Presentation on theme: "Access to Assets, Resources and Knowledge Lessons from India, Ethiopia and Ghana Regina Birner Chair of Social and Institutional Change in Agricultural."— Presentation transcript:
Access to Assets, Resources and Knowledge Lessons from India, Ethiopia and Ghana Regina Birner Chair of Social and Institutional Change in Agricultural Development Global Conference on Women in Agriculture March 13-15, New Delhi
http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTARD/Resources/gender_and_gov_in_rural_services.pdf Lessons from a study on rural service provision in India, Ghana and Ethiopia Key question –How to improve the provision of rural services to women? Type of services –Agricultural extension –Rural water supply Approach –Surveys of male and female household members, service providers and elected officials –in India with TISS & ISEC Overview
What are the key challenges? Why do the poor receive poor services? And why do poor women in rural areas receive particularly poor services? Triple challenge –Market failure – especially regarding knowledge services No incentives for pPrivate service providers have no incen Well-known economic reasons, such as public good nature –State failure: Services in rural areas difficult to supervise –Community failure: Elite capture and social exclusion Fourth challenge: Perception bias: “Women don’t farm.”
Community-Based Organizations Household Members Public Sector Service Providers NGO / Private service providers Services Local Political Representatives Political Parties Source: World Bank and IFPRI (2010), based on World Bank (2004) Routes of accountability and strategies to make services gender-sensitive
Strategy: Quota for women in local councils Example: India, Karnataka Potential –Policy is enforced: Women have a “seat at the table” of political decision-making - Goal in its own right! Not realized without quota (Ghana, Ethiopia) Challenge –Female representation in Gram Panchayats does not necessarily result in better service provision outcomes. –Example: Public Works Program in Karnataka Gram panchayat council members have to bargain for the resources to be spent in the village they represent Villages represented by women from scheduled castes get significantly fewer resources –Policy implication: Increase women’s bargaining power!
Strategy: Increase female frontline staff Example: Extension services ISEC / ISSER / EEPRI - IFPRISurveys Analysis shows: Female extension agents in Ghana more effective in reaching female farmers!
…however, overall access of women to extension rather low (Ghana) Page 7 (Percent respondents in contact with agent during the past year) ISSER-IFPRI Survey, 2008
Access to extension and livestock services in Karnataka ISEC-IFPRI Survey, 2006 (Percent households with contract during past year) Possible reason for higher access: Service provision by dairy cooperatives
Strategy: Community-based organizations Challenge: Women in leadership positions Page 9 Karnataka
Lessons learnt Different strategies to make service provision more gender- responsive –Need to find “Best Fit” for each country! Increasing the participation of women in local councils –Goal in its own right – political voice! –Does not automatically translate into better service outcomes Making public administration more gender-responsive –Increasing share of female frontline service providers can be very effective. –Often neglected; gap between rhetoric and reality Example: Second Administrative Reform Commission Promoting women in community-based organizations –Important route to accountability –Key is to ensure that women have voice!