Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.


Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Revolution/Reaction/Revolution"— Presentation transcript:

1 Revolution/Reaction/Revolution
19th C Revolution/Reaction/Revolution

2 Congress of Vienna (1814) To decide what to do with the chaos of Europe after the Napoleonic Wars Pretty much four who met only informally to hash out settlement: Austria (Metternich), Prussia (Bismarck), Russia (Alexander I) and Britain + France (Talleyrand) trying to influence from the wings VERY conservative: aim, to restore ancien regime and repudiate aims of liberals and French Revolution; spokesman of these ideals: Metternich

3 Europe after the Congress of Vienna

4 Methods: back to “good old days”
Wanted “balance of power” between great powers to prevent another empire from swallowing Europe Lombardy (Napoleon seized) back to Austria +Venice Belgium + Netherlands = kingdom of Holland as buffer vs France Confederacy of Germany (39 states under Austria) Prussia: territory along Rhine and half of Poland as buffer vs France Britain got Capetown in So. Africa, Malta, kept Gibraltar Restoration of old monarchies, as much as possible Influence of Talleyrand: Bourbon Louis XVIII for France Alexander I of Russia becomes King of Poland (remainder) Strengthening of position of Austrian Habsburg monarchy

5 Concert System Quadruple Alliance formed for periodic meetings of participants in Congress 1818: added France, changed name to “Concert system” Aim: to provide united front vs possible threat to conservative regimes: Intervention Italy 1821 to put down revolution Spain 1823 vs agitation for liberal change BUT fought for liberation in Greek Revolution ( ) vs Ottoman (Turks) Empire It worked: no major European wars first ½ of Century BUT vs trend of thinking Growth of liberalism and demand for reform Ideas of Enlightenment and Romanticism promoted individual liberty and passion for scientific research and progress Constitutionalism and right to vote for common people

6 Age of -isms Many of the ideas and ideologies that shape our world originated or were modified in the 19th Century Most of these –isms deal with economics; however, many also describe or impact the social systems of class and hierarchy and imply political action. Other –isms deal with politics and imply economic action. All are interrelated.

7 Political Concepts revived or new to the 19th C
Liberalism (see following slides): wanted to end inherited political and economic privileges and establish constitutional government based on legal equality and representation Democracy: More radical than liberalism. Supported not only legal equality but also active political participation by the common man Socialism: Even more radical. Property and wealth should be redistributed according to individual needs Nationalism: States should be based not on dynastic principles, but on ethnic, linguistic, and historical bonds. Shared language, ethnicity, and history is highest principle of political organization

8 Class Consciousness Owners – capitalists
Non-landed middle class and white collar workers – bourgeoisie Factory and trade workers—proletariat

9 Conservatism Reactionaries (Put it back the way it was)
Revolt against conservatism: Revolutions of 1848 Successful revolutions in most European countries Monarchies returned after 6 months in all Britain: party of conservatives: Tories/conservatives pro landowners over commerce and middle class, monarchical, vs expanding electorate

10 Liberalism Favored changing government to improve social conditions
Whigs Edmund Burke Opposite view of Nationalism: not natural rights of man, but traditional rights inherited as part of national legacy; no right to revolt if such “rights” not protected Supported American Revolution, but decried the French Revolution—(split Whigs over French Revolution): believed in limited monarchy Law of unintended consequences Example: Prussia forced to take over the Ruhr Valley which, unknowingly, has the coal reserves to allow Prussia to conquer the rest of Germany Burke took a leading role in the debate over the constitutional limits to the executive authority of the King. He argued strongly against unrestrained royal power and for the role of political parties in maintaining a principled opposition capable of preventing abuses by the monarch or by specific factions within the government. His most important publication in this regard was his Thoughts on the Cause of the Present Discontents of May 1770.[19] In it, Burke opposed the influence of the Court and defended party connections.[20] He also campaigned against the persecution of Catholics in Ireland and denounced the abuses and corruption of the East India Company. In the Annual Register for 1772 (published in July 1773) Burke condemned the Partition of Poland. He saw it as "the first very great breach in the modern political system of Europe" and upsetting the balance of power in Europe.[21]

11 Promoters of Liberal Ideals
Poets/novelists Romantic idealism Natural life superior (noble savage) Aimed at complacent middle class Charles Dickens Social conditions Honorè de Balzac Stupid middle class Jane Austen Against classes The Bronte sisters Against male domination

12 Waves of Revolutions 1821 beginning in France (again) 1830

13 Spain Loses her Empire Revolution of 1820 During Napoleonic Wars:
Throne from Charles III to Ferdinand (son) to Charles (Napoleon) who abdicated for Napoleon’s brother Joseph Liberal nationalists with British support resisted French; set up Cortes of Cadiz (legislature): wrote Constitution of 1812 Limited monarchy with power in single chamber Cortes Curb nobility and Catholic Church; abolish Spanish Inquisition Protected individual rights Voting to property owners; business powers gained voice Only in force temporarily: rest of 19th C and much of 20th rebellions to put it in force Ferdinand VII Restored to power at Congress of Vienna Promised to abide by constitution, but once in power, dissolved Cortes: absolutist rule After several unsuccessful rebellions, 1820 successful revolution forced constitution of 1812 on king Congress of Vienna powers met in Verona, ok’d French to invade to restore Ferdinand to absolute power 1823 revoked constitution: ruthless repression of revolutionaries When Ferdinand died, liberals supported his daughter as Isabella II and conservative forces supported his brother, Charles = Carlist Wars All of these wars and rebellions from Napoleonic times forward resulted in weak colonial government from Spain—colonies began declaring and fighting for independence, ending only at turn of 20th Century with Spanish American War

14 Mexican Wars for Independence
Conditions in Latin America encouraging rebellion: Social stratification: peninsulares favored over criollos (Indios, mestizos, negros totally ignored and exploited by both groups) Political exploitation: best offices to peninsulares; NOT based on talent and competence

15 Simon Bolivar one of South America's greatest generals
victories over the Spaniards won independence for Bolivia, Panama, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela: called El Liberator (The Liberator) and the "George Washington of South America." Educated and grew up in Europe during Napoleonic times Married, wife died of yellow fever, vowed never to remarry Voice for independence in Europe: Joined the group of patriots that seized Caracas in 1810 and proclaimed independence from Spain.  went to Great Britain for aid,: only a promise of British neutrality.  Wrote Cartagena Manifesto in which he argued that New Granada (Now Columbia, Ecuador, Panama) should help liberate Venezuela because their cause was the same and Venezuela's freedom would secure that of New Granada. took command of a Colombian force and captured Bogota in 1814, but lacked men and supplies, and new defeats led Bolivar to flee to Jamaica.  In Haiti gathered a force, landed in Venezuela in 1816, took Angostra (now Ciudad Bolivar), became dictator there.

16 marched into New Granada, 1819, defeated the Spaniards in Boyar in 1819, liberating the territory of Colombia.  He then returned to Angostura and led the congress that organized the original republic of Colombia (now Ecuador, Colombia, Panama, and Venezuela) and became its first president, 1819. crushed the Spanish army at Carabobo in Venezuela, 1821.  marched into Educador and added that territory to the new Colombian republic.  After a meeting in 1822 with San Martin, Bolivar fought for and became dictator of Peru; victory over the Spaniards at Auacucho in 1824 ended Spanish power in South America.  Upper Peru became a separate state, (Bolivia, after Bolivar) in 1825.  The constitution which he drew up for Bolivia is one of his most important political pronouncements.

17 France from Napoleon to 3rd Republic

18 Louis XVIII Son of brother of Louis XV; nephew of Louis XVI restored to power by Congress of Vienna Agreed to grant charter making him a monarch on British pattern, even though really believed in “divine right” King executive; legislative him + 2 chambered legislature: 1 appointed by him, 1 by restricted suffrage After Napoleon’s 100 days, Congress of Vienna took harsh measures vs France Lost Savoy occupation by foreign troops until paid war reparations indemnity of 700 million in gold (130 million/yr); talks brought it down to 265 million, but still more than whole annual budget Elected chamber = stubborn royalists, so Allies forced out and elected new one which sped up indemnity payments and got troops out

19 BUT suppressed press; gave double vote to the rich
Military: conscription by lot, promotion by ability, Not controlled by nobility BUT suppressed press; gave double vote to the rich Spain 1821: insurrection forced king to swear by constitution; coup attempt put power in hands of extreme left; king virtual prisoner to revolutionaries Alexander and Metternich voted to intervene to stop revolution England neutral, but didn’t want France intervening Fr Minister of Foreign Affairs, Montmorency, secretly sent arms to Spanish royalists Eventually Louis forced into war: sent 95,000 into Spain; easily marched to Madrid and restored Ferdinand to throne—brought prestige to Louis Opposition power under Chateaubriand Minister who was upset when not supported in power, so deserted Louis Louis—horrible death from gangrene, but no children Ancien regime king who insisted on appointment of officials, municipal leaders

20 Charles X Another nephew of Louis XVI, brother to Louis XVIII
Contrasting life to Louis Dissolute, unfaithful to wife; favorite mistress sister to Marie Antoinette’s friend She died in London, made him promise to reform and find God, so influenced by confessor, whom he made cardinal Liberal at first (restored some press freedom), but Granted indemnities to emigres deprived of property 1792 Declared primogeniture (opposed by peers—favored oldest sons) Wave of anticlericalism, so suppressed press again Appointed royalist, absolutist deputies

21 Downfall: National Guard demonstrations against him: Charles disbanded the guard Revolution of 1830: Address of 221 a petition from the legislature that said the king had to have support of the populace to put his policies into effect; he didn’t have it King dissolved chamber for new elections, so his ministers resigned 202 of the 221 reelected: 270 liberals vs 150 royalists in legislature 4 Ordinances King’s answer/retaliation Suppressed freedom of press Dissolved new chamber illegally (hadn’t met yet) Restricted vote even further Set elections for September 1830

22 1830 Revolution, July Uprising
Uprising in Paris: 3 days of rioting and barricades; most of deputies (legislators) and some of army sided with the people (think Les Miserables and painting “Liberty Leading the People) King abdicated and went to London in exile


24 Louis Philippe: July monarchy
Liberal: father (descendant of one of sons of Louis XIV) voted for death of cousin Louis XVI Duke of Orleans; Career in army Supported Dumoriez in war vs Austria during Revolution When Dumoriez deserted to Austria, he escaped to Switzerland Exiled: traveled until Charles X restored him (not Louis—afraid of his popularity) Abdication of Charles X: Louis Philippe more or less elected king, constitutional monarch Because of his liberal politics, he was asked to be king

25 Success in foreign policy
At first, liberal: more electorate, less strict press censorship, no state religion, bourgeoise ministers, BUT took National Guard command from LaFayette (though he was the one who insisted Louis Philippe become king) Success in foreign policy More of revolutions of 1830: Begium revolted vs Holland, offered monarchy to his son; Louis Philippe refused. Talleyrand negotiated “perpetual neutrality” of Belgium, Louis’s dau married king Leopold of Saxe Coberg (widower of dau of king of England) Social unrest Increasing industrialization meant horrible working and living conditions in cities for laborers Peasant riots: sacked archbishop’s palace Revolts in So France encouraged by Napoleon’s nephew, Louis Napoleon Rebellion by Blanqui (anarchist) took Hotel de Ville

26 Guizot’s Conservative Position
I am, for my part, a decided enemy of universal suffrage. I look upon it as the ruin of democracy and liberty. If I needed proof I would have it under my very eyes; I will not elucidate. However, I should permit myself to say, with all the respect I have for a great country and a great government, that the inner danger, the social danger by which the United States appears menaced is due especially to universal suffrage; it is that which makes them run the risk of seeing their real liberties, the liberties of everybody, compromised, as well as the inner order of their society. . Guizot Chief minister under Louis Philippe: intellectual, critic, moderate Liberal until after Napoleon’s fall Supported constitutional monarchy: opposed Louis XVIII policies of absolutism and oppression 1821 moderate political party: riots made him look conservative because wanted constitutional monarchy 1830 rewarded for support of monarchy with jobs in government; worked way up to chief minister, but by then, politics had moved to the left, making him look very conservative Revolution of 1848: sided with king, so although he’d already resigned, in real trouble—escaped to England, but didn’t stay long Continued as literary figure, social critic

27 Absolutist monarch to end unrest because tired of wrangling
Guizot dissolved constitution More foreign relations Algeria conquered and pacified Anglo French friendship: Entente Cordiale Son of Louis Philippe m daughter of Spanish princess vs Brit wishes So turned to Austria for support; people upset because still traditional hatred Revolution of 1848 Started with poor harvests of : bread prices up, so violent demonstrations liberal agitators supported by humanitarian landlords, ’progressive’ clergymen, among professional men and the urban population. King made an authoritarian speech, plus parliament agitating vs Guizot: after demonstrations, Guizot resigned Put head of rebellion, Thiers, in as minister to pacify opposition, but though tried reforms, too little, too late Forced abdication of last real king of France

28 Europe 1848

29 After the Revolution of 1848: 2nd Republic
13 governments in 18 years Caretaker government: Radicals dominated at first, then quickly lost power (only one worker among governing) Divisions in Revolutionary ranks: constituent assembly (elected by universal male suffrage), comprised moderate liberals People of Paris voted only 34 radical members. Support for radical policies continued strong among the laboring and poor. On May 15, revolutionaries led by radicals François Raspail and Louis Blanqui attempted forcibly to take control of the constituent assembly. demanded intensification of the revolution called on the people of France to launch an offensive revolutionary war throughout Europe to liberate all peoples still under monarchy moderate liberals easily retook control of the constituent assembly from the radical firebrands.

30 2nd Republic, continued Process of government: Unrest continued
April: Constituent Assembly elected by universal manhood suffrage: moderates Constitution set elections for single chamber of legislature + president of republic Louis Napoleon got enormous majority as President Unrest continued Louis and Assembly in conflict over policies Assembly created jobs temporarily, then eliminated them=rioting brutally suppressed Royalists saw chance to agitate for new king Louis Napoleon denounced “helplessness” of conservative assembly unpopular in the country His term over 1852, SO Seized power 2 Dec 1851: pronounced 2nd Empire In plebescite (like uncle) overwhelming vote favoring Louis Napoleon

31 2nd Empire: Louis Napoleon becomes Napoleon III
Relied on army to seize power Purged Assembly and magistrates, university leaders, administrators in the government of all who didn’t support him 1852 declared self emperor: ambition as 2nd Napoleon “The Empire means peace.” Didn’t want expansion of uncle, nor war Social minded: wanted good, but his way

32 Louis Napoleon: policies and politics
Positive: Time of amazing economic expansion Railroads 2,000 mi in 1800: 12,000 mi in 1870 Machine tools, steam power dominate Increase of public works, business and agriculture prosper (for rich) Tried hard to better condition of workers and peasants: granted right to strike, form unions Tried later to liberalize regime, giving gradually more power to assembly, making ministers accountable to assembly, not him Negative More, stronger opposition from Catholics and industrialists who didn’t like workers’ increasing strikes Lost 1 million votes in election 1869

33 Foreign Affairs Crimean War: sided with Britain against Russia to shore up Ottoman Turks; Congress of Paris ended Supported Cavour vs Austria (rewarded with Nice and Savoy) Worldwide expansion into China, Indo China, Algeria Mexico: put Habsburg Maximilian on “throne” of Mexico; didn’t work—executed

34 Franco Prussian War Bismarck manipulates the war:
Hohenzollern was candidate for Spanish throne The French issued an ultimatum to Kaiser Wilhelm I of Prussia to withdraw candidate: he did. Further aiming to humiliate Prussia, Napoleon III then required Wilhelm to renounce any possible further Hohenzollern candidature to the Spanish throne. King Wilhelm refused. Bismarck phrased the king's refusal in the famous Ems Telegram, basically a propagandized account of the negotiations between France and Prussia making Prussia and Wilhelm look patriotic, leaking the document to the press. Outraged, the French declared war on Prussia. Over a six-month campaign, the German armies defeated the French in a series of battles fought across northern France. Napoleon III went to aid of beleaguered armies After a decisive defeat, Napoleon III was captured at the Battle of Sedan, Prussians to gates of Paris, shelling the city: 6 month siege Treaty of Frankfurt (with 3rd Republic): France lost Alsace / Lorraine, had to pay 5 billion franc war indemnity


36 3rd Republic and Commune: 1870
Taking advantage of the defeat, Thiers proclaims a conservative government with the Assembly backing him, BUT Working people demand fruits of revolution so long denied them Specific demand of people: Paris should be self-governing, with own elected Commune, (as most French towns), Government didn’t want, because demonstrations and violence of masses of Paris .An associated but more vague wish was for a fairerway of managing the economy, summed up in the popular cry for "La Sociale!" During the siege of Paris by Prussian army many tens of thousands of Parisians were armed members of a citizens' militia known as the “National Guard", greatly expanded to help defend the city. Battalions in the poorer districts elected own officers and possessed many cannons manufactured in Paris and paid for by public subscription. The city with National Guard had withstood the Prussian troops for six months. To end siege, Thiers government allowed Prussian occupation of Paris: people outraged, limited Prussians to tiny portion of city; Thiers worried about possible uprising National Guards, helped by ordinary working people, took cannons (which they regarded as theirs) away from the Prussians' areas to "safe" districts.

37 The Commune (March-May 1871)
Central Committee of the National Guard became increasingly radical and gained in power, Thiers’ government could not indefinitely allow it to have four hundred cannons. Thiers ordered regular troops to seize the cannons on Montemartre The soldiers, morale low, mixed with National Guards and locals General Lecomte ordered them to fire on an unarmed crowd they dragged him from his horse. He was later shot, together with General Thomas, a hated former commander of the Guard picked up by a mob. Other military units joined uprising The government flees: President Thiers ordered an immediate evacuation of Paris by as many of the regular forces as would obey; by the police; and by administrators and specialists of every kind. He fled to Versailles Thiers thought about this strategy ("retreat from Paris to crush the people afterward.”) since 1848 Organization of the Commune Central Committee of the National Guard, only effective government in Paris, almost immediately abdicated authority and arranged elections for a Commune The 92 members of the Commune ("Communal Council") included skilled workers, several "professionals" (such as doctors and journalists), political activists, from reformist republicans, t various socialists, to Jacobins Although the Paris Commune is considered a milestone in the organization of feminism, with some (women actively participated to the events), they still did not acquire right to vote, no female members of the Council.

38 What it did Only in power 60 days, so not much
Put Blanqui (anarchist) as head, but he was in prison during whole time Passed the following to help the people the remission of rents for the entire period of the siege (during which they had been raised considerably by many landlords); the abolition of night work in the hundreds of Paris bakeries; the abolition of the guillotine granting of pensions to unmarried companions of National Guards killed on active service and children, if any; the free return, by the state pawnshops, of all workmen's tools pledged during the siege (concerned that skilled workers were forced to pawn r tools during the war) postponement of debt obligations, abolition of interest on the debts; right of employees to take over and run an enterprise if deserted by its owner. Separated church and state: made all church property state property and excluded religion from schools. churches were only allowed to continue their religious activity if they kept their doors open to public political meetings during the evenings.

39 Importance The Paris Commune has been celebrated by anarchist and Marxist socialists continuously until the present day, high degree of workers' control remarkable cooperation among different revolutionists. Engels identified Commune as “dictatorship of proletariat” absence of a standing army, the self-policing of the "quartiers", no longer a "state" in the old, repressive sense.

40 End of the Commune Constant attack from Versailles army
Commune forms “committee of public safety” = people afraid to take authority Though much verbal support from international radicals, no real help Strength becomes weakness: army obeys central command; commune meant independence of each area of city; had to defend selves separately Let into gates of richer area of city, army took one area at a time Many atrocities and killings by army Commune took 50 hostages (many priests) and killed them Once the army took the city, reprisals: Communards were shot against Communards’ Wall in a cemetery, thousands of others marched to Versailles for trials; few escaped 30,000 dead, many more wounded, and perhaps as many as 50,000 later executed or imprisoned; 7,000 were exiled to uninhabited islands Martial law for 5 years in Paris

41 3rd Republic Tried to reestablish monarchy with gson of Charles X, but he refused. New constitution: 7 year President; could dissolve chamber Assemblies: lawmaking and budget Chamber of Deputies 4 years elected by universal manhood suffrage Senate –9 year terms; 1/3 elected every 3 years by limited suffrage Council of State (President is president) determines constitutionality of laws Republicans divided Opportunists: want gradual reform Radicals: want immediate reform

42 Succession of Presidents
Many only serve a few months Jules Ferry: serves several years and makes social reform Freedom of assembly for workers, unions’ Liberal freedom of the press Reorganization of departments and cantons Compulsory state primary education Secondary education open to girls Colonial Expansion Tunisia (1881) French Western Africa (Sudan + Dahomey) Madagascar Congo—French Equatorial Africa Indochina (Panama, for awhile—scandal and failure)

43 Dreyfus Affair Young Jewish officer accused of treason 1894
Incriminating letters to German attache in handwriting that looked like his Catholic and royalists and other conservatives tried to make big issue of “Jewish plot” and weakness of Republic to defend vs Though scant evidence, not allowed to see evidence vs him, judged guilty, sentenced to life exile on Devil’s island Another officer, Georges Picquart, questioned his guilt Found evidence to prove guilty officer Walsin Esterhazy, BUT Army couldn’t admit failure; more interested in image than justice Transferred Picquart to Tunisia International eye on French army because of Zola’s J’Accuse Zola found guilty of libeling army, sentenced to prison Fled to England, where continued to rally defenders In answer, Catholics and Conservatives claimed conspiracy of Jews and Masons to damage reputation of army, destroy France Re court martial 1899: found guilty again, sentenced to 10 years detention Another officer found additional documents forged to strengthen case vs Dreyfus (identified forger, who committed suicide). President of France pardoned him; not exonerated, however, until 1906. Consequences: opposite of what Catholics and conservatives intended Jaurez (President) support of anticlericalism: total separation of church and state Closed monasteries and convents, seized property Forbid church primary and secondary schools Broke off diplomatic relations with Vatican

44 England: less volatile, more stable in an era of change
Stable constitutional monarchy under Georges and William Victorian Era: long time queen – 64 year reign “Sun never sets….” Empire Middle class values dominate Lower classes pay: rebellions that reflect the tenor of times in Europe 2 party system: Tories, then Whigs, then Tories Gladstone vs Disraeli—liberal desire for reform vs conservative push to keep status quo reforms to benefit all

45 Why Reform was needed: Political abuses Social abuses
“rotten boroughs” “pocket boroughs” Disenfranchisement of industrial cities Tiny, aristocratic electorate Established Church of privilege, not service Social abuses Laissez faire economics: middle class enriching selves on the backs of the poor Ag and Industrial revolution: movement to cities Horrible living conditions, no social safety net Secularization of society: church not providing welfare, nor state, either Child labor, lack of education No political rights

46 England: Reaction to French Revolution
Conservatism/ Reactionary: go back to “good old days” Combination Acts: outlaw workers organizations and unions Corn Laws 1815 to keep profits of landowners high (as prices had been during Napoleonic wars): starvation for poor 1816 abolished income tax (paid by rich) and substituted excise tax (on consumer goods—paid by everybody) Many called for abolition of Poor Laws (public relief for destitute) Liberals pushed for reform vs “rotten” boroughs, pocket boroughs, restrictions on voting and holding office; curbs on House of Lords Selection of Duke of Wellington as very conservative PM He blocked 224 reform bills in commons So extreme lost own party support

47 Peterloo Massacre Leading radicals in Manchester (North industrialized, so for reform) formed the Manchester Patriotic Union to obtain parliamentary reform They invited sympathetic speakers to an outdoor meeting for all in St. Peter’s Field, 16 Aug 1819 Local leaders worried that such a gathering of reformers might end in a riot. They decided to arrange for a large number of soldiers to be in Manchester on the day of the meeting. four squadrons of cavalry of the 15th Hussars (600 men), several hundred infantrymen, the Cheshire Yeomanry Cavalry (400 men), a detachment of the Royal Horse Artillery and two six-pounder guns and the Manchester and Salford Yeomanry (120 men) all Manchester's special constables (400 men).

48 At least 50,000 people gathered by midday.
The Boroughreeve and the special constables tried to clear a path through the crowd. The 400 special constables were ordered to form two continuous lines between where the speeches were to take place, and Mr. Buxton's house where the magistrates were staying. At 1.30 p.m. the magistrates came to the conclusion that "the town was in great danger". They decided to arrest Henry Hunt (speaker) and the other leaders of the demonstration and asked for military help to do it. Trouble: As the officials moved closer to the speech area, members of the crowd began to link arms to stop them from arresting the leaders. Others attempted to close the pathway created by the special constables. Some of the soldiers now began to use their sabres to cut their way through the crowd. Officials arrested the speakers and the organisers of the meeting, as well as the newspaper reporters at the speakers’ area. The military commander reported to a town official at 1.50 p.m. When he asked Hulton what was happening, he replied: "Good God, Sir, don't you see they are attacking the Yeomanry? Disperse them." By 2.00 p.m. the soldiers had cleared most of the crowd from St. Peter's Field. In the process, eleven people were killed and about 400, including 100 women, were wounded.


50 Reformers in Manchester were appalled by the decisions of the magistrates and the behavior of the soldiers and wrote accounts of what they had witnessed. When one of them discovered that a reporter from the London Times had been arrested and imprisoned, he feared that this was an attempt by the government to suppress news of the event. He sent his report to the editor of The Times. The article that was highly critical of the magistrates and the yeomanry was published two days later. Dubbed ”Peteloo” as a contemptuous reference to Waterloo After the Peterloo Massacre the Home Secretary sent a letter of congratulations to the Manchester magistrates for the action they had taken. Parliament also passed the Six Acts in an attempt to make sure reform meetings like the one at St. Peter's Field did not happened again.

51 The Six Acts Forbade unauthorized public meetings
Specified fines for seditious libel Required speedy trials for political organizers Allowed oppressive measures vs “mobs” Prohibited training armed groups Officials could search homes of agitators in certain counties

52 Historical Sketches and Personal Recollections of Manchester (1851) Archibald Prentice
“There were haggard-looking men certainly, but the majority were young persons, in their best Sunday's suits, and the light coloured dresses of the cheerful tidy-looking women relieved the effect of the dark fustians worn by the men. The " marching order," of which so much was said afterwards, was what we often see now in the processions of Sunday-school children and temperance societies. To our eyes the numerous flags seemed to have been brought to add to the picturesque effect of the pageant. Slowly and orderly the multitudes took their places round the hustings, which stood on a spot now included under the roof of the Free Trade Hall, near its south-east corner. Our company laughed at the fears of the magistrates, and the remark was, that if the men intended mischief they would not have brought their wives, their sisters, or their children with them. I passed round the outskirts of the meeting, and mingled with the groups that stood chatting there. I occasionally asked the women if they were not afraid to be there, and the usual laughing reply was - " What have we to be afraid of?“ I saw Hunt arrive, and heard the shouts of the sixty thousand persons by whom he was enthusiastically welcomed, as the carriage in which he stood made its way through the dense crowd to the hustings. I proceeded to my dwelling-house in Salford, intending to return in about an hour or so to witness in what manner so large a meeting would separate. I had not been at home more than a quarter of an hour when a wailing sound was heard from the main street, and, rushing out, I saw people running in the direction of Pendleton, their faces pale as death, and some with blood trickling down their cheeks. It was with difficulty I could get any one to stop and tell me what had happened. The unarmed multitude, men, women, and children, had been attacked with murderous results by the military.

53 England: Series of Reform Acts:
Great Reform Act of 1832 : passed Commons, rejected in Peers, so George IV made new peers, enough to enact it. Problem it addressed=inequality of representation in Commons Representation by counties (2 each in England, 1 each in Wales, Scotland, Ireland) supposed to represent landowners; Representation elected by boroughs standing for merchant/artisans, but rotten” boroughs (little population because of Industrial Revolution redistribution of population); populous cities poorly represented; “pocket” boroughs: one aristocrat pretty much appointed the MP Increased suffrage by 50-80%; one in six could vote Redistributed seats in Parliament to eliminate “rotten boroughs,” enfranchise cities; Reduced property restriction on eligibility for office; kept gender inequity Chartist movement: coalition of workers, political activists and reformers Wanted universal manhood suffrage, secret ballot, salaries for MP’s (so non rich could run) Presented Great Charter (petition) of 1839 with 2 million names, petition of grievances, demand for reform; ignored until revolution threatened 2nd Reform Act Reduced voting qualifications: upped electorate by 2 million 1884 Reform Act Universal manhood suffrage (but not women)

54 Reforms (continued) Poor Laws of 1834: to take care of old, infirm, unable to work by means of Work Houses, where very poor had to live, with harsh conditions (to motivate them to get OUT), overseen by Guardians chosen from mid/upper classes to collect taxes to support, get employment, oversee conditions, food, etc. Catholic Emancipation Act Afraid of Ireland as basis of Catholic/French alliance against Britain: Act of Union 1800=Ireland and England one country, but most couldn’t serve in office, because Catholic; lifted much of restrictions against Catholics in office in all Britain. Women’s Suffrage movement: wanted the VOTE 1872: Emeline Pankhurst and the suffragettes had marginal success Women voted, held office in local governments, school boards, on poor house committees, as health authorities from the late nineteenth century. Successful, so… 1918 (after WWI hiatus), franchise to women over the age of 30 in 1918; but only if householders, married to a householder or had a university degree. 1928: universal suffrage for all adults over 21 years of age

55 Queen Victoria Dau of 4th son of George III (first three died without children; her father died when she was young; struggle with mom and Irish duke to usurp her power Became queen at 18 in 1837 As a girl, she was dominated by her German mother and her mother’s advisor, Irishman John Conroy. They isolated her from her more liberal (especially morally) English relatives (especially her two uncle kings, George IV and William IV), and any kind of friends. They tried to get her to sign a paper naming them regents when she came to power. She refused. As soon as she became queen, she banished her mother to a far wing of her residence and refused to see Conroy again. In early part of her reign, influenced by her first Prime Minister, Lord Melbourne, and her husband, Prince Albert, whom she married in 1840 Both men taught her much about how to be a ruler in a “constitutional monarchy” where the monarch had very few powers, but much influence. Madly in love with her husband, she had 9 children, who married into most of the royal families of the great powers, including Prussia, Russia, etc.

56 Development of strong liberal movements
Because of her repeated pregnancies and childbirths, she gradually (reluctantly) relinquished power to her husband, who in the German/British tradition, expected to take over power from his wife, a mere woman. This conflict created a continuing tension between Albert and Victoria, especially when she made decisions independently Albert, a German foreigner, was never accepted totally; his influence in foreign affairs was particularly distrusted The Exhibition of 1851 (showing off the world’s best technological marvels) (Crystal Palace) was his baby The Victorian Age: in contrast to her two uncles, with influence of Albert, the monarch and her family life became a pattern of “middle class morality” When Albert died, Victoria became a recluse, staying in mourning (only wearing black) (became Mrs. Brown?) Development of strong liberal movements In 1870’s, (Disraeli’s influence), resumed public duties Idea of Constitutional monarch above politics evolved, though she often took a stand(conservative) Actually mediated between Commons and Lords during Disestablishment controversy which ended in the Irish Church Disestablishment Act of 1869 and the 1884 Reform Act.

57 Victorian Prime Ministers: Disraeli
Jewish, upper middle class family; married very rich (but loved) Conservative Tory party—believed that aristocrats and poor should be allies; rich use their resources to help the poor As PM, many reform bills to help, including Food and Drug, Health reforms Imperialist; wanted British superiority; made Victoria “Empress of India” Because of his views, Victoria liked him.

58 Victorian Prime Ministers-Gladstone
Aristocratic family, married to an aristocrat Liberal party leader/PM; Victoria didn’t like him. Championed universal suffrage, relief for poor, Home Rule for Ireland Many reform bills passed with his support. Competitor to Disraeli: mutual dislike.

59 Russia: Enlightenment to Reactionary
Alexander I Enlightened, granted more freedom to press, looked at liberating the serfs One of powers supporting Congress of Vienna, concert system Conflict between support for “confederation of Europe,” role as defender of the Orthodox Church against the Ottoman Turks Metternich’s cynical manipulations, supported the Greeks vs the Ottoman Turks, not Concert system he helped to design, disillusioned Alexander Alexander provoked war with Turkey: Crimean War Became mystic, paranoid after kidnap attempt: went to S. Russia for wife’s health, got typhus and died: rumors he became a monk

60 Crimean War Russ struggling for control of Black Sea, port to Dardanelles into Medit Sea 1823: Brit and France joined Russ in supporting Greek independence against Turkey to keep Russ from getting territory and influence Russ war vs Turkey : Balkan “protectorate of Russ” changed to “protectorate of Europe” by concert July 1853: Russ seized Turkish territories (pretext: protecting Christians there vs Muslims); France and Britain (+ Sardinia = Italy) support Turkey, drive Russia out France willing to go to war because Napoleon III needed victory to restore his prestige at home—called on Britain to honor treaty obligations; Victoria and govt vs, but people whipped into patriotic fervor United powers vs Russ decide to settle Crimea once and for all, land on Crimean peninsula and attack Sevastopol Horrible 18 month war: useless carnage, but stopped Russia in Balkans Charge of the light brigade: points out problem of aristocratic command of army Florence Nightingale: pointed up terrible medical care, corruption in war suppliers; she became a heroine to troops, but less success in carrying out reforms in England itself Fighting on Crimea, blockade and attack on Russian Baltic ports crippled Russ economy Treaty of Paris: Russ fleet out of Black Sea, Russ out of Baltics War put end to Concert System: paved way for Germany and Italy


62 Forced Migration of Russia’s Jews

63 The Ottoman Empire -- Late 19c “The Sicker Man of Europe”

64 Alexander succeeded by Nicholas I (brother) 1825
Alexander assassinated brutally Nicholas opposite from their father: wanted all power, autocratic Brutally put down revolts and leaders Polish Revolution part of 1830 wave, brutally repressed Later Polish Revolution (1863-4)

65 Leadup to WWI, Russian Revolution:
Alexander II (R ) and the Emancipation Edict 1861 Son of Nicholas I, tried to modernize the country Emancipated serfs, but had no way to integrate them into society, economy without much suffering At first allowed liberal self government of Poles, then when rebelled, clamped down violently Tried to expand Russian territory at the expense of Turks, Chinese About to grant a liberal constitution when assassinated by “people’s party” assassin Alexander III (R ) Reactionary autocrat who reigned so strictly, that Russia was stablilized and capitalism and the industrial revolution could take root there Kept Russia out of European wars

66 Meanwhile, in the German speaking countries….
Congress of Vienna set up the German Confederation to replace Napoleon’s Confederation of the Rhine Roughly same as the old HRE, except down to 36 states from 300 Each an independent entity, united mainly for “common defense,” with Diet as legislature in Frankfurt Emperor of Austria served as executive, but only represented on Diet Through a series of well picked conflicts with neighboring states, Bismarck was able to guide Prussia into absorbing the rest of what is now Germany


68 German Unification 1848-1871 Steps
German Confederation with Austria ruling, Prussia separate, but strong Zollverein: German trade confederation (1834-) to which all German speaking states except for Austria and some states in the Northwest (Hanover, among others) belonged: lifted trade barriers between the states, setting standard taxes, weights and measurements, and currency . Bismarck used this organization, which had no central bureaucracy or public presence for liberals to attack in revolutions, to push Prussian trade policies onto the other states, get them ready for unification Bismarck maneuvered first Denmark, then Austria into war and absorbed Schleswig and Holstein (from Denmark) Southern German territories he “wins” from Austria, along with some territories part of the German Confederation that allied with him to help with the war North German Confederation German Empire

69 Heroes of German unification
Otto von Bismarck--diplomatic genius Helmut von Moltke--military genius Frederick Wilhelm IV—military, not very bright married to Victoria (Victoria’s oldest) Opposition Junkers: The Prussian aristocracy Austria Everyone else in the old HRE Everyone else in Europe

70 Helmuth von Moltke Chief of Staff of Prussian Army, 1857-1878
Military Genius Planned for Aggression Built Efficient Army Newer rear loading “rifles” Modernized Nation for War Saw the importance of rail transport in military mobilization Used telegraph to communicate with military Genius at Tactics Divide and Conquer “Blitzkrieg” attacks Central Command to coordinate Almost foiled by Kaiser’s relatives in command of some of armies Take advantage of enemy weakness

71 Otto von Bismarck Prime Minister of Prussia 1862-1871
Imperial German Chancellor Personality: Realpolitik “Blood and Iron” “The Iron Chancellor

72 Vintage Bismarck: The less people know about how sausages and laws are made, the better they’ll sleep at night. Never believe in anything until it has been officially denied. The great questions of the day will not be settled by speeches and majority decisions—that was the mistake of —but by blood and iron. I am bored. The great things are done. The German Reich is made. A generation that has taken a beating is always followed by a generation that deals one. Some damned foolish thing in the Balkans will provoke the next war.

73 1848 Rebellions toward liberalism

74 Revolution of 1848 in Germany (the March Revolution)
In the south and the west of Germany, large popular assemblies and mass demonstrations took place. They primarily demanded freedom of the press, freedom of assembly, arming of the people, and a national German parliament 2 main issues of controversy liberal constitutionalism German unification

75 Frankfurt Parliament: May ’48-Mar.’49
Drew up moderate liberal constitution for a united Germany Too liberal for the conservatives, too conservative for radicals Disagreed on the issue of unification (grossdeutsch with Austria vs. kleindeutsch without Austria) Frederick Wilhelm IV of Prussia refused the crown offered him by the Parliament


77 Step one: Danish War Arose over Duchies of Schleswig & Holstein
Belonged to Denmark but majority of pop. German Prussia & Austria declare war on Denmark, 1864

78 Step 2: Austro-Prussian war (7 weeks’ War)
Bismarck promised Venetia to Italy in exchange for alliance 1866 Austria defeated by Prussia at Battle of Sadowa Peace of Prague, 1866

79 Bismarck at the helm: Creation of the Northern German Confederation, 1867 Shortly following the victory of Prussia, Bismarck eliminated the Austrian led German Confederation. He then established a new North German Confederation which Prussia could control  Peace of Prague

80 Franco-Prussian War 1870/71 Prussia wants war
Payback for what Prussia lost at the Congress of Vienna Blatant grab for territory at expense of weakened France BUT Bismarck knows he must act quickly, or other nations will join France to stop Prussia Pretense for War: Bismarck finds a cause Hohenzollern Candidacy for the Spanish throne 1868 revolt in Spain. Spanish leaders wanted Prince Leopold von Hohenz. [a cousin to the Kaiser & a Catholic], as their new king. France protested & his name was withdrawn.

81 Ems Dispatch: Catalyst for War
The Fr. Ambassador asked the Kaiser at Ems to apologize to Nap. III for supporting Leopold. Bismarck “doctored” the telegram from Wilhelm to the French Ambassador to make it seem as though the Kaiser had insulted Napoleon III.

82 Prussians invade France
Quickly defeat the French decisively

83 Propaganda much like what would be used later in WWI
Prussian soldier “abusing” French maiden Prussian “barbarian” vs French knight

84 The peace process: Napoleon III and Bismarck after the war ended

85 Consequences of the War Treaty of Frankfurt [1871]
The Second French Empire collapsed and was replaced by the Third French Republic. The Italians took Rome and made it their capital. Russia put warships in the Black Sea [in defiance of the 1856 Treaty of Paris that ended the Crimean War]. France paid a huge indemnity and was occupied by German troops until it was paid. France ceded Alsace-Lorraine to Germany [a region rich in iron deposits with a flourishing textile industry].

86 Wilhelm I Succeeded Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia
Shared Bismarck’s goals for a united Germany dominated by Prussia After Franco Prussian War, rest of German Confederation unites with Prussia to form Germany Wilhelm crowned “kaiser” (from Caesar = emperor)

87 Germany under Bismarck Kulturkampf: Anti-Catholic Program
Take education and marriage out of the hands of the clergy  civil marriages only recognized. The Jesuits are expelled from Germany. The education of Catholic priests would be under the supervision of the German government. Afterwards, Bismarck carefully approached the pope to appease the Church, called rapprochement of Bismarck with Pope Leo XIII

88 Results: Bismarck’s Europe 1871-90
No more German expansion German alliance with Austria German alliance with Russia Diplomatic isoIation of France

89 And what about Italy? Congress of Vienna”
Territories belonging to Austrian (Habsburg) Empire restored Kingdom of Sardinia Papal territories restored

90 Disunity to Union Makeup of Italy after Congress of Vienna
Lombardy and Venetia (Austrian territories) Piedmont Tuscany Papal States Kingdom of the Two Sicilies “The Duchies” (Parma & Modena) Unification of Italy and Germany two of the most significant examples of nationalism Unification of Italy was not a product of a mass movement. Majority wanted status quo The minority that wanted unification couldn’t agree on how

91 Plans for Unification Make Italy a confederation of states under Papal leadership Make Italy a republic which meant expelling the Austrians (Giuseppi Mazzani) Unification by way of Piedmont-Sardinia Strong support for idea The people had a constitution


93 Three Stages to Italian Unification
The Revolutions of 1848 “The Decade of Preparation” Italian Unification

94 Step ONE: Revolutions of 1848
Republics declared throughout Italy Piedmont tries to annex Lombardy but defeated by Austrian army Garibaldi’s defense of the Roman Republic

95 Italian Nationalist Leaders
King Victor Emmanuel II Giuseppi Garibaldi [The “Sword”] Giuseppi Mazzini [The “Heart”] Count Cavour [The “Head”]

96 Giuseppi Mazzini (the heart: man of ideas)
Italian nationalist Ardent republican Theorist and organizer of Italian Unity ("Young Italy") 1831

97 Cavour (the head:genius of politics)
Background: Younger son of a Sardinian noble family Army officer Resigned and took over family estate Financier , industrialist, founder of Bank of Turin, shipping and railway construction promoter Avid reader Personality Energetic, Hard worker with a good memory Ambitious: self-confident and utterly ruthless Did not delegate authority

98 The political & diplomatic genius of the Risorgimento
"Father of Modern Italy“ 1847 founded The Resurgence a political journal (moderate liberalism) Elected to the assembly 1848 1850 elected minister of agriculture, industry, commerce and the Navy 1851 minister of finance The political & diplomatic genius of the Risorgimento First concerned about Piedmont than with the Italian Question Piedmont needed time to prepare Cavour strengthen Piedmont’s economy Reformed taxation system Borrowed money to stimulate economy and build army Sponsored construction of highways, railroads,harbors, and canals.

99 Step Two: “The Decade of Preparation” 1849-59
1852 : Cavour becomes Prime Minister of Piedmont Italian liberals accept leadership of Piedmont in unification If Piedmont was going to unify Italy, would have to fight Austria Cavour turned toward France for assistance Piedmont and Crimean War ( ) First significant foreign policy move Wanted Britain and France as allies His contribution to the war allowed him to sit at the peace conference Gave Cavour time to denounce Austria and plant seeds

100 Plans begin to take effect when:
1858 Napolean III informed Cavour of his desire for an Alliance (Plombieres) Conditions for French Help War on Austria be undertaken for non-revolutionary ends War could be justified Acceptable European public opinion Get Austria out of Italy 4 state confederation (Pope) Napoleon III’s cousin would control a state in ItalyNapoleon III would also get Piedmont’s provinces of Nice and Savoy Discussed at Plombieres but not agreed upon until later Cost of war would be paid for by the two northern states of Italy.

101 Step 3: Italian Unification 1859-1870
Under leadership of Piedmont-Sardinia Monarchy with Enlightened Victor Emmanuel II as king

102 War of 1859 Needed a provocation for war
Cavour enlisted Austrian deserters into the Sardinian army Gave refuge to fugitives of Austrian rule Encouraged revolt with Austria 1859 mobilized its army\ Vienna sent ultimatum demanding demobilization Piedmont was given three days to respond Vienna had made a stupid move and moved too quickly France was trying to get Piedmont to stand down, but Vienna pushed the issue The end came quickly Battle of Solferino (June 1859) combined French-Piedmont armies defeat Austria and drive her out of Lombardy, annexed by Piedmont BUT Napoleon asked Francis Joseph for an armistice

103 War aborted, Cavour unhappy
Why did Napoleon end the war? He realized he would not be able to control Italy as he had thought The war was costly in blood and money Feared French public opinion Piedmont had exaggerated its ability to help in the war Why did Austria want peace? Financial situation grew worst War increased the danger of national uprising in Austrian Empire BUT—no Italy: Cavour Resigned

104 Italians were not happy with Villafranca
Peace of Villafranca Austria gave up Lombardy to France Austria retained Venetia Italians were not happy with Villafranca Some central Italian states ask to be annexed by Piedmont (Tuscany, Papal States) Pressure from Britain forced Napoleon III to make peace with Piedmont Asked King of Piedmont (Victor Emmanuel II) to reinstate Cavour Cavour got central states and Napoleon III got Nice and Savoy

105 Garibaldi (the man of action)
Personality a single-minded Italian patriot Took action no matter how great the odds Colorful and charismatic military leader Importance Supported emancipation of women, social reform, and universal suffrage Military hero of Risorgimiento Romantic cult figure of the 19th century Early Adventures Fell under the influence of Mazzini Joined the Young Italy movement Soldier of fortune in South America (12 yrs) 1848 back in Italy 1859 fought against the Austrians

106 Garibaldi vs Cavour: Italian Unity?
Garibaldi began to assemble a corps of volunteers (“The Thousand”) Cavour opposed Garibaldi, did nothing to help him Cavour got Garibaldi to go to Sicily, landed May 11, 1860 Garibaldi proclaimed himself dictator of Sicily ( for Italy and Victor Emmanuel II) Successes Military successes against the regime: Garibaldi could not lose Garibaldi’s movement grew with each success, so Cavour began to fear Garibaldi’s popularity and possible plans Garibaldi gained firm control of southern Italy

107 To counter him, Cavour moved toward the Papal States
Cavour demanded Pope demobilize his troops, but the Pope rejected Cavour‘s ultimatum Piedmont forces crossed over into Papal States, fought and defeated the Papal army French denounced Cavour’s actions Cavour moved with his forces on to Naples toward Garibaldi’s base of power Oct 15, 1860 Garibaldi signed decree proclaiming all his conquests would become part of Italy under the constitutional monarchy of Victor Emanuel II 1861 the kingdom of Italy was proclaimed with Victor Emannuel II as King Pope Pius IX

108 Solving the Rivalry: unification
Cavour moved with his forces on to Naples toward Garibaldi’s base of power Oct 15, 1860 Garibaldi signed decree proclaiming all his conquests would become part of Italy under the constitutional monarchy of Victor Emanuel II 1861 the kingdom of Italy was proclaimed with Victor Emannuel II as King However, the rivalry continued Cavour gave no civil or military position to Garibaldi after the war Garibaldi retired to his home (die 1883) Cavour died two months later Rome and Venetia were still not part of Italy Garibaldi tried to take Rome 1862, 1866, 1867 but failed Eventually, Venice joined to Italy (as agreement ending Austro-Prussian war) Rome joined Italy 1870: unification complete


110 German and Italian Unification
German States Prussia: Greatest State Dynamic Leaders Bismarck: Like a Prime Minister. Runs the show William I: King of Prussia Italian States Piedmont Sardinia: Greatest State Dynamic Leaders: Cavour: Like a Prime Minister, runs the show Victor Emmanuel: King of Piedmont/Sardinia Mazzini/Garibaldi- Both want a Republic, Cavour does not. Garibaldi fitting the boot of Italy onto Victor Emmanuel II

111 German and Italian Unification
German States’ Issues: Prussia seeks a common German State Prussia will lead,others have to follow Have to deal with liberals who do not want $ spent on the military Austria, another German State, is nearly as strong as Prussia Italian States’ Issues: Have never been unified since the fall of Rome Have separate Agendas North = Industry South = Agriculture Have a strong foreign presence in their area Austria France

112 German and Italian Unification
German States: Agendas of the players--who wants what? Bismarck – wants to increase the size of Prussia If it means a unified Germany, so be it He is a Prussian before he is a German William (Wilhelm) I – willing to let Bismarck Run the show Italian States: Agendas of the players--who wants what? Cavour – feels that a strong, industrial Piedmont will lead the rest of the States. $ = Power = unification Mazzini and Cavour want unification based on political ideology: A Republic Victor Emmanuel - willing to let Cavour run the show

113 German and Italian Unification
German States: Obstacles to Unification Austria- a powerful “German State” with a different agenda from Prussia France: still controls land that used to belong to Prussia Political Differences- between Bismarck and the wealthy classes (over $ for war) German intellectuals—who hope for a more democratic republic Italian States: Obstacles to Unification Austria – controls/manages Piedmont France –controls parts of the center of Italy Political differences – Between Cavour, who has no problem having a King as long as Italy is unified, and Garibaldi, who wants Italy to be a Republic.

114 German and Italian Unification
German States Steps to Unification Bismarck raises $ for the Military Allies with Russia to take back Schleswig and Holstein Provokes Austrians to war and crushes them in 7 Weeks Provokes French and crushes them (revenge for Napoleon) Establishes unified Germany in 1871 Italian States Steps to Unification Sardinia provokes Austria into battle and beats them (with French help) Garibaldi gathers his army “Red Shirts” in the south; they conquer and move north Cavour links with Garibaldi,and France is finally is driven from Italy because it’s being beaten by Prussia

115 German and Italian Unification
Germany: Results of Unification A strong, Industrialized and militarized Germany Austria is “on its own” Increased tension between France and Germany The seeds of WWI Italy: Results of Unification Remaining division between North and South Italy Political unity, but not cultural or social unity Connection/identification between Italy and Germany makes them allies in WWI & WWII

Download ppt "Revolution/Reaction/Revolution"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google