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Presentation on theme: "PREHISTORIC PEOPLE."— Presentation transcript:


2 EXPLORING PREHISTORY Hominids: group that includes humans as well as earlier human-like creatures Paleo-anthropologists study the remains of hominid skeletons Determine what early hominids looked like & how they lived Archeologists Study artifacts, objects made & used by hominids Learn about ancient people & their cultures Culture is the beliefs, knowledge and the way of life developed by a group of people.

3 Human Ancestors The earliest known hominids lived in Africa. The earliest hominid bones are about 6 million years old, but not much is known about the very early examples.

4 Human Ancestors- Ardipithecus
Ardipithecus: appeared about 4.4 million years ago; lived in Africa (Ethiopia), nicknamed “Ardi”. Walked upright on the ground, but on “all fours” in trees. About 3 ½ feet tall; ate mostly fruits & nuts. Discovered in 1994, but the study was completed & published in 2009.

5 Human Ancestors Australopithecus: appeared about 4 million years ago
Lived in Africa (Ethiopia) Walked upright; had a larger brain than “Ardi”, about 3 ½ feet tall; Ate nuts, roots, other wild plants

6 “Lucy” Early hominid skeleton found in Hadar, Ethiopia by Donald Johansson Named “Lucy” after a Beatles song “Lucy” is an example of Australopithecus. She lived about 3.2 million years old One of the most complete early skeletons, about 40% complete

7 Human Ancestors – genus “Homo”
Homo Habilis (“handy man”) about 2 ½ million yr. ago Lived in Africa; about 4 feet tall, larger brain that Australopithecus. One of the first hominid who made stone tools. Homo Erectus (“upright man”) about 1 ½ million years ago Larger in size, about 5 feet tall, larger brain than Homo Habilis. Hunted for food, as well as gathered wild plants Used and made fire Migrated and spread from Africa into Asia.

8 Homo Sapiens Two early types Neanderthals Cro-Magnon
Lived about 130,000-35,000 yr. ago. This group died out. Wore animal skins; cooked their food; buried their dead with grave gifts & flowers (may have had a belief in life after death) Heavier bodies than later Homo Sapiens Cro-Magnon Appeared about 35,000 years ago; looked essentially like modern humans & were ancestors of modern humans Had better tools & weapons Created beautiful cave art


10 SEVERAL TYPES OF VIEWS about the origin of HUMANITY
CREATIONISM: God created humans and all species just are they are today. They have not changed. SCIENTIFIC EVOLUTION: Humans and other species evolved naturally, without a creator. DEISTIC or THEISTIC EVOLUTION: Humans and other species evolved as scientists believe they did, but the process was guided by God.

11 Ice Ages Periods of colder climate and increased ice have occurred many times in the history of the earth Several times within the last 1.7 million years, ice has covered much of the earth. During these periods of ice, sea levels dropped and land was exposed in places, making it easier for people and animals to migrate over these land bridges.

12 3 early ages of humans Paleolithic age-old stone age (2 ½ million yr. ago – 12,000 yr. ago) Mesolithic age- middle stone age (12,000 yr. ago -10,000 yr. ago) Neolithic age-new stone age (10,000 yr. ago-4,000 yr. ago)

13 3 early ages: PALEOLITHIC AGE
About 2 ½ million years ago to about 12,000 years ago (about 10,000BC) Old Stone Age: “Paleo” means “old”; “lithic” means “stone” People: Used stone tools Were nomadic Were hunter-gatherers Eventually spread through most parts of the world

14 3 early ages: Mesolithic Age
About 12,000 years ago (about10,000BC) to about 10,000 years ago (about 8,000BC) Middle Stone Age. “meso”-middle. More sophisticated tools and weapons Bow and arrow Fishhooks (made of bone) Harpoons (bone and antler) Tamed the dog (first domesticated animal) Used dugout canoes to fish in deeper water

About 10,000 years ago, or 8,000BC, somewhere in the Middle East, northern Iraq or southern Turkey Made the discovery that plants grow from seeds and began to plant crops, the first farming! Began to herd animals, in addition to hunting. The changed from food gathering to food producing is called the Neolithic Agricultural Revolution This radically changed human culture!!!

16 Neolithic Age About 10,000 years ago (8,000BC) to about 4,000 years ago (2,000BC). Farming (raising crops & herding animals): Wheat, barley, rice, millet Sheep, goats, cattle Eventually used the plow & simple fertilizer Better tools including points produced by polishing & grinding. People stopped being nomadic& settled in villages, towns, and eventually, cities

17 Early towns & cities Jericho, west bank of the Jordan River, about 8000BC Jarmo, present day Iraq, about 6500 BC Catalhuyuk, in southern Turkey, about 6700BC.


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