferino (June 1859) combined French-Piedmont armies defeat Austria and drive her out of Lombardy, annexed by PiedmontBUT Napoleon asked Francis Joseph for an armistice
103 War aborted, Cavour unhappy Why did Napoleon end the war?He realized he would not be able to control Italy as he had thoughtThe war was costly in blood and moneyFeared French public opinionPiedmont had exaggerated its ability to help in the warWhy did Austria want peace?Financial situation grew worstWar increased the danger of national uprising in Austrian EmpireBUT—no Italy: Cavour Resigned
104 Italians were not happy with Villafranca Peace of VillafrancaAustria gave up Lombardy to FranceAustria retained VenetiaItalians were not happy with VillafrancaSome central Italian states ask to be annexed by Piedmont (Tuscany, Papal States)Pressure from Britain forced Napoleon III to make peace with PiedmontAsked King of Piedmont (Victor Emmanuel II) to reinstate CavourCavour got central states and Napoleon III got Nice and Savoy
105 Garibaldi (the man of action) Personalitya single-minded Italian patriotTook action no matter how great the oddsColorful and charismatic military leaderImportanceSupported emancipation of women, social reform, and universal suffrageMilitary hero of RisorgimientoRomantic cult figure of the 19th centuryEarly AdventuresFell under the influence of MazziniJoined the Young Italy movementSoldier of fortune in South America (12 yrs)1848 back in Italy1859 fought against the Austrians
106 Garibaldi vs Cavour: Italian Unity? Garibaldi began to assemble a corps of volunteers (“The Thousand”)Cavour opposed Garibaldi, did nothing to help himCavour got Garibaldi to go to Sicily, landed May 11, 1860Garibaldi proclaimed himself dictator of Sicily ( for Italy and Victor Emmanuel II)SuccessesMilitary successes against the regime: Garibaldi could not loseGaribaldi’s movement grew with each success, so Cavour began to fear Garibaldi’s popularity and possible plansGaribaldi gained firm control of southern Italy
107 To counter him, Cavour moved toward the Papal States Cavour demanded Pope demobilize his troops, but the Pope rejected Cavour‘s ultimatumPiedmont forces crossed over into Papal States, fought and defeated the Papal armyFrench denounced Cavour’s actionsCavour moved with his forces on to Naples toward Garibaldi’s base of powerOct 15, 1860 Garibaldi signed decree proclaiming all his conquests would become part of Italy under the constitutional monarchy of Victor Emanuel II1861 the kingdom of Italy was proclaimed with Victor Emannuel II as KingPope Pius IX
108 Solving the Rivalry: unification Cavour moved with his forces on to Naples toward Garibaldi’s base of powerOct 15, 1860 Garibaldi signed decree proclaiming all his conquests would become part of Italy under the constitutional monarchy of Victor Emanuel II1861 the kingdom of Italy was proclaimed with Victor Emannuel II as KingHowever, the rivalry continuedCavour gave no civil or military position to Garibaldi after the warGaribaldi retired to his home (die 1883)Cavour died two months laterRome and Venetia were still not part of ItalyGaribaldi tried to take Rome 1862, 1866, 1867 but failedEventually, Venice joined to Italy (as agreement ending Austro-Prussian war)Rome joined Italy 1870: unification complete
110 German and Italian Unification German StatesPrussia: Greatest StateDynamic LeadersBismarck: Like a Prime Minister. Runs the showWilliam I: King of PrussiaItalian StatesPiedmont Sardinia: Greatest StateDynamic Leaders:Cavour: Like a Prime Minister, runs the showVictor Emmanuel: King of Piedmont/SardiniaMazzini/Garibaldi- Both want a Republic, Cavour does not.Garibaldi fitting the boot of Italy onto Victor Emmanuel II
111 German and Italian Unification German States’ Issues:Prussia seeks a common German StatePrussia will lead,others have to followHave to deal with liberals who do not want $ spent on the militaryAustria, another German State, is nearly as strong as PrussiaItalian States’ Issues:Have never been unified since the fall of RomeHave separate AgendasNorth = IndustrySouth = AgricultureHave a strong foreign presence in their areaAustriaFrance
112 German and Italian Unification German States: Agendas of the players--who wants what?Bismarck – wants to increase the size of PrussiaIf it means a unified Germany, so be itHe is a Prussian before he is a GermanWilliam (Wilhelm) I – willing to let Bismarck Run the showItalian States: Agendas of the players--who wants what?Cavour – feels that a strong, industrial Piedmont will lead the rest of the States. $ = Power = unificationMazzini and Cavour want unification based on political ideology: A RepublicVictor Emmanuel - willing to let Cavour run the show
113 German and Italian Unification German States: Obstacles to UnificationAustria- a powerful “German State” with a different agenda from PrussiaFrance: still controls land that used to belong to PrussiaPolitical Differences- between Bismarck and the wealthy classes (over $ for war)German intellectuals—who hope for a more democratic republicItalian States: Obstacles to UnificationAustria – controls/manages PiedmontFrance –controls parts of the center of ItalyPolitical differences – Between Cavour, who has no problem having a King as long as Italy is unified, and Garibaldi, who wants Italy to be a Republic.
114 German and Italian Unification German States Steps to UnificationBismarck raises $ for the MilitaryAllies with Russia to take back Schleswig and HolsteinProvokes Austrians to war and crushes them in 7 WeeksProvokes French and crushes them (revenge for Napoleon)Establishes unified Germany in 1871Italian States Steps to UnificationSardinia provokes Austria into battle and beats them (with French help)Garibaldi gathers his army “Red Shirts” in the south; they conquer and move northCavour links with Garibaldi,and France is finally is driven from Italy because it’s being beaten by Prussia
115 German and Italian Unification Germany: Results of UnificationA strong, Industrialized and militarized GermanyAustria is “on its own”Increased tension between France and GermanyThe seeds of WWIItaly: Results of UnificationRemaining division between North and South ItalyPolitical unity, but not cultural or social unityConnection/identification between Italy and Germany makes them allies in WWI & WWII