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Chapter 18 Land Resources and Conservation Mojave Desert.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 18 Land Resources and Conservation Mojave Desert."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 Chapter 18 Land Resources and Conservation

3 Mojave Desert

4 Land Use World Land UseWorld Land Use

5 Land Use in the United States Administration of Federal LandsAdministration of Federal Lands 55% of US land is privately owned by citizens, corporations, and nonprofits organizations55% of US land is privately owned by citizens, corporations, and nonprofits organizations 3% by native tribes3% by native tribes contains all types of ecosystemscontains all types of ecosystems Provide Important resources: minerals, fossil fuels, historical and cultural importanceProvide Important resources: minerals, fossil fuels, historical and cultural importance

6 Land Use Land Use in the USLand Use in the US Private 55% Federal Government 35% Tribes 3% State 7%

7 Land Use in the United States Managed by two US Agencies US Department of the interiorUS Department of the interior –#1 The Bureau of Land Mngmnt (BLM) national resource land 109 million hectares (270mil acres) –#3 Fish and Wildlife Services (FWS) National Wildlife refuges 37 million hectares (92 mil acres) –#4 The National Park Services (NPS) National Park System 34 million hectares (84 mil acres) US Department of AgricultureUS Department of Agriculture –#2 US Forest Services (USFS) National Forests 77 million hectares (191 million acres)

8 Land Use Administration of Federal LandsAdministration of Federal Lands BLM BLM 109 mil Hectares 109 mil Hectares (270) mil acres USFSUSFS 77 mil hectares 191 mil acres NPS USFWS

9 Land Resources and Conservation

10 Importance of natural areas Areas of low human density known as non-urban or rural lands.Areas of low human density known as non-urban or rural lands. Ecosystem services from these areas allow urban concentrations to exist. (environmental services such as clean air, clean water, fertile soil).Ecosystem services from these areas allow urban concentrations to exist. (environmental services such as clean air, clean water, fertile soil).

11 DO NOW: What are ecosystem services? How would you respond to the critic who says, "Forests are only good for providing timber"? Support your answer with examples of at least four different ecosystem services offered by forests.What are ecosystem services? How would you respond to the critic who says, "Forests are only good for providing timber"? Support your answer with examples of at least four different ecosystem services offered by forests.

12 DO NOW: ANSWERs Ecosystem services are important environmental benefits, such as clear air, water, and fertile soil that ecosystems provide.Ecosystem services are important environmental benefits, such as clear air, water, and fertile soil that ecosystems provide. Forests provide many goods and services to support human society besides lumber.Forests provide many goods and services to support human society besides lumber. –Forests supply nuts, mushrooms, fruits, and medicines. –Forests also influence local and regional climate conditions. –Biological cooling is a result of a process called transpiration. –Forests play an essential role in regulating global biogeochemical cycles, such as those for carbon and nitrogen. By acting as carbon “sinks,” forest help mitigate global warming. –At the same time, forests supply essential oxygen

13 Land Use in these Natural Areas Provide habitat, flood & erosion control, & groundwater recharge.Provide habitat, flood & erosion control, & groundwater recharge. Natural areas also break down pollutants and recycle wastes.Natural areas also break down pollutants and recycle wastes. Provide recreation (camping, hiking, fishing)Provide recreation (camping, hiking, fishing)

14 Wilderness Wilderness: Unspoiled regions where people visit but do not inhabit. Wilderness Act of 1964 established federally owned lands to retain “primeval” quality (no permanent improvements or houses). These lands remain unchanged for the benefit of future generations.

15 Wilderness Wilderness areas range from very small (The Big Gum Swamp in Florida @ 13,660 acres) to huge (Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness Area in Idaho @ 1.3 million acres).

16 Wilderness Wilderness areas are monitored by the NPS, USFS, FWS, and BLM. 630 wilderness areas @ 102 million acres in the U.S., including mountains, tundra, deserts, & wetlands 42% of wilderness areas are in national parks.

17 National Parks Yellowstone National park was the 1 st (1872)Yellowstone National park was the 1 st (1872) The National Park System (NPS) parks was established in 1916 and operates historic sites, battlefields, buildings, and towns in addition to natural areas.The National Park System (NPS) parks was established in 1916 and operates historic sites, battlefields, buildings, and towns in addition to natural areas.

18 Problems with Wilderness Areas Dilemma: preservation or human use and enjoyment?Dilemma: preservation or human use and enjoyment? Millions of visitors erode hiking trails, soil, water, waste, air pollution, litter, trash, traffic congestion.Millions of visitors erode hiking trails, soil, water, waste, air pollution, litter, trash, traffic congestion. # of visitors is now limited in some parks.# of visitors is now limited in some parks.

19 Problems with Wilderness Areas Exotic species can invade wilderness and upset the ecological balance.Exotic species can invade wilderness and upset the ecological balance. Example: Pine blister Rust (fungus) is wiping out the White Pine (Pinus strobus) population.Example: Pine blister Rust (fungus) is wiping out the White Pine (Pinus strobus) population. Result...Pine seeds  Grizzly...DeclineResult...Pine seeds  Grizzly...Decline Organization may have to plant disease resistant white pine trees. Is this still wilderness?Organization may have to plant disease resistant white pine trees. Is this still wilderness?

20 Problems with Wilderness Areas Pine blister Rust (fungus) http://na.fs.fed.us/spfo/pubs/howtos/ht_wpblister/toc.htm

21 Problems with Wilderness Areas

22 Wild and Scenic Rivers Wild & Scenic Rivers Act was passed in 1968 to protect rivers of aesthetic, historic, & ecological value.Wild & Scenic Rivers Act was passed in 1968 to protect rivers of aesthetic, historic, & ecological value. Not all wilderness but little or no development.Not all wilderness but little or no development.

23 Wild and Scenic Rivers NPS maintains the National River Inventory with 170 river segments @ 11,300 miles. Recreation = yesRecreation = yes Mining = yes Mining = yes  Development = noDevelopment = no

24 Land Use in the United States 55% of US land is privately owned by citizens, corporations, and nonprofits organizations55% of US land is privately owned by citizens, corporations, and nonprofits organizations 3% by native tribes3% by native tribes Encompasses varying ecosystemsEncompasses varying ecosystems Provide Important resources: minerals, fossil fuels, historical and cultural importanceProvide Important resources: minerals, fossil fuels, historical and cultural importance Managed by two US AgenciesManaged by two US Agencies

25 DO NOW: Land Use in the United States In the United States, national parks serve to provide biological habitat and facilitate human recreation. Discuss the impact of at least three threats to national parks. If a natural regulation policy were in place at a national park, what effect would it have on the management of the park? Why is natural regulation controversial?In the United States, national parks serve to provide biological habitat and facilitate human recreation. Discuss the impact of at least three threats to national parks. If a natural regulation policy were in place at a national park, what effect would it have on the management of the park? Why is natural regulation controversial?

26 Overuse and overcrowding of the National Parks leads to urban problems of crime, vandalism, litter, traffic jams and pollution of the soil, water, and air.Overuse and overcrowding of the National Parks leads to urban problems of crime, vandalism, litter, traffic jams and pollution of the soil, water, and air. Resource violations, including collection, plants, minerals, fossils and defacing historical structure have led to restrictions being placed on fragile environments in the park.Resource violations, including collection, plants, minerals, fossils and defacing historical structure have led to restrictions being placed on fragile environments in the park. National Parks are not self-sufficient. The entrance fees alone are not adequate to maintain, repair and operate the parks. Human activities beyond park borders also affect national parks. Pollution does not respect park boundaries.National Parks are not self-sufficient. The entrance fees alone are not adequate to maintain, repair and operate the parks. Human activities beyond park borders also affect national parks. Pollution does not respect park boundaries. Some national parks also have imbalances in wildlife population.Some national parks also have imbalances in wildlife population. Introduction of predators help to control prey populations.Introduction of predators help to control prey populations. Because fires are an integral part of national park ecosystems, with this policy in place, fires would not be suppressed unless they threaten people or buildings. The controversy over natural regulation involves what kinds of and how much human intervention are necessary to maintain ecological systems in pristine condition.Because fires are an integral part of national park ecosystems, with this policy in place, fires would not be suppressed unless they threaten people or buildings. The controversy over natural regulation involves what kinds of and how much human intervention are necessary to maintain ecological systems in pristine condition.Answers

27 Managed by two US Agencies 1. US Department of the Interior a.The Bureau of Land Mngmnt (BLM) national resource land 270 million acres 270 million acres b. Fish and Wildlife Services (FWS) National Wildlife refuges 92 million acres92 million acres c. The National Park Services (NPS) National Park System 84 mil acres84 mil acres 2. US Department of Agriculture 2. US Department of Agriculture a. US Forest Services (USFS) National Forests a. US Forest Services (USFS) National Forests 191 million acres191 million acres

28 Wildlife Refuges National Wildlife Refuge system was established by Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt in 1903.National Wildlife Refuge system was established by Theodore “Teddy” Roosevelt in 1903. 535 refuges with at least one in each of the 50 states with 38.4 million hectares (95 million acres).535 refuges with at least one in each of the 50 states with 38.4 million hectares (95 million acres). These represent all the major ecosystems in the U.S. and are home to most of the endangered species (Whooping Cranes).These represent all the major ecosystems in the U.S. and are home to most of the endangered species (Whooping Cranes). Fish & Wildlife Service operates these lands for observation, fishing, hunting, photography, and education.Fish & Wildlife Service operates these lands for observation, fishing, hunting, photography, and education.

29 Whooping Cranes ??

30 Forests Forests occupy less than 1/3 of the Earth’s total land area.Forests occupy less than 1/3 of the Earth’s total land area. Forests have economic as well as ecological value.Forests have economic as well as ecological value. Forests provide timber for fuel, paper, and construction.Forests provide timber for fuel, paper, and construction. Nuts, fungi, fruits, & medicines. Employment for millions, recreation and “escape” from urban areas.Nuts, fungi, fruits, & medicines. Employment for millions, recreation and “escape” from urban areas.

31 Forests Forests provide ecosystem services;Forests provide ecosystem services; They control the local climate via transpiration (natural cooling).They control the local climate via transpiration (natural cooling). Control global biogeochemical cycles (nitrogen and carbon cycles)Control global biogeochemical cycles (nitrogen and carbon cycles) Forests are carbon sinks & absorb copious amounts of CO 2 from the atmosphere.Forests are carbon sinks & absorb copious amounts of CO 2 from the atmosphere. Roots anchor soil, protect watersheds, & provide habitat for varieties of organisms.Roots anchor soil, protect watersheds, & provide habitat for varieties of organisms.

32 Forest Management Practices Tree “farms” or plantations are often monocultures with one variety of tree. Low diversity provides little habitat/Disease prone.Tree “farms” or plantations are often monocultures with one variety of tree. Low diversity provides little habitat/Disease prone. Herbicides & fungicides are used on tree farms because monocultures are more prone to disease & pests.Herbicides & fungicides are used on tree farms because monocultures are more prone to disease & pests. These farms limit the use of existing forests for timber and timber products.These farms limit the use of existing forests for timber and timber products.

33 U.S. Forests Vermont’s forests are increasing,.Vermont’s forests are increasing,. The Rockies, New England, & the Great Lakes regions have been constant.The Rockies, New England, & the Great Lakes regions have been constant. Conservation easements can protect forests by owners selling the right to develop the land to the U.S. government. The government then protects the land for a certain # of years.Conservation easements can protect forests by owners selling the right to develop the land to the U.S. government. The government then protects the land for a certain # of years.

34 Forests Natural Regulation: involves letting nature take its course most of the time, with corrective actions being taken as needed.Natural Regulation: involves letting nature take its course most of the time, with corrective actions being taken as needed. Introduced in 1968.Introduced in 1968.

35 Forests DO NOW: Why was the 1968 Park management policy to allow natural regulation of many US national parks so controversial? Provide examples that are occurring in Yellowstone as we speak.Why was the 1968 Park management policy to allow natural regulation of many US national parks so controversial? Provide examples that are occurring in Yellowstone as we speak. Hint think Elk over population.Hint think Elk over population.

36 DO NOW: Natural regulation of Yellowstone elk? Weather and predation (grizzlies and wolves)Natural regulation of Yellowstone elk? Weather and predation (grizzlies and wolves)Follow-ups: 1.Why are wildfires not always suppressed at Yellowstone? 2.Why are they removing lake trout for Yellowstone?

37 “New” Forest Management Practices Ecologically Sustainable Forest Management involves mixing trees of different ages and species to increase diversity and available habitat for organisms as well as conserve forests for harvesting.Ecologically Sustainable Forest Management involves mixing trees of different ages and species to increase diversity and available habitat for organisms as well as conserve forests for harvesting.

38 Management Practices Loggers, environmentalists, farmers, indigenous peoples, and government agencies need to cooperate for this type of management to be successful.Loggers, environmentalists, farmers, indigenous peoples, and government agencies need to cooperate for this type of management to be successful. Wildlife Corridors are uncut to set aside zones that are connected to nearby un-logged areas.Wildlife Corridors are uncut to set aside zones that are connected to nearby un-logged areas.

39 Wildlife Corridors

40 Chapter 17 Land Resources and Conservation Role of forests in the Hydrologic Cycle

41 Wilderness, Parks, and Wildlife Refuges National ParksNational Parks Most popularMost popular

42 Land Use in the Natural Areas Provide habitat, flood & erosion control, & groundwater recharge.Provide habitat, flood & erosion control, & groundwater recharge. Natural areas also break down pollutants and recycle wastes.Natural areas also break down pollutants and recycle wastes. Provide recreation (camping, hiking, fishing)Provide recreation (camping, hiking, fishing)

43 Wilderness, Parks, and Wildlife Refuges National ParksNational Parks Threats to US ParksThreats to US Parks

44 Land Use World Land UseWorld Land Use

45 Forests Forest ownership in the USForest ownership in the US Forest Legacy Program in 1990 Farm Bill assists...

46 Forests Trends in Tropical ForestsTrends in Tropical Forests

47 Do Now- Harvesting Practices Compare the 4 Types of tree harvesting in terms of methods, cost, and economic gain.Compare the 4 Types of tree harvesting in terms of methods, cost, and economic gain. Selective CuttingSelective Cutting Shelterwood CuttingShelterwood Cutting Seed tree CuttingSeed tree Cutting Clearcutting(even-ages cutting)Clearcutting(even-ages cutting)

48 Harvesting Practices Selective Cutting: fells single trees or small groups of trees. Shelterwood Cutting: fells all the mature trees in an area over time. Seed tree Cutting: fells almost all of the trees in an area except a few trees that are left to re-seed the area.Seed tree Cutting: fells almost all of the trees in an area except a few trees that are left to re-seed the area. Clearcutting (even-age harvesting): fells all the trees from an area. (Cheapest type $$)Clearcutting (even-age harvesting): fells all the trees from an area. (Cheapest type $$)

49 Do Now- Harvesting Practices Identify and discuss four ways in which forest trees are currently harvested. Which method is the most ecologically sound, and why? Which method is the most economical? If your answer is different for these two questions, how could a compromise be reached?Identify and discuss four ways in which forest trees are currently harvested. Which method is the most ecologically sound, and why? Which method is the most economical? If your answer is different for these two questions, how could a compromise be reached?

50 Do Now- Harvesting Practices Ans: Selective cutting harvests mature trees by cutting individual or small clusters of trees while the rest of the forest remains intact. This is ecologically sound because it allows the forest to regenerate naturally through seeding from remaining trees. While this method has fewer negative impacts on the forest community, it is not profitable in the short term because timber isn’t removed in great enough quantities. Shelterwood cutting removes all mature trees in an area over an extended period of time. The first harvest removes dead or diseased trees. The second harvest, perhaps ten years later, removes mature trees but leaves some of the largest to shelter the younger trees. After another decade, a third harvest removes the remaining mature trees. By now the younger trees are established. This method is ecologically sound because it prevents soil erosion and is self-sustaining. In seed tree cutting, almost all trees are harvest from an area leaving a scattering of desirable trees to provide seeds for regeneration. This method is not ecologically sound because it allows erosion and a severe alteration of the forest ecosystem, including loss of habitat for other organisms. Clearcutting is harvesting timber by removing all trees from a forest. Afterward, the area is either allowed to reseed and regenerate naturally or is planted with one or more variety of trees. This is the most cost effective method of harvesting forests yet it is ecologically unsound because it destroys biological habitats and increase soil erosion. The recreation and ecological services of forests are lost and sometimes the forests do not regenerate. Because selective cutting is the most ecologically sound and clearcutting is the most economical, a compromise could be reached by clearcutting selective patches of the forest. This might benefit the species who thrive in the regrowth of trees and shrubs that follow removal of the overhead canopy.Ans: Selective cutting harvests mature trees by cutting individual or small clusters of trees while the rest of the forest remains intact. This is ecologically sound because it allows the forest to regenerate naturally through seeding from remaining trees. While this method has fewer negative impacts on the forest community, it is not profitable in the short term because timber isn’t removed in great enough quantities. Shelterwood cutting removes all mature trees in an area over an extended period of time. The first harvest removes dead or diseased trees. The second harvest, perhaps ten years later, removes mature trees but leaves some of the largest to shelter the younger trees. After another decade, a third harvest removes the remaining mature trees. By now the younger trees are established. This method is ecologically sound because it prevents soil erosion and is self-sustaining. In seed tree cutting, almost all trees are harvest from an area leaving a scattering of desirable trees to provide seeds for regeneration. This method is not ecologically sound because it allows erosion and a severe alteration of the forest ecosystem, including loss of habitat for other organisms. Clearcutting is harvesting timber by removing all trees from a forest. Afterward, the area is either allowed to reseed and regenerate naturally or is planted with one or more variety of trees. This is the most cost effective method of harvesting forests yet it is ecologically unsound because it destroys biological habitats and increase soil erosion. The recreation and ecological services of forests are lost and sometimes the forests do not regenerate. Because selective cutting is the most ecologically sound and clearcutting is the most economical, a compromise could be reached by clearcutting selective patches of the forest. This might benefit the species who thrive in the regrowth of trees and shrubs that follow removal of the overhead canopy.

51 Land Resources and Conservation

52 Harvesting Practices Clearcuttin’ Phil says “Clearcutting is the cheapest method!”

53 Land Use in the Natural Areas Provide habitat, flood & erosion control, & groundwater recharge.Provide habitat, flood & erosion control, & groundwater recharge. Natural areas also break down pollutants and recycle wastes.Natural areas also break down pollutants and recycle wastes. Provide recreation (camping, hiking, fishing)Provide recreation (camping, hiking, fishing)

54 Deforestation Increased loss of soil due to erosion and loss of habitat.Increased loss of soil due to erosion and loss of habitat. The World Commission of Forests was established at the 1992 Earth Summit.The World Commission of Forests was established at the 1992 Earth Summit. 1999 report that the Earth’s forests are decreasing by 15 million hectares (37 million acres) annually.1999 report that the Earth’s forests are decreasing by 15 million hectares (37 million acres) annually. Major causes of deforestation; fires, drought, clearcutting, agriculture, construction, tree harvesting, pests, and disease.Major causes of deforestation; fires, drought, clearcutting, agriculture, construction, tree harvesting, pests, and disease.

55 DeforestationDeforestationDeforestationDeforestation DeforestationDeforestationDeforestationDeforestation

56 Deforestation leads to... Decreased soil fertilityDecreased soil fertility More runoff and sediment in waterwaysMore runoff and sediment in waterways Loss of speciesLoss of species Alteration of global climate???Alteration of global climate??? Increase in global temperature???Increase in global temperature???

57 Forests Forest Trends in the USForest Trends in the US US National ForestsUS National Forests Case-in-Point: Tongass National ForestCase-in-Point: Tongass National Forest

58 Tongass National Forest Temperate rainforest similar to the Olympia National Forest in Washington State.Temperate rainforest similar to the Olympia National Forest in Washington State. Contains old growth forest (primary succession) with 700 year old trees.Contains old growth forest (primary succession) with 700 year old trees. Grizzly Ursus arctos horribilis) &Grizzly Ursus arctos horribilis) & Bald Eagles (Haliaetus leuoccephalus)Bald Eagles (Haliaetus leuoccephalus) Clearcutting in the Tongass was slowed due to the Tongass Management Plan (Modified 1997 Forest Plan).Clearcutting in the Tongass was slowed due to the Tongass Management Plan (Modified 1997 Forest Plan). On Vancouver Island was clearcut 1911 and ahs regrown 20% of their original sizeOn Vancouver Island was clearcut 1911 and ahs regrown 20% of their original size

59 Do Now: Identify the criteria used by the Defenders of Wildlife to rank the endangered ecosystems in the United States.Identify the criteria used by the Defenders of Wildlife to rank the endangered ecosystems in the United States. Identify three endangered ecosystems that meet these criteria and explain how the criteria apply to them.Identify three endangered ecosystems that meet these criteria and explain how the criteria apply to them.

60 Do Now: Answer The criteria used to rank the most endangered ecosystems include:The criteria used to rank the most endangered ecosystems include: –a) The area lost or degraded since Europeans colonized North America –b) The number of present examples of a particular ecosystem or the total area –c) An estimate of the likelihood that a given ecosystem will lose a significant area or be degraded during the next 10 years –d) The number of threatened and endangered species living in that ecosystem The three most endangered ecosystems in the U.S. are the South Florida landscape, Southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests, and longleaf pine forests and savannas. They fit the criteria of being lost and degraded and the organisms that compose these ecosystems are declining in number and in genetic diversity.The three most endangered ecosystems in the U.S. are the South Florida landscape, Southern Appalachian spruce-fir forests, and longleaf pine forests and savannas. They fit the criteria of being lost and degraded and the organisms that compose these ecosystems are declining in number and in genetic diversity.

61 Most endangered ecosystems in the US

62 Why are forests disappearing? Population growth seems to be the major cause.Population growth seems to be the major cause. Causes differ based upon economic, cultural, & social issues.Causes differ based upon economic, cultural, & social issues. Govt. policies sometimes favor deforestation ex: Brazil selling forest to fast food companies (McDonald’s) for grazing land.Govt. policies sometimes favor deforestation ex: Brazil selling forest to fast food companies (McDonald’s) for grazing land. 1999 Brazil set aside 10% of rainforest for conservation.1999 Brazil set aside 10% of rainforest for conservation. Sponsored by the World Bank & the WWF (World Wildlife Fund).Sponsored by the World Bank & the WWF (World Wildlife Fund).

63 Why are forests disappearing? Subsistence agriculture causes deforestation. Families produce enough to survive & that’s it. They don’t own the land they use. Farmers typically follow logging roads, and slash & burn the forest to raise crops there. 1 st batch of crops use nutrients from the burn but then soil quality declines fast. So the family then moves to the next patch of forest to start the process again. Ranchers use the land soon after.Subsistence agriculture causes deforestation. Families produce enough to survive & that’s it. They don’t own the land they use. Farmers typically follow logging roads, and slash & burn the forest to raise crops there. 1 st batch of crops use nutrients from the burn but then soil quality declines fast. So the family then moves to the next patch of forest to start the process again. Ranchers use the land soon after.

64 Why are forests disappearing? Compared to 50 years ago, only ½ of the world’s tropical forests remain.Compared to 50 years ago, only ½ of the world’s tropical forests remain. Commercial logging contributes to 20% of tropical forest depletion.Commercial logging contributes to 20% of tropical forest depletion. Cattle Ranching: contributes to 12% of tropical forest depletion.Cattle Ranching: contributes to 12% of tropical forest depletion. 20 years after ranching the land is left as scrub savanna.20 years after ranching the land is left as scrub savanna.

65 Tropical Forests Tropical RainForests: have 200 or more cm of rain annually (>79 in).Tropical RainForests: have 200 or more cm of rain annually (>79 in). These are found in Central & S. America, S.E. Asia, and Africa. Brazil, Congo, & Indonesia have the majority of this type of forest.These are found in Central & S. America, S.E. Asia, and Africa. Brazil, Congo, & Indonesia have the majority of this type of forest.

66 Tropical Forests Tropical Dry Forests: have less than 200 cm of rain annually (<79 in). During the dry season these forests shed their leaves & become dormant similar to deciduous tree in temperate climates.Tropical Dry Forests: have less than 200 cm of rain annually (<79 in). During the dry season these forests shed their leaves & become dormant similar to deciduous tree in temperate climates. These are disappearing rapidly in S. Asia, Indonesia, C. America, and the Phillipines.These are disappearing rapidly in S. Asia, Indonesia, C. America, and the Phillipines.

67 Tropical Forests These forests both (rain and dry) are disappearing at a rate of 12.6 hectares (31.1 million acres) annually.These forests both (rain and dry) are disappearing at a rate of 12.6 hectares (31.1 million acres) annually. All will be gone at current rate by the first half of the 22 nd century (2150) but probably sooner .All will be gone at current rate by the first half of the 22 nd century (2150) but probably sooner .

68 Why are forests disappearing? Population growth seems to be the major cause.Population growth seems to be the major cause. Causes differ based upon economic, cultural, & social issues.Causes differ based upon economic, cultural, & social issues. Govt. policies sometimes favor deforestation ex: Brazil selling forest to fast food companies (McDonald’s) for grazing land.Govt. policies sometimes favor deforestation ex: Brazil selling forest to fast food companies (McDonald’s) for grazing land. 1999 Brazil set aside 10% of rainforest for conservation.1999 Brazil set aside 10% of rainforest for conservation. Sponsored by the World Bank & the WWF (World Wildlife Fund).Sponsored by the World Bank & the WWF (World Wildlife Fund).

69 Why are forests disappearing? Subsistence agriculture causes deforestation. Families produce enough to survive & that’s it. They don’t own the land they use. Farmers typically follow logging roads, and slash & burn the forest to raise crops there.Subsistence agriculture causes deforestation. Families produce enough to survive & that’s it. They don’t own the land they use. Farmers typically follow logging roads, and slash & burn the forest to raise crops there. 1 st batch of crops use nutrients from the burn but then soil quality declines fast.1 st batch of crops use nutrients from the burn but then soil quality declines fast. So the family then moves to the next patch of forest to start the process again.So the family then moves to the next patch of forest to start the process again. Ranchers use the land soon after.Ranchers use the land soon after.

70 Why are forests disappearing? Compared to 50 years ago, only ½ of the world’s tropical forests remain.Compared to 50 years ago, only ½ of the world’s tropical forests remain. Commercial logging contributes to 20% of tropical forest depletion.Commercial logging contributes to 20% of tropical forest depletion. Cattle Ranching: contributes to 12% of tropical forest depletion.Cattle Ranching: contributes to 12% of tropical forest depletion. 20 years after ranching the land is left as scrub savanna.20 years after ranching the land is left as scrub savanna.

71 Why are forests disappearing? Plantation style agriculture grows citrus fruits (pineapple) and bananas for export.Plantation style agriculture grows citrus fruits (pineapple) and bananas for export. DDT and fertilizers are then introduced to the area.DDT and fertilizers are then introduced to the area. Dry Tropical forests also provide biomass energy for families. As Woodfuel (heat, light, cooking)Dry Tropical forests also provide biomass energy for families. As Woodfuel (heat, light, cooking)

72 What About the Boreal Forest Biome? Circumpolar distribution of boreal forest biomeCircumpolar distribution of boreal forest biome The term boreal finds its roots in Boreas, the Greek God of the North Wind.The term boreal finds its roots in Boreas, the Greek God of the North Wind. Often referred to as Taiga, a Russian word meaning "land of little sticks", boreal forests are the world northernmost forests.Often referred to as Taiga, a Russian word meaning "land of little sticks", boreal forests are the world northernmost forests.

73 Boreal Forests Occur in Taiga and comprise the world’s largest Biome (11% of Earth’s land area).Occur in Taiga and comprise the world’s largest Biome (11% of Earth’s land area). Worlds Largest BiomeWorlds Largest Biome Primary source of wood & wood fiber comes from this area via clearcutting. (almost twice the area as Amazonia).Primary source of wood & wood fiber comes from this area via clearcutting. (almost twice the area as Amazonia). Spruce, fir, cedar, hemlockSpruce, fir, cedar, hemlock

74 Do Now: Describe public rangelands, stating which government agencies administer them in the U.S.Describe public rangelands, stating which government agencies administer them in the U.S. What is the carrying capacity of a rangeland and what results when this capacity is exceeded?What is the carrying capacity of a rangeland and what results when this capacity is exceeded?

75 Do Now: Rangelands are grasslands, in both temperate and tropical climates that serve as important areas of food production for humans by providing fodder for livestock such as cattle, sheep, and goats.Rangelands are grasslands, in both temperate and tropical climates that serve as important areas of food production for humans by providing fodder for livestock such as cattle, sheep, and goats. In the U.S. the rangelands are administered by the:In the U.S. the rangelands are administered by the: – BLM guided: Taylor Grazing Act of 1934Taylor Grazing Act of 1934 Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 Public Rangelands Improvement Act of 1978.Public Rangelands Improvement Act of 1978. The USFS manages an additional 50 million acres.The USFS manages an additional 50 million acres. The carrying capacity of a rangeland is the maximum number of animals the rangeland plants can sustain over an indefinite period without deterioration of the rangeland.The carrying capacity of a rangeland is the maximum number of animals the rangeland plants can sustain over an indefinite period without deterioration of the rangeland. When the carrying capacity is exceeded, overgrazing leaves the ground barren and susceptible to erosion.When the carrying capacity is exceeded, overgrazing leaves the ground barren and susceptible to erosion.

76 Rangelands and Agricultural Lands Agricultural LandsAgricultural Lands US has 300 million acres of prime farmlandUS has 300 million acres of prime farmland Main problem: suburban spread onto agricultural landMain problem: suburban spread onto agricultural land

77 Rangelands and Agricultural Lands RangelandsRangelands

78 Rangelands These important grasslands are comprised of grasses, forbs (small herbaceous plants), and shrubs with extensive fibrous root systems.These important grasslands are comprised of grasses, forbs (small herbaceous plants), and shrubs with extensive fibrous root systems. Cattle, sheep, goats, and other domestic animals graze these lands.Cattle, sheep, goats, and other domestic animals graze these lands. Rangelands are renewable within a specific carrying capacity.Rangelands are renewable within a specific carrying capacity.

79 Rangelands Roughly 2/3 of U.S. rangelands are privately owned, the feds own much of the rest.Roughly 2/3 of U.S. rangelands are privately owned, the feds own much of the rest. There are more than 89 million hectares of federally owned rangeland in the U.S.There are more than 89 million hectares of federally owned rangeland in the U.S. The BLM manages most of the rangelands with the remainder overseen by the USFS.The BLM manages most of the rangelands with the remainder overseen by the USFS.

80 Do Sometime Today Please Identify some of the major Rangeland Management issues? Identify some of the major Rangeland Management issues?

81 Rangeland Management issues Rangeland Management issues Overgrazing can result in barren, exposed soil that is prone to erosion. (remember the dust bowl)Overgrazing can result in barren, exposed soil that is prone to erosion. (remember the dust bowl) Degradation of soil affects future productivity.Degradation of soil affects future productivity. Continual degradation leads to desertification, the development of unproductive desert like conditions in once fertile areas.Continual degradation leads to desertification, the development of unproductive desert like conditions in once fertile areas. federal costs:federal costs: –2004 $1.43 on lands managed by BLM, + $1.52/ month lands managed by the USFS i. Monthly cost on private land is $13/monthi. Monthly cost on private land is $13/month ii. Taxpayers contribute $67 million more than the grazing fees collect by public rangeland.ii. Taxpayers contribute $67 million more than the grazing fees collect by public rangeland. iii. Money used to maintain rangelands, installing water tanks+fences, fix damages caused by over grazing.iii. Money used to maintain rangelands, installing water tanks+fences, fix damages caused by over grazing.

82 Rangelands The federal government issues permits that allow private livestock operators to use public rangelands for grazing.The federal government issues permits that allow private livestock operators to use public rangelands for grazing. Others feel that public rangelands should be used for habitat, recreation, and aestethic value.Others feel that public rangelands should be used for habitat, recreation, and aestethic value. –Cutthroat trout?????

83 Rangelands and Agricultural Lands Rangeland Trends in the USRangeland Trends in the US Rangelands comprise 30% of land in USRangelands comprise 30% of land in US 1/3 rd public, 2/3 rd private1/3 rd public, 2/3 rd private Issues Involving Public RangelandsIssues Involving Public Rangelands Grazing permit feesGrazing permit fees Wild horses and burrosWild horses and burros

84 Rangeland Management issues Rangeland Management issues 44,000 Wild horses and burros are not indigenous and need to be managed.44,000 Wild horses and burros are not indigenous and need to be managed. Adopt-a-horse program sold to slaughterhouses.Adopt-a-horse program sold to slaughterhouses. Contraceptives are now used for females.Contraceptives are now used for females.

85 Agricultural lands, Corn belt: Agricultural lands, Corn belt: It is now commonly called the Feed Grains and Livestock Belt.It is now commonly called the Feed Grains and Livestock Belt. Located in the north central plains, Large-scale commercial and mechanized farming prevails in this region of deep, fertile, well-drained soils and long, hot, humid summers.Located in the north central plains, Large-scale commercial and mechanized farming prevails in this region of deep, fertile, well-drained soils and long, hot, humid summers. The belt produces much of the U.S. corn crop, but agriculture has diversified; soybeans are an important yield.The belt produces much of the U.S. corn crop, but agriculture has diversified; soybeans are an important yield. Winter wheat and alfalfa are also significant crops in the areaWinter wheat and alfalfa are also significant crops in the area

86 Agricultural lands, Corn belt: Agricultural lands, Corn belt: Ohio Indiana Minnesota Illinois Iowa Missouri Kansas Nebraska South Dakota North Dakot a Michigan Wisconsin

87 Land Use Land Use in the USLand Use in the US Private 55% Federal Government 35% Tribes 3% State 7%

88 Do Now: Identify the factors contributing to the desertification of Rangelands.Identify the factors contributing to the desertification of Rangelands.

89 Dust Bowl Dust Bowl "And then the dispossessed were drawn west- from Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico; from Nevada and Arkansas, families, tribes, dusted out, tractored out. Car-loads, caravans, homeless and hungry; twenty thousand and fifty thousand and a hundred thousand and two hundred thousand. They streamed over the mountains, hungry and restless - restless as ants, scurrying to find work to do - to lift, to push, to pull, to pick, to cut - anything, any burden to bear, for food. The kids are hungry. We got no place to live. Like ants scurrying for work, for food, and most of all for land." - John Steinbeck, The Grapes of Wrath, 1939

90 Dust Bowl Dust Bowl

91

92 Desertification 1

93 Desertification 2

94 Desertification 3

95 Desertification 4

96 QUESTION ABOUT THE: The Trout Creek Mountain Working Group In 1988 this group was organized to improve the habitat of a threatened species the Lahontan Cutthroat trout. Mainly due to local cattle grazing many species of plants ( Willow, aspen, alder, and wild rose) Define an Ecosystem Management, what must it take into account and what was done to protect this species?Define an Ecosystem Management, what must it take into account and what was done to protect this species?

97 ANSWERS: Ecosystem Management: a long term flexile collaboration (scientists, land owners, gvnmt workers, business leaders) to sustain or restore ecosystems.Ecosystem Management: a long term flexile collaboration (scientists, land owners, gvnmt workers, business leaders) to sustain or restore ecosystems. Must account:Must account: –economic well being of human communities is linked to sustainable resources. –Ecosystems: do not recognize political boundaries extending between federal, state country and private lands. do not recognize political boundaries extending between federal, state country and private lands. An interdisciplinary approach towards social, geographic, economic, scientific and political factors.An interdisciplinary approach towards social, geographic, economic, scientific and political factors.

98 ANSWERS: How was it repaired? Species declared threatened\endangeredSpecies declared threatened\endangered –ESA was used to protect Riparian Areas (buffering zone) –Local cattle ranchers withdrew 3000 cattle from sensitive stream from 1989-1992 (prevented cattle grazing zone and inc temperatures and pollution into waterways) –Compromise: open parts to some cattle 1992 How did improving the Riparian Zone help?How did improving the Riparian Zone help? –Willow, aspen, alder, wild rose Willow, aspen, alder, wild rose are reestablishing themselves –Sedimentation has decreased –Water temperatures decreased 2005 Group conducted a PRESCRIBED burn and closed local roads in an attempt to reestablish flood plains.2005 Group conducted a PRESCRIBED burn and closed local roads in an attempt to reestablish flood plains. Page 418

99 The Trout Creek Mountain Working Group Riparian areas are the zones along water bodies that serve as interfaces between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.Riparian areas are the zones along water bodies that serve as interfaces between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Typically they are more structurally diverse and more productive in plant and animal biomass than adjacent upland areas.Typically they are more structurally diverse and more productive in plant and animal biomass than adjacent upland areas. Riparian areas supply food, cover, and water for a large diversity of animals, and serve as migration routes and connectors between habitats for a variety of wildlifeRiparian areas supply food, cover, and water for a large diversity of animals, and serve as migration routes and connectors between habitats for a variety of wildlife

100 Riparian Areas

101 Wetlands and Coastal Areas WetlandsWetlands

102 Do Now-Wetlands Definition?Definition? Ownership?Ownership? Ecosystem services and economic value?Ecosystem services and economic value? Threats?Threats? Protection?Protection?

103 ANSWERS-Wetlands Definition?Definition? Transitional areas-Wet part part or all all of year Ownership?Ownership? Government owns 25%/ Rest is privately held EcosystemEcosystem services and economic value? Filter groundwater, breeding grounds, flood control, home to many species, commercial use. Threats?Threats? Are being drained for development, mosquito control, mining, solid waste disposal. Protection?Protection? Partially protected by Clean Water Act of 1972.

104 Coastlines Are being overdeveloped, highly polluted, and overfished.Are being overdeveloped, highly polluted, and overfished. Estuaries are “nurseries for the sea”Estuaries are “nurseries for the sea”

105 Wetlands and Coastal Areas CoastlinesCoastlines Severely degraded or destroyed in US by filling and drainingSeverely degraded or destroyed in US by filling and draining Residential and industrial development commonResidential and industrial development common Resulting problems: ????Resulting problems: ????

106 Wetlands and Coastal Areas Human activities that threaten wetlands:Human activities that threaten wetlands: Draining for agriculture or mosquito controlDraining for agriculture or mosquito control Dredging for navigationDredging for navigation ChannelizationChannelization Construction of dams, sea walls, dykesConstruction of dams, sea walls, dykes Filling in for solid waste disposal, roads, residential / industrial developmentFilling in for solid waste disposal, roads, residential / industrial development Conversion to aquacultureConversion to aquaculture

107 Seawalls and Beach erosion

108 Wetlands and Coastal Areas US legislation has attempted to maintain a “no net loss” of wetlandsUS legislation has attempted to maintain a “no net loss” of wetlands Reconstructed wetland in San Diego

109 Wetlands and Coastal Areas CoastlinesCoastlines Coastal DemographicsCoastal Demographics In US, 19 of 20 most densely populated areas along coast. Worldwide, coastal management plans rarely integrate land and offshore water concerns Results in overdevelopment and pollution

110 Wetlands and Coastal Areas CoastlinesCoastlines National Marine SanctuariesNational Marine Sanctuaries US has 12 Managed for multiple uses, including conservation, recreation, education, etc. Commercial fishing permitted, though there are “no take” zones

111 Suburban Sprawl

112 Suburban sprawl results in... Loss of agricultural landLoss of agricultural land Urbanization...More pollutionUrbanization...More pollution Depletion of resources...Ex. “water”Depletion of resources...Ex. “water”

113 Wise-Use Movement Want List (Feel that lands should serve the $) All National forest under timber management. All National forest under timber management. Allow mining and development of wilderness areas, wildlife refuges, and National Parks.Allow mining and development of wilderness areas, wildlife refuges, and National Parks. Unrestricted development of wetlands.Unrestricted development of wetlands. Change the Endangered Species Act to consider $economic factors$.Change the Endangered Species Act to consider $economic factors$. Sell resource rich federal lands to mining, oil, ranching, and timber groups.Sell resource rich federal lands to mining, oil, ranching, and timber groups.


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