2 EXPLORING PREHISTORYHominids: group that includes humans as well as earlier human-like creaturesPaleo-anthropologistsstudy the remains of hominid skeletonsDetermine what early hominids looked like & how they livedArcheologistsStudy artifacts, objects made & used by hominidsLearn about ancient people & their culturesCulture is the beliefs, knowledge and the way of life developed by a group of people.
3 Human AncestorsThe earliest known hominids lived in Africa. The earliest hominid bones are about 6 million years old, but not much is known about the very early examples.
4 Human Ancestors- Ardipithecus Ardipithecus: appeared about 4.4 million years ago;lived in Africa (Ethiopia), nicknamed “Ardi”.Walked upright on the ground, but on “all fours” in trees.About 3 ½ feet tall; ate mostly fruits & nuts.Discovered in 1994, but the study was completed & published in 2009.
5 Human Ancestors Australopithecus: appeared about 4 million years ago Lived in Africa (Ethiopia)Walked upright; had a larger brain than “Ardi”,about 3 ½ feet tall; Ate nuts, roots, other wild plants
6 “Lucy”Early hominid skeleton found in Hadar, Ethiopia by Donald JohanssonNamed “Lucy” after a Beatles song“Lucy” is an example of Australopithecus. She lived about 3.2 million years oldOne of the most complete early skeletons, about 40% complete
7 Human Ancestors – genus “Homo” Homo Habilis (“handy man”) about 2 ½ million yr. agoLived in Africa; about 4 feet tall, larger brain that Australopithecus.One of the first hominid who made stone tools.Homo Erectus (“upright man”) about 1 ½ million years agoLarger in size, about 5 feet tall, larger brain than Homo Habilis.Hunted for food, as well as gathered wild plantsUsed and made fireMigrated and spread from Africa into Asia.
8 Homo Sapiens Two early types Neanderthals Cro-Magnon Lived about 130,000-35,000 yr. ago. This group died out.Wore animal skins; cooked their food; buried their dead with grave gifts & flowers (may have had a belief in life after death)Heavier bodies than later Homo SapiensCro-MagnonAppeared about 35,000 years ago; looked essentially like modern humans & were ancestors of modern humansHad better tools & weaponsCreated beautiful cave art
10 SEVERAL TYPES OF VIEWS about the origin of HUMANITY CREATIONISM: God created humans and all species just are they are today. They have not changed.SCIENTIFIC EVOLUTION: Humans and other species evolved naturally, without a creator.DEISTIC or THEISTIC EVOLUTION: Humans and other species evolved as scientists believe they did, but the process was guided by God.
11 Ice AgesPeriods of colder climate and increased ice have occurred many times in the history of the earthSeveral times within the last 1.7 million years, ice has covered much of the earth.During these periods of ice, sea levels dropped and land was exposed in places, making it easier for people and animals to migrate over these land bridges.
12 3 early ages of humansPaleolithic age-old stone age (2 ½ million yr. ago – 12,000 yr. ago)Mesolithic age- middle stone age (12,000 yr. ago -10,000 yr. ago)Neolithic age-new stone age (10,000 yr. ago-4,000 yr. ago)
13 3 early ages: PALEOLITHIC AGE About 2 ½ million years ago to about 12,000 years ago (about 10,000BC)Old Stone Age: “Paleo” means “old”; “lithic” means “stone”People:Used stone toolsWere nomadicWere hunter-gatherersEventually spread through most parts of the world
14 3 early ages: Mesolithic Age About 12,000 years ago (about10,000BC) to about 10,000 years ago (about 8,000BC)Middle Stone Age. “meso”-middle.More sophisticated tools and weaponsBow and arrowFishhooks (made of bone)Harpoons (bone and antler)Tamed the dog (first domesticated animal)Used dugout canoes to fish in deeper water
15 NEOLITHIC AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION!!!!! About 10,000 years ago, or 8,000BC, somewhere in the Middle East, northern Iraq or southern TurkeyMade the discovery that plants grow from seeds and began to plant crops, the first farming!Began to herd animals, in addition to hunting.The changed from food gathering to food producing is called the Neolithic Agricultural RevolutionThis radically changed human culture!!!
16 Neolithic AgeAbout 10,000 years ago (8,000BC) to about 4,000 years ago (2,000BC).Farming (raising crops & herding animals):Wheat, barley, rice, milletSheep, goats, cattleEventually used the plow & simple fertilizerBetter tools including points produced by polishing & grinding.People stopped being nomadic& settled in villages, towns, and eventually, cities
17 Early towns & citiesJericho, west bank of the Jordan River, about 8000BCJarmo, present day Iraq, about 6500 BCCatalhuyuk, in southern Turkey, about 6700BC.