Presentation on theme: "TYPES OF TEST ITEMS/TASKS"— Presentation transcript:
1 TYPES OF TEST ITEMS/TASKS Direct and indirect test itemsDiscrete-point testing and integrative testingTypes of test items:Multiple-choice questionsCloze proceduresTransformation and paraphraseSentence re-orderingEssaysRole-plays and other replicas of real-life interaction
3 TASKS to assess WRITING SKILLS CompositionsStoriesTransactional lettersInformation leafletsEssaysNewspaper articlesA set of instructions for other common tasks
4 TASKS to assess READING SKILLS Multiple-choice questionsMatching activitiesTransferring written information to charts, graphs, maps, etc.SummariesHeadingsInserting paragraphs
5 TASKS to assess LISTENING SKILLS Completing charts with facts and figuresIdentifying objectsIdentifying speakersIdentifying attitudes and opinionsFollowing directions (e.g. on the map)
6 MARKING A TEST Training More than one scorer Global assessment scales Analytical profilesScoring and interactingduring oral tests
7 GLOBAL ASSESSMENT SCALES (Oral Ability) ScoreDescriptionThe candidate is almost unintelligible, uses words wrongly and shows no sign of any grammatical understanding1The candidate is able to transmit only very basic ideas, using individual words rather than phrases or fuller patterns of discourse. Speech is very hesitant and the pronunciation makes intelligibility difficult2The candidate transmits basic ideas in a fairly silted way. Pronunciation is sometimes problematic and there are examples of grammatical and lexical misuse and gaps which impede communication on occasion.3The candidate transmits ideas moderately clearly. Speech is somewhat hesitant and there are frequent lapses in grammar and vocabulary use. Nevertheless, the candidate makes him/herself understood.4The candidate speaks fairly fluently, showing the ability to communicate ideas with not too much trouble. There are some problems of grammatical accuracy and some words are inappropriately used.5The candidate speaks fluently with few obvious mistakes and a wide variety of lexis and expression. Pronunciation is almost always intelligible, and there is little difficulty in communicating ideas.
8 ANALYTICAL PROFILES Criteria Score (see analytical scales) PronunciationFluencyUse of vocabularyUse of grammarIntelligibilityRepair skillsTask completion
9 ANALYTICAL SCALES (Fluency) ScoreDescriptionThe candidate cannot get words or phrases out at all.1The candidate speaks hesitantly in short, interrupted bursts.2The candidate speaks slowly with frequent pauses.3The candidate speaks at a comfortable speed with quite a lot of pauses and hesitations.4The candidate speaks at a comfortable speed with only an occasional pause or upset.5The candidate speaks quickly with few hesitations.
10 PUBLIC (INTERNATIONAL) EXAMS GENERAL ENGLISH examsCambridge ESOLPearson PTECity and Guilds PitmanACADEMIC ENGLISH examsIELTSPTE AcademicTOEFL and TOEICBUSINESS ENGLISH examsLCCI (London Chamber of Commerce and Industry)
11 TEACHING FOR TESTS Backwash, or washback, effect Teaching becomes dominated by the testA range of activities VS exam-format tasksA clear sense of purpose VS a less clear focusTeacher-driven learning VS autonomous learning
12 “It’s important to build variety and fun into an exam course as it is to drive Ss towards the goal of passing their exam”Burgess and Head 2005
13 “Hitting the target” STRATEGIES Train for test typesGetting ‘inside the heads’ of the test designersDiscuss general exam skillsBuilding Ss up to an examDo practice testsGetting a feel for the experienceHave funEliminating boredom and tensionIgnore the testWorking on general language issues, taking part in motivating activities from time to time
14 TIPS FOR TEACHERS Try to view assessment as a CELEBRATION OF LEARNING Discover where mistakes are made and ways to fix them is as much a celebration as it is an acknowledgment of strengths for use in further growthGive Ss CHOICE IN THEIR ASSESSMENT TASKS where appropriateWhen Ss are given choice, they engage more deeply in the assessment activity, and their results are more likely to provide valid inferencesGive Ss the OPPORTUNITY TO MAKE MISTAKES in their assessmentMistakes provide feedback they can use to adjust what they are doingView formative assessment as a way to give DESCRIPTIVE FEEDBACK to improve learningHave Ss think critically about what they know and can do