Presentation on theme: "Stellar Deaths Novae ans Super Novae 16. Hydrostatic Equilibrium Internal heat and pressure from fusion pushes outward Gravity pulling mass inward Two."— Presentation transcript:
Hydrostatic Equilibrium Internal heat and pressure from fusion pushes outward Gravity pulling mass inward Two forces balance! When all hydrogen transformed to helium, Sun will begin to collapse!
What Powers the Sun? Nuclear Fusion: What is that? Need high temperatures. Why? Energy is produced in this process. How?
What Powers the Sun? Nuclear Fusion: An event where the nuclei of two atoms join together. Need high temperatures. Why? To overcome electric repulsion. Energy is produced. (A small amount of mass = a lot of energy) E = mc 2. Sum of mass and energy always conserved in reactions. Mass is just “frozen” energy!
Why High Temperatures? To overcome electric repulsion High temp => fast atomic motion Nuclear forces - very short range (10 -15 m) 100 times EM force 10 39 times gravity Fusion video
CPS Question Sunspots are associated with “loops” created in the Sun's magnetic field as a result of _____. –A) prominences –B) flares –C) differential rotation –D) the solar wind
Question When a star runs out of hydrogen, what happens next?
Evolution of a Low-Mass Star (< 8 M sun, focus on 1 M sun case) - Helium ash collects in core. - - Too cool for He burning. Why? - - Core contracts. Heats up. H burning shell - Higher temp. => Brighter! Star expands! - "Red Giant". Diameter ~ 1 AU! - Does fusion rate at this stage increase or decrease? Why? Red Giant
Evolution of a Low-Mass Star (< 8 M sun, focus on 1 M sun case) - Helium ash collects in core. - - Too cool for He burning. Larger electric repulsion. - He Core contracts. Heats up. H burning shell - Higher temp. => Brighter! Star expands! - "Red Giant". Diameter ~ 1 AU! - Rate increases. Phase lasts ~ 1 billion years Red Giant
Creation of Heavier Elements - Core shrinks and heats up to 10 8 K, => Helium fuses into Carbon. - All He -> C. - Core shrinks and heats up. - Outer parts burn faster - Each phase shorter than the last. Red Supergiant
Death of a Low Mass Star What factor(s) eventually determine when this process stops?
"Planetary Nebulae" - - Low mass star (< 8 M sun ) cannot achieve 600 Million K temp. needed for Carbon fusion - - As core collapses Contraction stopped by the Pauli exclusion principle: two objects cannot occupy the same space. - As the core reaches its end stages of collapse the outer shell burns He even quicker, making the Star becomes unstable. Ejects outer layers in pulses. "Planetary Nebula" (Historical name, nothing to do with planets.) - - Once all the fuel has burned off, what’s left is a Carbon core called a “White Dwarf”
Stellar Lifetimes Is the lifetime of a high mass star shorter or longer than that of a lower mass star? Why?
Evolution of Stars > 8 M Sun Higher mass stars burn out faster and fuse heavier elements. Example: 20 M Sun star lives "only" ~10 million years. Heaviest element made in core of any star is iron. Products of outer layers become fuel for inner layers Eventual state of > 8 M Sun star
Stellar Explosions Novae White dwarf in binary system WD steals mass from companion. Eventually passes, a burst of fusion. Brightens by 10'000's! Cycle may repeat every few decades => recurrent novae.
Nova Cygni with Hubble May 1993 Jan 1994 1000 AU Is all of the accreted matter expelled into space during a nova?
A Carbon-Detonation or “Type I” Supernova Despite novae, mass continues to build up on WD. At 1.4 M Sun (the "Chandrasekhar limit"), gravity overwhelms the Pauli exclusion pressure supporting the WD => contraction and heating. Carbon fusion everywhere at once. Tremendous energy makes star explode. No core remnant.
Death of a Very High-Mass Star M > 8 M Sun Iron core at T ~ 10 10 K radiation photodisintegrates iron nuclei into protons and neutrons. Core collapses in < 1 sec. Neutrons “rebound”. Shock ejects outer layers => Core-collapse or Type II Supernova Ejection speeds 1000's to 10,000's of km/sec! Remnant is a “neutron star” or “black hole”. (Supernova Demo)
In 1000 years, the exploded debris might look something like this: Crab Nebula: debris from a stellar explosion observed in 1054 AD. Vela Nebula: debris from a stellar explosion in about 9000 BC. Or in 10,000 years: 2 pc 50 pc
Remember, carbon-detonation (Type I) and core-collapse (Type II) supernovae have very different origins
Testing our Theories How can we test our theories of stellar evolution when the lifetimes of stars are so long?
Star Clusters Two kinds: 1) Open Clusters -Example: The Pleiades -10's to 100's of stars -Young (10's to 100's of millions of years)
2) Globular Clusters - few x 10 5 or 10 6 stars - Billions of years old Why are star clusters useful for stellar evolution studies?
Clusters are useful for stellar evolution studies because all of the stars: 1) formed at about same time 2) are at about the same distance 3) have same chemical composition The ONLY variable property among stars in a cluster is mass!
Making the Heaviest Elements Since iron is the heaviest element that can be made by stellar fusion, where do the heavier elements come from?
Making the Elements H and some He were made in Big Bang. Rest made in stars, and distributed by supernovae. Heaviest elements made in supernovae. Solar System formed from such "enriched" gas 4.6 billion years ago.