Presentation on theme: "The Space Race The Soviets’ Superior Start 1957 - 1970."— Presentation transcript:
The Space Race The Soviets’ Superior Start 1957 - 1970
The Soviets’ Superior Start The Space Race began with the launching of the world’s first artificial satellite, Sputnik, by the Soviets in 1957. Sputnik orbited the earth for 21 days, transmitting signals to the Soviets, before it crashed to the earth.
Sputnik I This is a picture of Sputnik I, taken before it was launched. The sounds are the signals Sputnik I transmitted back to the Soviet Union.
Sputnik II After the success of the first satellite, Sputnik II was launched It carried a dog, Laika, who’s vital signs were monitored to gain information for later manned missions
Other Soviet Firsts Soviets firsts also included: –April 1961 First man in space, Yuri Gagarin's one-orbit flight (Vostok 1) –August 1961 First full day in orbit, Gherman Titov (Vostok 2) –1962 First two-spacecraft mission (Vostoks 3 and 4) –June 1963 First long-duration mission, five days in orbit (Vostok 5) –June 1963 First woman in space, Valentina Tereshkova (Vostok 6) –March 1965 First Spacewalk, Aleksei Leonov (Voskhod 2 )
Soviet Firsts This is a picture of the first six Soviet Cosmonauts From left to right: Pavel Popovich, Yuri Gagarin, Valentina Tereshkova, Valery Bykovsky, Andrian Nikolayev, and Gherman Titov.
Race to the Moon As the Moon became closer to each side, the Soviets stepped up making the first manned Moon orbit in September 1968. Plans were made for a Moon landing in early 1969.
Race to the Moon In the first launch attempt in February 1969, an engine fire caused the rocket to shut down and crash a minute after lift-off. The second test, in July 1969, was a greater disaster. The rocket shut down seconds after lift- off, fell onto the launch pad, and exploded. This accident destroyed the launch site and any hope that the Soviets could reach the Moon ahead of the United States.
Race to the Moon This is a picture of the Soviet N-1 rocket which they hoped would take them to the Moon.
Landing on the Moon Three weeks after the failure of the N-1 rocket, the U.S. crew of Apollo 11 landed on the Moon.
Beginnings With the launch of Sputnik, Americans were concerned about Soviet dominance in space. The United States had been planning to launch its first scientific satellite in December 1957. However, two launch attempts using the Navy's Vanguard rocket ended in disaster.
Vanguard Rocket Public response to the Vanguard failures prompted national soul-searching in the United States. The media questioned why the Soviets could accomplish things that the U.S. could not.
NASA is Organized In October 1958 Congress approved funding for the National Aeronautical Space Administration (NASA). We hoped an emphasis on space exploration would help us win the space race.
American Firsts On May 5, 1961 Alan Shepard became the first American in space. His 15 minute flight was a great success. (However, it was one month after the Soviets achieved the same thing.)
Kennedy’s Goal Inspired by U.S. success in space, President Kennedy addressed the nation on May 25, 1961 and set a goal that we would have a man on the moon within the decade.
Kennedy’s Goal Kennedy’s goal was very ambitious as the U.S. had only just put a man in space for a mere 15 minutes!
Reaching the Goal Taking Kennedy’s charge seriously NASA continued to reach for the Moon. Although achieving much, the United States was often just behind the Soviets.
Reaching the Goal In February 1962, John Glenn became the first American to orbit the Earth.
Reaching the Goal In June 1965, Americans celebrated the first successful space walk by members of the Gemini crew.
Reaching the Goal Successes continued bringing the U.S. closer and closer to the Moon. The Apollo program’s goal was to land on the Moon.
Reaching the Goal Pictured here is the crew from Apollo 8, who in December 1968 successfully orbited the Moon. (Three months after the Soviets.)
Reaching the Goal In July 1969 the crew of Apollo 11 set out to achieve the goal set by President Kennedy eight years before – to land on the Moon.
Reaching the Goal Neil Armstrong became the first man to walk on the Moon on July 21 st, 1969. By landing on the Moon first the U.S. had won the space race.