Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13 section 3. To understand that there are natural clones (twins, certain plants, bacteria) To understand that there are artificial clones (plants,"— Presentation transcript:
To understand that there are natural clones (twins, certain plants, bacteria) To understand that there are artificial clones (plants, cloned animals) To understand how animals can be cloned, using Dolly the sheep as an example GMO applications Ethical issues
Clones are individuals who are genetically identical to one another
-1996 -First mammal to be cloned from an adult body cell -Easily the most famous cloned animal
Donor egg Nucleus removed = ENUCLEATED Body cell = SOMATIC CELL Nucleus removed to be used Enucleated donor egg and donor nucleus are fused using electricity Embryo grown in the lab Implanted III want a maternity test!
Scientists have found a way to change the genetic code They call it GENETIC ENGINEERING To change the genetic code, scientists choose a section of the code called a GENE Take the chosen gene out of the organism and put it into another organism The gene then works as a new organism
Transgenic organisms- an organism that contains genetic material into which DNA from an unrelated organism has been artificially introduced. Genetic engineering changes the GENETIC CODE of an organism. Scientists can alter the genes of sheep so that they produce milk that contains a special protein called AAT. People who suffer from a lung disease called EMPHYSEMA need ATT.
Identify the gene for the protein AAT in human DNA Remove the gene from human DNA Cut open the DNA in a bacterium Add the human DNA to the bacterium’s DNA Put the bacterium’s DNA into fertilized egg cell of a sheep Place the fertilized egg into a female sheep so it can develop into a lamb. When the lamb becomes an adult, it produces milk called AAT.
A genetically modified organism(GMO) or genetically engineered organism (GEO) is an organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques. 1. An embryo is created using in vitrio fertilization 2. DNA gene for drug plus mammary directing alginal injected into the fertilized alginal 3. Embryo implanted into adult sheep (surrogate) 4. Transgenic offspring produces drug in milk
DID YOU KNOW? Just 2000 transgenic sheep could provide enough ATT protein for every hospital in the world!
Developed as a need for more food with more nutritional value to feed growing populations Products can have different uses Introduce high values of vitamins/vaccines Allow ripe fruits to last longer Herbicide resistance Crop yeilds
Bioethics- the study of ethical issues related to DNA technology Biggest concern-Are they safe? Concern GMO crops damage environment Through pollination with organic crops Lessens diversity! Concerned that transgenic organisms If completely new species with intelligence are accidently created, are they protected? Do these organisms suffer at all?