Presentation on theme: "Parenthetical Citations using the MLA (Modern Language Association) Format."— Presentation transcript:
Parenthetical Citations using the MLA (Modern Language Association) Format
Parenthetical Citations What is a parenthetical citation? Information that is included in a paper which tells the reader where to find the source.
In MLA style, when you refer to the works of others in your text, either through paraphrasing or quoting them directly you must: include the reference in your paper AND then on your works cited page. 1. Provide the author's name or the title of the work and the page or paragraph number of the work in parentheses THEN… 2 Provide full citation information for the work on your Works Cited page. Parenthetical Citations in MLA
3 Ways to “Borrow” Information Quote- Quote only the passages that deal directly with your subject in memorable language. Paraphrase- Restate the content of a short passage phrase by phrase, rewording the author’s words in your own (Trimmer 24). Summarize- Shorten a long passage, keep the main idea and outline the main points, in you own words (Trimmer 24).
The author's name may appear in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase or summary. The page number should always appear in the parentheses following the quotation, summary, or paraphrase, not in the text of your sentence. Sally Walker contends that Halifax, in Nov Scotia, Canada, has an interesting past (1). OR Nova Scotia has an interesting past (Walker 1).
If no Author, use the Title (This is especially true for some internet sources and encyclopedia articles) After the war, Hiroshima became the center of a peace movement hoping to ban nuclear weapons. (Hiroshima ) "Hiroshima." Britannica School. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 2014. Web. 5 Mar. 2014..http://school.eb.com/levels/high/ article/40562
A Comparison of Quoting, Summarizing, and Paraphrasing the same information in the following examples. Quoting (Author, Page at the end of the quote). President Truman was pleased that the testing of the atomic bomb had gone so well, “ Let there be no mistake about it. I regarded the bomb as a military weapon and never had any doubt that it should be used. ” (Truman 415-21).
Long Quotations – four or more lines Indent 1 inch one each side, do not use quotation marks, double-space, set off by a colon, final period goes before parenthetical citation (Trimmer 25) In the Iliad, both Achilles and Hector call on Zeus for protection: Now, at last, as the two came closing for the kill it was tall Hector, Helmet flashing, who led off: “No more running from you in fear, Achilles! Not as before. Three times I fled around the great city of Priam – I lacked courage then (66)
Secondary Quotation John Malam, in his book The Bombing of Hiroshima, recounts statements of Albert Einstein, whose letter encouraged the U.S. to build the atomic bomb. Einstein said, “I could burn my fingers that I wrote that first letter to Roosevelt” (27). OR (Author and page at end) Albert Einstein’s response after the bombing of Hiroshima is telling of the horrific aftermath and his guilt resulting from the event. In reflecting on a letter he had once written to President Roosevelt regarding uranium, he said, “I could burn my fingers” for ever writing it (qtd. In Malam 27).
Paraphrasing (Author, Page at the end of the paraphrase). President Truman was pleased that the testing of the atomic bomb had gone so well; he felt the use of the bomb could bring the war in the Pacific to an end, saving countless American lives (Malam 18).
Summarizing (Author, Page at the end of the summary). Though a tough political situation, President Truman thought it would be best to use the atomic bomb to bring the war in the Pacific to an end (Malam 18).
MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. 7 th ed. New York: The Modern Language Association of America, 2009. Print. "Hiroshima." Britannica School. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 2014. Web. 5 Mar. 2014. http://school.eb.com/levels/high/article/40562. Malam, John. The Bombing of Hiroshima. North Mankato, MN: Smart Apple Media, 2003. Print. Trimmer, Joseph F. A Guide to MLA Documentation. 7 th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2006. Print Truman, Harry S. Memoirs. New York: Oxford, 1953. Print Works Cited