Presentation on theme: "“Competing for skills: Vocational Education and Training in the 21st Century” Calgary-Alberta, CANADA 31 August 2009 European VET policy and initiatives:"— Presentation transcript:
1 “Competing for skills: Vocational Education and Training in the 21st Century” Calgary-Alberta, CANADA 31 August European VET policy and initiatives: the European model for cooperationMichel ARIBAUDPolicy officerDG Education and CultureLifelong Learning: Policies and Programme
2 Structure of presentation The challenges aheadEU policy in Education and TrainingEU Policy for Vocational Education and TrainingConcluding remarks
3 The Challenges ahead - understanding the need for action 3
4 The Challenges: Global Context Current crisis !!!Globalisation – addressing structural change, relocation of manufacturing, global value chainsRapid technological and climate change - demand for high skilled workers, “optimal skills mix” - generic (transferable) versus specific skills, new emerging skill needsAgeing societies – new types of jobs (mostly in social services), ‘replacement demand’, active ageing and cVETMigration – filling skill shortages, social inclusion, recognising competencesEurope is facing unprecedented challenges, and quite often we hear people questioning our capacity to compete with the emerging and rapidly growing economies. Citizens express their legitimate concerns on the sustainability of our "European social model".These are genuine concerns that we have been addressing at a European, national and regional levels. The Lisbon strategy, the reform and modernisation of the labour market (Flexicurity), the focus on scientific research and development, and the strong investment in human capital (lifelong learning paradigm), are just examples of how we have been addressing these challenges. But the task is not easy.We can simplify our analysis and understanding of the challenges ahead, if we group them under four major headings:Globalisation – which calls for addressing structural change, the relocation of manufacturing (both within and outside the EU), and adapting to global value chains (outsourcing).Rapid technological and climate change – with all its implications for demand of high skilled workers capable of taking advantage of the knowledge society, the emergence of new skill needs, the reforms of E&T systems to address the provision of the “optimal skills mix” of generic (transferable) versus specific skill needs,Ageing societies – the emergence of new types of jobs to support a growing number of older aged people (mostly in social services), the need to satisfy ‘replacement demand’ in a context of low birth rates, the extension of working lives ("active ageing") and all its implications in improving and updating skill levels through the development of Lifelong learning strategies and adequate vocational education and training systems.Migration and mobility – migration is not the only solution for addressing future employment and skill needs, but it will certainly play a key role. Migration brings tremendous benefits, but also presents challenges to which we have to respond, such as the need to recognise and validate competences, find an adequate balance between supply and demand of skills, and develop social policies to facilitate social inclusion.
5 The Challenges: EU context By 2030 …almost 14 million more older people9 million fewer young people2 million fewer learners in VET (at secondary & tertiary level, if participation doesn’t change) Future labour markets will rely more on older workers and migrantsChance to improve the quality of initial VET and provide better opportunities for adult learning
6 The Challenges: EU context Europe has experienced a general shift away from the primary sector (especially agriculture) and traditional manufacturing industries towards services and the knowledge-intensive economy. The forecast results confirm that this trend is likely to continue as a key feature over the coming decade both nationally and across EuropeSubstantial change is in prospect. Over 20.3 million additional jobs are expected to be created between 2006 and 2020 in the EU-25+ (EU-25 plus Norway and Switzerland). This is despite the loss of well over 3 million jobs in the primary sector and almost 0.8 million in manufacturing.The construction sector has experienced positive employment trends in the past decade but tends to stagnate with less than half a million new jobs being created between 2006 and Distribution, transport, hotels and catering together are projected to see employment grow by more than 4.5 million over the next decade, while non-marketed services (3) are expected to increase by slightly more (4.9 million). Business and miscellaneous services have the best prospects, with more than 14 million additional jobs being created between 2006 and 2020.Consequently, almost three quarters of jobs in EU-25+ in 2020 will be in services. The primary sector will decline from almost 8 % in 1996 to less than 4 % in 2020 (Figure 3). Manufacturing and construction are expected to experience only a slight fall in shares.
7 The Challenges: EU context In addition to the 20.3 million new jobs created between 2006 and 2020, another 85 million jobs (four times more) will be available to replace workers who retire or leave the labour market for other reasons. The total number of job openings therefore will be million in the EU-25+ between 2006 and 2020.In 2020, the total number of jobs in the EU-25 will be million. Based on demographic developments, the Eurostat baseline scenario estimates that the working age population (15-64 years) for the EU-25 will decline from million in 2006 to million in 2020 (4). Although the working age population will fall by around 6 million between 2006 and 2020 more than 20 million more new jobs will be created. Consequently, Europe may experience a major workforce shortage in the status quo policy scenario.These figures imply that Europe will need an employment rate of almost 74 % to satisfy labour market demand. The current Lisbon strategy target is 70 %. If Europe meets this target by 2020, there will be a shortage of almost 12 million people in the workforce, due to the different occupational structures and potential skill gapsResults highlight the general increase in qualification levels across most jobs. At the broadest level the projected changes are even more dramatic for qualification levels than for occupations. In total, the net employment increase in Europe of over 20 million jobs between 2006 and 2020 comprises increases of almost 19.6 million jobs at the highest qualification level (ISCED levels 5 and 6) and almost 13.1 million jobs at medium level (ISCED levels 3 and 4). This is offset by a sharp decline of almost 12.5 million jobs for those with no or low formal qualifications (ISCED levels 0 to 2).As already pointed out, it is crucial to take replacement demand into account when determining future job opportunities, especially when assessing implications for education and training. The forecast shows that of the total 105 million job openings (the sum of expansion and replacement demand) between almost 41 million jobs may require high level of qualifications (ISCED 5 and 6). The current qualification structure of the workforce needs to change in the coming decade as even more job openings, almost 55 million, are expected to require medium level qualifications (ISCED 3 and 4, which traditionally include vocational qualifications). Less than 10 million jobs will be open for applicants with no or low levels of qualifications.
8 The Challenges: Policy implications Demand for higher skills will continue to rise - adapt to service-oriented knowledge-intensive economyYoung generation not enough to fulfil all LM skill needs - LLL is paramount. Reduce early school leavers, adult learning, train in MSTMigration may be a partial answer – E&T and intra-European mobility will not suffice. Ensure social cohesion and equal treatment.Skill mismatches - bottlenecks in high skill segments exert upward pressure on wages. Surplus of unskilled worsen bargaining power, wages, working conditionsValidate and accredit existing knowledge, skills and competences - particularly those with lower-level formal qualifications, older workers, people with migrant backgroundModernise labour market and social policy – Flexicurity. Attract more people to LM and support active ageing. Balance work with personal and family livesOverall demand for skills is likely to continue to rise - to remain competitive, policy needs to ensure that the workforce can adapt to the demands of the service-oriented knowledge-intensive economy. Continuing training and lifelong learning must contribute to a process that enables people to adjust their skills constantly to on-going structural labour market change.The young generation entering the labour market in the next decade cannot fulfil all the labour market skill needs. This has implications for education and training. Lifelong learning is paramount. It requires implementing a consistent and ambitious strategy that reduces the flow of early school leavers and drop-outs, establishes a comprehensive skills plan for adults/adult learning and which increases the supply of people trained in science and technology.While education and training are important for improving the qualification match, they cannot fully solve problems of over and under-education. Bottlenecks in high skill segments of the labour market may exert upward pressure on wages for these workers. At the same time, there may be a surplus of unskilled workers, which can worsen their bargaining power and, consequently, their wages and working conditions.From a policy viewpoint, it would be very useful to have information on whether a skill mismatch is temporary or transitory (short-term labour market frictions that disappear after some time), or, whether it is a long-term phenomenon requiring targeted action.Adequately valuing the skills of those in jobs, particularly those with lower-level formal qualifications, older workers, people with migrant background and returners to the labour market is important to avoid wasting skills and to make the best use of the skills we have. Validating and accrediting people’s knowledge, skills and competences could help customise training and make it more cost-effective. Common European tools, principles and mechanisms developed in the Education and training 2010 work programme, need to be part and parcel of such packages.It is important to recognise that training and evaluation measures alone cannot solve the problem of a major workforce shortage in Europe. Migration may be a partial answer. Given the shrinking workforce across the EU and trends in workforce demand, intra-European mobility will not suffice. Alleviating a tight labour market in one Member State at the expense of another, will not improve European economic performance overall. Attracting workers from non-EU countries as well as intra-European mobility should go hand-in-hand with measures to ensure social cohesion and equal treatment.Labour market and other social policy measures need to be more flexible for those needing to change their job. Alongside flexicurity measures, Europe must make proposals to maximise the employment potential of its workforce. Bringing more women into the labour market and longer working lives are crucial and unavoidable measures for Europe’s sustainable future.How to balance work with personal and family lives? Reconciling the work-life balance in the context of social policy agenda and corporate social responsibility is a challenge for the coming years.
10 Policy: LISBON Strategy EU to become an advanced knowledgesociety with sustainable development,more and better jobs and greater social cohesionLisbon relaunch, 2005Education and Training 2010: 10-year work programmeImprove qualityEnsure accessibilityOpen up to worldThe core responsibility for E&T policy lies with the Member States (Subsidarity)Articles 149 (cooperation in Education) and 150 (implement EU VET policy) of the EC Treaty, provides legal basis for EU policyArticle 149 To contribute to the development of quality education by encouraging cooperation between Member States and, if necessary, by supporting and supplementing their action.Article 150 To implement a vocational training policy which supports and supplements the action of the Member States.______________________________In 2001, on the basis of the Member States' contributions, the Commission and the Council set out a number of joint objectives for the future and defined how E&T systems should contribute to achieving the strategic goal set in Lisbon. This is the first document which outlines a comprehensive and consistent approach for national policies on education in the context of the EU.The approach is based on three objectives:Objective 1: Improving the quality of education and training systemsE&T is an excellent means of social and cultural cohesion and a considerable economic asset with a view to making Europe a more competitive and dynamic society. It is necessary to improve the quality of training for teachers and trainers and make a special effort to acquire the basic skills, which must be updated in order to keep pace with changes in the knowledge society. Literacy and numeracy also need to be improved, particularly with regard to information and communication technologies and general skills (e.g. learning to learn, teamwork, etc.). Improving the quality of facilities in schools and training institutes by making the best use of resources is a further priority, as is increasing recruitment in scientific and technical fields, such as mathematics and natural sciences, in order to ensure that Europe remains competitive in the future economy.Objective 2: Making access to learning easierThe European model of social cohesion must be able to allow access for all to formal and non-formal education and training systems by making it easier to move from one part of the education system to another (e.g. from vocational education to higher education), from early childhood right through to later life. Opening up education and training systems and working to make these systems more attractive, and even adapting them to meet the needs of the various groups concerned, can play an important part in promoting active citizenship, equal opportunities and lasting social cohesion.Objective 3: Opening education and training to the worldThis objective involves building the European education and training area through mobility and foreign language teaching on the one hand and strengthening the links with the world of work, research and civil society as a whole on the other.
11 National level: Reforms are going in the right direction… … but performance against the benchmarks could be improved1. Low achievers in readingBenchmark: By 2010 the percentage of low achieving 15-year olds in reading literacy in the EU should decrease by at least 20% from 2000 levels.Trends: In the EU (comparable data available for 18 countries) performance deteriorated from 21.3 % low performers in reading in 2000 to 24.1 % (girls: 17.6%, boys: 30.4%) in 2006.Top performers: the top EU performer is Finland (4.8%), followed by Ireland (12.1%) and Estonia (13.6%). Cyprus and Malta have not yet participated in the survey.Low performers: Romania (53.5%), Bulgaria (51.1%)2. Early school leaversBenchmark: By 2010 a share of early school leavers of no more than 10% should be reached.Trends: In EU 27 the share of early school leavers (population 18-24) declined from 17.6% in 2000 to 14.8% (females: 12.7%, males: 16.9%) in 2007.Top performers: the best performers in the EU are the Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia (plus probably Slovenia for which recent data are considered unreliable or uncertain).Low performers: Malta, Portugal.3. Upper secondary attainmentBenchmark: By 2010 at least 85% of 22 year-olds in the EU should have should have completed upper secondary education.Trends: Since 2000 upper secondary attainment in the EU increased slightly, from 76.6% of people aged to 78.1% (females: 80.8%, males: 75.4%) in 2007.Top performers: the top performers in the EU are the Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia.Low performers: Malta, Portugal4. Maths, science & technology graduatesBenchmark: The total number of MST graduates in the EU should increase by at least 15%, gender imbalance should decrease.Trends: The number of MST graduates increased by 29% since 2000 and the female share from 30.7% to 31.6% in 2006.Top performers: Growth since 2000: Poland; Gender balance: Estonia; MST graduates per 1,000 population 20-29: Ireland.Low performers: Growth since 2000: Belgium, Slovenia; Gender balance: Austria, Netherlands; MST graduates per 1,000 population 20-29: Cyprus, Malta5. Participation of adults in lifelong learningBenchmark: The EU average level of participation in lifelong learning should at least reach 12.5% of the working age population (25-64 age group).Trends: On an EU level participation increased from 7.1% in 2000 to 9.7% (females: 10.6%, males: 8.8%) in 2007 (partly a result of breaks in time series around 2003).Top performers: the best performer in the EU is Sweden (2006 data), followed by Denmark and the UK.Low performers: Bulgaria, Romania____________________________________Progress is made in all of the five benchmark areas for 2010 – apart from one,low achievers in reading.- The EU has made good progress in increasing the number of maths, science and technology (MST) graduates – and has already exceeded the benchmark of 15% growth.- The EU has made some progress in reducing the number of early school leavers; increasing upper secondary attainment of young people; and in increasing adult participation in lifelong learning. Progress in all these areas, however, has to be faster in order to reach the benchmarks for 2010.- The EU has not managed to bring down the share of low achievers in reading. Instead of a 20% decrease, the benchmark set for 2010, results have deteriorated since 2000 and the share of low achievers in the EU has increased by more than 10%.
12 Future Strategic objectives (post 2010) Lifelong learning and mobilityQuality and efficiencyEquity and active citizenshipInnovation and creativity (including entrepreneurship)The current framework for cooperation, which was agreed at Council in 2001/02, is coming to an end and this is an appropriate point to review the way ahead. Following a wide consultation with Member States and other actors during 2008, this Communication proposes a new set of strategic challenges and related benchmarks to guide the policy cooperation to The challenges identified strongly reflect the contribution of education and training to the Lisbon Strategy and the renewed Social Agenda.The Communication proposes to build continuity with work already done to identify core challenges; however, from now on the focus on implementation to address certain long-identified weaknesses should be stronger. At the same time, policy cooperation on new areas related to future challenges should be opened. The new framework should be more flexible, addressing the most urgent priorities during 2009 and 2010, with the possibility to refocus later, in the light of progress made, to reflect new issues as they emerge in the policy dialogue and to adapt objectives, benchmarks and reporting mechanisms as necessary in the light of decisions that will be taken on the future Growth and Jobs strategy beyond 2010.Lifelong learning and mobilitySupport a comprehensive approach: lifelong and life-widePromote diverse and flexible learning pathwaysPutting learners' needs at the centre - guidanceFocus on learning outcomes and key competencesMobility and international exchange particularly in HE and VETQuality and efficiencyRaising levels of knowledge, skills and competenceAcquisition of key competences (especially basic skills)Quality of teachers and other educational staffOpenness of E&T to civil society, business and regional and local authoritiesGood governance with autonomy and accountabilityQuality assuranceKnowledge and evidence base of policy makingFuture skills needsEfficient and sustainable use of resourcesEquity and citizenshipEquitable distribution of both key competences and job-specific skillsReduce numbers of drop-outs and number of people with low levels of skillsDeveloping the knowledge, skills and attitudes needed to foster active citizenship and intercultural dialogueTargeted support to disadvantaged groups for increased inclusion in mainstream education and trainingActive role for those at risk of exclusion in developing learning provision, including through local partnershipsInnovation and creativityEnsuring all citizens acquire transversal key competencesProgrammes, curricula, pedagogies and qualifications based on learning outcomesPartnerships addressing needs of working and cultural lifeOptimise the knowledge triangle: education/research/innovationFollow-up to European Year of Creativity and Innovation 2009
13 EU Policy for Vocational Education and Training The Copenhagen Process model 13
14 The Copenhagen process model: Key elements Integrated part of the overall Lisbon strategy and to the follow up of common objectives “Education and training 2010” processSince 2002, Based on a voluntary approach & providing concrete and practical resultsInclusive; based on an agreement between 33 countries, the European social partners and the CommissionReviewed every two years (Maastricht 2004, Helsinki 2006, Bordeaux and Bruges in )The Copenhagen Process on Enhanced European Cooperation in VET is an integral part of the overall Lisbon strategy and to the follow up of common objectives process “European education and training 2010”.It is based on a voluntary approach but has been providing concrete and practical results. It is “inclusive” and based on an agreement between 33 countries, the European social partners and the Commission. Furthermore it is based on a lifelong learning perspectiveIt aims at strengthening the European dimension in training, to improve transparency, to set up systems for recognition of qualifications, to promote quality and attractiveness.The whole process is based on the so-called "open method of coordination" – responsibilities are in Member States but policies are coordinated a EU level to achieve the common goals. Mutual Learning is an essential element in these processes.For these big aims to become reality, it needs political input and the commitment from the Member States and those responsible for training and education at national level.These important developments in policy work in VET are complemented in practical terms by the Leonardo da Vinci programme, which aims to promote mobility and further develop our VET systems through innovative practices, by co-funding transnational, multilateral projects (innovative or transfer of innovation) in the area of vocational training.
15 Involving stakeholders Enables their contribution to common goals Copenhagen process aims to improve the performance, quality and attractiveness of VETThe political process Agreeing common goals and objectives; inspiring national reformsFostering mutual learning Supports cooperation, working together, learning from others, sharing ideas, experience and results; evidence based policy makingInvolving stakeholders Enables their contribution to common goalsDeveloping common toolsCommon frameworks and tools; transparency and quality of competences and qualifications, facilitating mobility (Europass, EQF, ECVET, EQARF….)A process to improve the performance, quality and attractiveness of VETThe Copenhagen Process on Enhanced European Cooperation in Vocational Education and Training was launched as a European strategy to improve the overall performance, quality and attractiveness of VET in Europe. Since 2002, the process has significantly contributed to raising the visibility and profile of VET in Europe. It has different dimensions:A political process. The process plays an essential role in emphasising the importance of VET to political decision makers. It facilitates agreeing common European goals and objectives, discussing national models and initiatives, and exchanging good examples of practice at the European level. At national level, the process contributes to strengthening the focus on VET and has inspired national reforms.A process to develop common tools. Another central role of the process is the development of common European frameworks and tools, aimed at enhancing transparency and quality of competences and qualifications, and facilitating mobility of learners and workers. The process paves the way towards a European labour market, and a European VET area complementary to the European area for higher education.A process that fosters mutual learning. The process supports European cooperation. It allows the participating countries to consider their policies in light of experience from other countries and provides a framework for working together, learning from others, sharing ideas, experience and results.A process that takes the stakeholders on board. The process strengthens the involvement of different stakeholders and enables their contribution to common goals.
16 To design a European education and training area Mobility for working and/or for learning: several processesTo design a European education and training areaTo design a European qualifications areaTwo technical cooperation processes and outputsPolitical cooperation processesLegibility of qualification for mobility of workers (UE internal market) : directive 2005/36 on recognition of professional qualification ( )Sorbonne-Bologne: HE areaBruges 2001: lifelong learningCopenhague 2002: cooperation in vocational education and trainingShared methodologies : five steps70’s: EquivalenceMaastricht 2004, Helsinki 2006, Bordeaux 2008, Bruges 2010… : European and national development based on cooperation80’s: Correspondence90’s: Transparency2000’s: Common principles ’s: Common references and méthodsLifelong Education and training
17 EU developments 2002-2009 main instruments and initiatives Europass – a framework for transparency of competences and qualifications (2004)Common principles on validation of non-formal and informal learning (2004)Recommendation on lifelong guidance (2004)Reference Framework for Key competences (2006)Action plan on Adult learning (2007)European Qualifications Framework for Lifelong learning – EQF (2008) - driving the establishment of National Qualifications FrameworksEuropean Credit system for VET- ECVET (2009)European Quality Assurance Reference Framework for VET - EQARF (2009)Since 2002 when the Copenhagen declaration was first adopted, the European VET strategy has matured, and led to significant improvements in the performance, quality and attractiveness of VET.Every two years the strategy has been reviewed (Maastricht 2004, Helsinki 2006, Bordeaux 2008) and the next such assessment will take place in December 2010 in Bruges, Belgium.One of the main visible outcomes of the Copenhagen process has been the adoption of European principles and tools that promote mobility, transparency, recognition of qualifications, efficiency and the quality of VET. These include the common principles for validation of competences, Europass, the European Qualifications Framework, (EQF), the future European credit system for VET (ECVET), as well as the future European quality assurance reference framework for VET (EQARF).Europass (Decision December 2004) - Portfolio includes:CV - the CV is the backbone of the Europass portfolioMobility - record of transnational mobility for learning purposesDiploma Supplement - records the holder's educational recordCertificate Supplement - supplement to a VET certificateLanguage Portfolio - record linguistic skills and cultural expertise More than 3 million people generated their CVs using Europass modelEuropean principles on validation of non-formal learning (Council Conclusions May 2004):Individual entitlements – voluntary nature, equal access, fair treatmentObligations of stakeholders - stakeholders establish systems that contain mechanism for guidance and counselling of individualsConfidence and trust - processes, procedures and criteria must be fair, transparent and underpinned by quality assurance mechanismsCredibility and legitimacy - impartial systems, respect stakeholders interests, avoid conflicts of interest, competence of assessorsKey element of national LLL strategies, EQF/NQF and ECVETThe May 2004 Education Council Resolution on guidance throughout life established five key priorities:i) implementing lifelong guidance systems, a system of linked service provision catering for citizens’ needs for educational and occupational guidance throughout life;ii) broadening access to guidance by making delivery and use easier for citizens whenever and wherever needed;iii) strengthening quality assurance mechanisms on all aspects of guidance service provision, including information and products;iv) refocusing guidance provision to strengthen citizens’ competences to manage learning and career developments;v) strengthening structures for policy and systems development at national and regional levels.Reference Framework for Key competencesCommunication in the mother tongueMathematical competence and basic competences in science and technologyDigital competenceLearning-to-learnSocial and civic competenceInitiative taking and entrepreneurshipCultural awareness and expressionCommunication in a foreign languageEuropean Qualifications Framework (EQF Recommendation April 2008):a way of relating qualifications to each otherestablish national standards for learning outcomesquality of E&T provision;promote access, transfer and progression in learning EQF/NQF - strong overall progress (France, Ireland, Malta, and UK)European Credit system for VET (ECVET) - A Credit system to facilitate transfer, recognition and accumulation of learning outcomes, to achieve a qualification ECVET transfer and accumulation processBased on units learning outcomesCredit pointsEmphasis on Lifelong LearningLooking at formal, non-formal and informal learning outcomesFocused on MobilityTransparency orientedThe European Quality Assurance Reference Framework (EQARF)A reference instrument to help Member States promote and monitor continuous improvement of their VET systems, based on European common references.The Framework will contribute to:quality improvement in VET;building mutual trust in national VET systems;promote a borderless European lifelong learning area.Based on:A quality assurance cycle, including planning, implementation, evaluation and review of VETA set of common quality criteria and indicative descriptorsA set of indicators
18 Bordeaux Communiqué (Nov 2008) 4 priority areas:1) Implementing the tools and schemes for promoting cooperation in the field of VET2) Heightening the quality and attractiveness of VET systems3) Improving the links between VET and the labour market4) Strengthening European cooperation arrangementsFuture developments in the Copenhagen processThere is a general consensus that the Copenhagen process has been quite successful, and that we have now reached a phase in which the focus should be on consolidating the strategy, and implementing the principles and tools that have been built since 2002.VET is also particularly interested in the current debate on "Future skills for future jobs". VET is the sector of education that is closest to the labour market, and its success depends very much on the extent to which it can deliver the knowledge, skills and competences that the labour market needs to prosper and grow in the ever increasingly competitive globalized marketplace.The policy priorities for VET policy development within the Copenhagen process as defined in the Bordeaux review, are the following:Implementing the tools and schemes for promoting cooperation in the field of VET – with a particular focus on: i) establishing National Qualifications Frameworks on the basis of learning outcomes, ii) the European Credit system for Vocational Education and Training, and iii) the European Quality Assurance Reference Framework.Heightening the quality and attractiveness of VET systems – by promoting the attractiveness of VET to all target groups, and by promoting the excellence and qualityImproving the links between VET and the labour market – by i) develop forward-planning tools focusing on jobs and skills in line with the Council Resolution on "New skills for new jobs", ii) Ensuring the involvement of the social partners, iii) Improve guidance and counselling (throughout life) to ease the transition from training to work, iv) Promoting adult training, in particular in the workplace with special attention to SMEs, v) Developing validation and recognition of non-formal and informal learning outcomes, vi) Increasing mobility, and vii) Increase role of higher education in VETStrengthening cooperation arrangements – by i) Increasing the efficiency of mutual learning activities, ii) Strengthen linkages between VET, school education, higher education and adult training, and iii) Consolidating exchanges and cooperation with third countries and international organisations, such as the OECD, the Council of Europe, the ILO and UNESCO
19 Mobility programmes have been implemented in the field of education and training since the early 1980s.The rationale for mobility is promoted as an essential tool for creating a European area of lifelong learning, for promoting employment and reducing poverty, and for helping to promote active European citizenship. Conversely, the benefits of mobility are broadly accepted as a mechanism to bring citizens close to one another and to improve mutual understanding. Further benefits are expressed as improving solidarity, facilitating the exchange of ideas and enhancing better knowledge of the different cultures which make up Europe.Together with Comenius (school education), Erasmus (higher education) and Grundtvig (adult education), the third phase of Leonardo da Vinci (LdV) is an integral component of the Lifelong Learning Programme , with an overarching priority to reinforce the contribution made by education and training to achieving the Lisbon goals of making the EU the most competitive knowledge-based economy, with sustainable economic development, more and better jobs and greater social cohesion.In 2008, the final report of the "High Level Expert Group on Mobility" stated that by 2012, at least 15% of all young people aged in Europe should be offered the opportunity to engage in cross-border mobility as a medium term target. This figure should rise to 30% by 2015 and by 50% by 2020.This translates into 3.5% of all trainees in vocational education and training to be mobile in In figures this means 119,000 initial VET trainees in mobility in 2012 and 367,000 by Today, with Leonardo da Vinci, we achieve trainees in IVET mobility per year.The report also underlines that mobility in VET is less established as a systematic element of VET training pathways. Reasons for this include complex structures of vocational training systems across Member States – particularly in terms of apprenticeship structures and barriers related to social security and tax status of apprentices, low priority given to language development in VET and limited participation of businesses in Leonardo mobility, at least as applicants.This shows quite clearly the challenges we have to meet. The implication of the national and regional authorities as well as the private sector (especially the SME's enterprises), is crucial in this respect.The areas which are important to be addressed in connection with enhancing the mobility of apprentices, are:Ensure support structures of quality so that individuals and/or SME (and their apprentice(s)) can easily apply for a mobility activity. One important result of our different studies and pilot projects has been the understanding that SME will generally not apply for one of our mobility programmes themselves. They do not have the time and the resources to prepare a full application, go through the financial and operational capacity check and respond to the contractual conditions of EU agreements. That does not mean that they have not interest in participating in the programme: the participation of SME in Leonardo mobility is around 30 %, but often as host organisation.There is therefore a need for good intermediate organisations which are working in a network of committed partners and ensure mobility placements responding to our quality criteria.The recognition of the learning content acquired in a placement will help to increase the attractiveness of mobility periods abroad. Today, the instrument of the EUROPASS is already very helpful, but the progressive introduction of ECVET will allow a genuine integration of the learning outcomes abroad into the training course of the individual.Incentive demand - Quite often it is the individual learner himself that does not have a spontaneous wish to go abroad. They need incentives and to understand the advantages of a mobility experience. Important multipliers for trainees or apprentices to go on mobility are naturally the teachers or trainers. They are multipliers and role-models at the same time. It is therefore also important to increase their mobility experiences so that they themselves get acquainted with conditions in other countries and the benefits linked to a stay abroad. The VETPRO projects in Leonardo or the study-visits can support such visits.The previous points are closely linked to the funding issues, funding not only in the sense of higher funding but also in the sense of what is funded. Both aspects need reflection and development in order to achieve the aims.Financial support must be definitely higher if the numbers of participants should rise as planned. The budget for the LLP will not increase for a while with the consequence that we have to look for complementary funding. A common effort is therefore needed from all interested parties, Commission, National Authorities, regional Authorities and the business sector. The following sources should be explored:Other EU-funds, such as ESFNational FundsRegional fundsFunding from the enterprise sector, or their representing organisations (chambers, employer organisations, unions even)FoundationsWe have to be very creative and think along new lines if we want to increase the volume of mobility with the resources we have at hand. We have reached a point where EU funding alone is not sufficient anymore to meet the goals we want to achieve.Mobility will continue to stay in the political focus. The Council has adopted its conclusions on Youth mobility, with a clear commitment also from Member States’ side. It will be followed by a Green Paper on mobility which will be issued in summer 2009.The “Lifelong Learning” Programme “Leonardo da Vinci” supporting Mobility and Innovation in VET19
20 Lifelong Learning Programme Duration: January 2007 – December 2013Budget: € 7 billion31 Participating countries in 2007: 27 EU-Member States as well as… Norway, Iceland, Liechtenstein and Turkey
22 From Bordeaux 2008 to Bruges 2010: Multiple challenges Short term:Economic crisis: rising unemploymentEmployment reduction of 3.5 million jobs in 2009Unemployment up to 9.2% in 2009 (7.6% in 2008)Mismatch in supply and demand4 million vacancies and 18 million unemployed (2008)Medium to long-term:Sectoral changes (New skills for new jobs)Enhancing knowledge based and low carbon economyAnticipating changing skill needs78 million low-skilled in EuropeAddressing multiple challengesNeed to understand and anticipate skill needs: short-term, long-term22
23 From Bordeaux 2008 to Bruges 2010: Addressing the crisis Sustaining demand, employment and incomesFlexibility within firms: training and working time arrangementSupporting transitions: guidance, training and job placementStimulus measures for sectors (automotive, construction…)the crisis Current challenges and future opportunities23
24 From Bordeaux 2008 to Bruges 2010: Preparing the future Build on existing skills and competences:CVT, validation and recognition, guidanceLabour market relevance of skills (VET and HE): Copenhagen (new priority 3), Charter of Universities for LLLPartnerships between E&T and employersLLL paradigm focusing on skills and competences:Build pathways between structures and sub-systems of E&TPromote eco-innovation, “green jobs” and investment in strategic and innovative technologiesFurther develop European E&T tools, principles and references24
25 DG EAC’s website: http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/education_culture For further information:DG EAC’s website:
26 Merci de votre attention ! Thank you for your attention!26