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Done By: Benjamin Lee Liu Wei Wei Li Bailin Rowell Tan

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1 Done By: Benjamin Lee Liu Wei Wei Li Bailin Rowell Tan
Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Done By: Benjamin Lee Liu Wei Wei Li Bailin Rowell Tan

2 Identified causes Exxon Shipping Company failed to supervise the master and provide a rested and sufficient crew for Exxon Valdez. The NTSBfound this was widespread throughout the industry, prompting a safety recommendation to Exxon and to the industry. The third mate failed to properly maneuver the vessel, possibly due to fatigue or excessive workload. Exxon Shipping Company failed to properly maintain the Raytheon Collision Avoidance System (RAYCAS) radar, which, if functional, would have indicated to the third mate an impending collision with the Bligh Reef by detecting the "radar reflector", placed on the next rock inland from Bligh Reef for the purpose of keeping boats on course via radar.

3 Identified Causes Although popular opinion blamed the accident on the ship's captain, Joseph Hazelwood who was widely reported to have been drinking heavily that night, he was not in command of the ship. To the contrary, the captain was confirmed to be asleep in his bunk when the ship struck the reef. In light of the other findings, investigative reporter Greg Palast stated in 2008, "Forget the drunken skipper fable. As to Captain Joe Hazelwood, he was below decks, sleeping off his bender. At the helm, the third mate never would have collided with Bligh Reef had he looked at his RAYCAS radar. But the radar was not turned on. In fact, the tanker's radar was left broken and disabled for more than a year before the disaster, and Exxon management knew it. It was [in Exxon's view] just too expensive to fix and operate." Exxon blamed Captain Hazelwood for the grounding of the tanker.

4 Identified Causes Other factors, according to an MIT course entitled "Software System Safety" by Professor Nancy G. Leveson,included: Tanker crews were not told that the previous practice of the Coast Guard tracking ships out to Bligh reef had ceased. The oil industry promised, but never installed, state-of-the-art iceberg monitoring equipment.Exxon Valdez was sailing outside the normal sea lane to avoid small icebergs thought to be in the area. The 1989 tanker crew was half the size of the 1977 crew, worked 12–14 hour shifts, plus overtime. The crew was rushing to leave Valdez with a load of oil. Coast Guard tanker inspections in Valdez were not done, and the number of staff was reduced. Lack of available equipment and personnel hampered the spill cleanup.

5 Identified Causes What happened?
A oil tanker ship collided with Bleigh reef causing the leak of 38000m2 of crude oil Causes Exxon Shipping Company did not provide Exxon Valdez with enough crew members.(half the crew compared to 1977) Due to the lack of members, they have to work hours everyday. Crew members are too exhausted. The RAYCAS radar was spoilt and not replaced. Captain was drunk and asleep during the accident. The ship was sailing outside the normal sea lane to avoid the small icebergs thought to be in the area.

6 Impacts

7 Others The Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

8 Video

9 Measures Changes ExxonMobil has made to prevent another accident like Valdez In the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez accident, ExxonMobil redoubled its long-time commitment to safeguard the environment, employees and operating communities worldwide. To improve oil-spill prevention, ExxonMobil has, for example: * Modified tanker routes * Instituted drug and alcohol testing programs for safety sensitive positions * Restricted safety-sensitive positions to employees with no history of substance abuse * Implemented more extensive periodic assessment of ExxonMobil vessels and facilities * Strengthened training programs for vessel captains and pilots and

10 Measures * Applied new technology to improve vessel navigation and ensure the integrity of oil containment systems In the event a spill occurs, they also have improved their response capability. For example: * ExxonMobil is a founding member of every major oil spill response center worldwide * There are over 1,000 ExxonMobil employees involved in oil spill response teams worldwide * We hold frequent, extensive oil spill drills at various ExxonMobil locations around the world and * We have developed and applied new spill-detecting technology

11 Impacts Environmental impacts:
Deaths of, at the best estimates, 100,000 to as many as 250,000 seabirds, at least 2,800 sea otters, approximately 12 river otters, 300 harbour seals, 247 Bald Eagle, and 22 Orcas, and an unknown number of salmon and herring. The effects of the spill continued to be felt for many years afterwards. The population of various ocean animals saw reduction, including stunted growth in pink salmon populations. The reduction of salmon and other prey animals adversely affected the killer whale population. Sea otters and ducks also showed higher death rates in the following years.

12 Impacts Political impacts:
In response to the spill, the USA congress passed the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Economical impacts: In 1991, following the collapse of the local marine population (particularly clams, herring, and seals) the Chugach Alaska Corporation, an Alaska Native Corporation, filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. It has since recovered. According to several studies funded by the state of Alaska, the spill had both short-term and long-term economic effects. These included the loss of recreational sports, fisheries, reduced tourism, and an estimate of what economists call "existence value", which is the value to the public of a pristine Prince William Sound. Impacts on Exxon: Exxon had to pay $507.5 million punitive damages, and was involved in several lawsuits.

13 Biblography

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