# air water As light reaches the boundary between two media,

## Presentation on theme: "air water As light reaches the boundary between two media,"— Presentation transcript:

air water As light reaches the boundary between two media,
its energy is partially reflected back and partially transmitted into the new medium. The amount that is reflected depends on the types of materials and the angle of incident rays. air water

Laws of Reflection First Law Second Law The angle of incidence, i, is
equal to the angle of reflection, r. n i r Second Law The incident and reflected rays, and the normal, are coplanar.

Images formed by mirrors and lenses
may be classified as real or virtual. Real Image formed by actual rays of converging light Virtual Image not formed by actual rays of converging light, but from where the rays of light appear to come (diverging light rays)

Plane Mirror Images 1. virtual 2. upright 3. same size as object
Images formed by plane mirrors are always: 1. virtual (virtual images are always behind mirrors) 2. upright (virtual images are always upright) 3. same size as object (if the image is larger or smaller, the mirror isn’t flat) 4. front and back are reversed (some say “left and right”) 5. located as far behind the mirror as the object is in front

of light rays reflecting from a plane mirror. View reflection from two plane mirrors here and here. Play a game here to test your skill.

Curved Mirrors Terminology center of curvature - C; the
center of the original sphere radius of curvature - r; distance from center of curvature to the mirror vertex - V; the center of the mirror principal axis - a line through C and V principal focus - F; the point on the principal axis where light rays parallel and close to the principal axis converge; or from where they appear to diverge focal length - f; distance from V to F

Ray Diagrams Concave (Converging) Mirrors
rays parallel and close to the principal axis reflect through the focus 2. rays passing through the focus reflect parallel to the principal axis 3. rays passing through the center of curvature reflect straight back along the incident path C F

Convex (Diverging) Mirrors
1. rays parallel and close to the principal axis reflect away from the focus 2. rays heading toward the principal focus reflect parallel to the principal axis 3. rays heading toward the center of curvature reflect straight back along the incident path F C

Click here to view these three rays that are important in the formation of images in concave (converging) and convex (diverging) mirrors. Also view reflection from curved mirrors here, here,and here.

di/do = si/so 1/f = 1/do + 1/di Mirror Equation Magnification
Diverging rays must be extended as dotted lines behind the mirror in order to locate some images. Mirror Equation Magnification di/do = si/so 1/f = 1/do + 1/di f = focal length; positive for converging mirrors, negative for diverging mirrors do = object distance; usually positive di = image distance; can be positive or negative so = object size (height) si = image size (height)

Images formed by concave (converging) mirrors may be:
1. real, virtual, or non-existent 2. upright or inverted 3. reduced, enlarged, or same size 4. in front or behind the mirror Learn more about concave mirror images here. The image properties depend on the object’s location with respect to the mirror, focus, and center of curvature.

object is beyond the center of curvature:
image is real, inverted, and reduced object is on the center of curvature: image is real, inverted, and the same size object between center of curv. and focus: image is real, inverted, and enlarged object is on the focus: no image; rays reflect parallel object is inside the focus: image is virtual, upright, and enlarged