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Research at the Sociocultural Level of Analysis Ethical Considerations Alli Cales & David Rivera.

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Presentation on theme: "Research at the Sociocultural Level of Analysis Ethical Considerations Alli Cales & David Rivera."— Presentation transcript:

1 Research at the Sociocultural Level of Analysis Ethical Considerations Alli Cales & David Rivera

2 Command word: Discuss Offer a considered and balanced review that includes a range of arguments, factors or hypotheses. Opinions or conclusions should be presented clearly and supported by appropriate evidence.

3 Outcomes Participate in an open discussion of common ethical considerations. Identify ethical considerations related to research studies at the sociocultural level of analysis. Review current evidence-based literature that demonstrates ethical research. Apply critical thinking to real studies that demonstrate application of ethical and/or unethical principles.

4 Ethical guidelines Professional organizations of psychologists have developed different sets of guidelines or principles; for example, the American Psychological Association (APA), and the British Psychological Society (BPS). Source:

5 Ethical issues "An ethical consideration is a consideration of what is acceptable to do in a study. Researchers always have to balance between what they want to find out and the rights of participants." Source: considerations.ppt

6 Common ethical considerations Informed consent Use of deception Protection from harm The right to withdraw Confidentiality Privacy Debriefing Source: considerations.ppt

7 Elements of informed consent The purpose of the research, expected duration, and procedures Their right to decline to participate and to withdraw from the research once participation has begun Reasonable factors that might influence their willingness to participate, such as potential risks, discomfort, or adverse effects Any potential research benefits

8 Informed consent continued Limits of confidentiality Incentives for participation Whom to contact for questions about the research and research participants' rights Informed consent also provides an opportunity for prospective participants to ask questions and receive answers Source: American Psychiatric Association (APA)

9 Deception When the participant is deceived of the true aims of a study Is sometimes necessary because otherwise participants might alter their behavior to fit experimenters´ expectations There should be strong scientific or medical justification for deception Costs should be weighed against benefits; Deception prevents participants from giving informed consent. Participants may feel embarrassed or have lowered self esteem, and may not want to participate in the future. Source:

10 Protection from harm Avoid any situation that may cause a participant to experience psychological or physical damage Harm may include death and injury, psychological abuse, loss of privacy and public exposure and may not only affect individuals, but specific population subgroups as well (such as with the Tuskegee Experiment). Source:

11 The right to withdraw Participants have the right to withdraw at any time during the study Participants may feel they should not withdraw because it will ruin the study Source:

12 Confidentiality Researchers should not record the real names of any participants, they should use numbers or false names. Security of participants’ information collected in the study should be a high priority; for example, using strong computer passwords and encryption, or keeping data under double locks. Source:

13 Privacy The state of being free from unsanctioned intrusion Do not observe anyone without their informed consent unless in a public space Not always acceptable to observe in a public space, e.g. lovers on a park bench Source:

14 Debriefing Participants are informed of the true nature of the study after the research has taken place The aim of debriefing is to restore the participant to the state he/she was in at the start of the experiment Source:

15 Application of ethical considerations Seeing the importance of these considerations from the perspective of the human participant. Applying a sociocultural level of analysis.

16 Social and cultural environment influences individual behavior. Research participants need to: feel safe and protected. have full disclosure (informed consent). free to say no and withdraw.

17 Belonging and connectedness Participants need to: feel a part of something important (such as a study that might improve health care). belong without losing their uniqueness (such as cultural beliefs and differences).

18 Conception of individual and social self Human participants are social by nature but still treasure their privacy and confidentiality (In many cultures, privacy and confidentiality are considered fundamental to human dignity. May use feedback to validate own sense of self- worth and well-being (debriefing).

19 Psychology studies with ethical issues The Mall Study by Loftus & Ketcham, 1992. dscreen&NR=1&v=Q8xPfJ8cPhs dscreen&NR=1&v=Q8xPfJ8cPhs The Tuskegee Experiment Ywoxo

20 Sources Crook, L. S. & Dean, M. C. (1999). “Lost in a shopping mall:” A breach of professional ethics. Ethics & Behavior, 9(1), 39-50. Hansson, D. (2012). Psychology studies with ethical issues. Retrieved from Hansson, D. (2012). Ethical considerations. Ppt. Retrieved from Loftus, E. F. & Ketcham, K. (1994). The myth of repressed memory. New York: St. Martin. Press. 8cPhs 8cPhs

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