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ROSETTA UN-HABITAT United Nations Human Settlements Programme

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1 ROSETTA UN-HABITAT United Nations Human Settlements Programme
Regional Office for Africa and the Arab States Rapid Urban Sector Profiling for Sustainability (RUSPS) Project Designed by UN-HABITAT, Implemented By GOPP, Ministry of Housing, Utilities & Urban Development and Financed by Cities Alliance, UN-HABITAT & World Bank ROSETTA

2 This report was prepared by the RUSPS team of Egypt, elaborating on information collected through interviews with key urban actors in Rosetta and a city consultation facilitated by the team members. Ali El Faramawy managed and supervised this project and Hassanien Abouzeid, Abdelwahab Helmy, Moustafa Madbouly, Ghada Farouk Hassan, Hebatalla Abouelfadl, Mohab El Refaie, Doaa El Sherif, Alia El Mahdi, Anwar El Nakeeb, and Mohamed Eid provided important inputs. Graphic editing by: Heba Aboul Fadl The designation employed and the presentation of the material in the publication do not imply the impression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city, or area, or of its authorities, or concerning delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries, or regarding its economic system or degree of development. The analysis, conclusions, and recommendations of the report do not necessarily reflect the views of the United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT), the Governing Council of UN-HABITAT, or its member states. Excerpts from this publication may be reproduced without authorisation, on condition that the source is indicated. © United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT), 2006 HS Number: N/A ISBN Number: N/A United Nations Human Settlements Programme Publications can be obtained from UN-HABITAT Regional and Information Offices or directly from: United Nations Human Settlements Programme P.O. Box 30030, GPO 00100 Nairobi, Kenya Fax:(25420) /7 Website:

3 FOREWORD In Egypt, RUSPS has been implemented in Alexandria and Suez and has extended to five other cities. Two sectors – economy and infrastructure – have been added and in Rosetta an additional sector – heritage – was further required. More importantly, RUSPS has been adapted to a variety of needs and served many national programmes and projects. I wish to acknowledge the contribution of the team in Nairobi with the leadership of Dr. Mohamed El-Sioufi, the efforts of Dr. Ali El Faramawy, UN-HABITAT Programme Manager in Egypt, and Dr. Hazem El-Koeidy, Chairman of the General Organization for Physical Planning. Furthermore, I wish to thank the local team of experts implementing and adapting the RUSPS in Egypt, namely, Dr. Ghada Farouk Hassan, Dr. Mohab El Refaie, Dr. Hebatalla Abouelfadl, Dr. Moustafa Madbouly, Dr. Doaa El Sherif, Dr. Hassanien Abouzeid, Dr. Abdelwahab Helmy, and Dr. Mohamed Eid, Arch. Ahmed Rabye as well as the many planners, architects and engineers supporting the team. I would like to wish the Ministry of Housing, Utilities and Urban Development and all who have participated in and supported this initiative success in implementing the various programmes that were based on the RUSPS method. I am also looking forward to supporting further efforts in the development of Egypt’s urban sector. Anna K. Tibaijuka Under-Secretary-General of the United Nations and Executive Director, UN-HABITAT Egyptian cities are confronted in the new millennium with the problem of accommodating rapidly growing populations and providing them with tenure, infrastructure, and shelter, while ensuring sustainability and enhancing economic growth. As part of our drive to address this crisis, UN-HABITAT is working with the European Commission (EC) and other partners to support sustainable development around the world. Given the urgent and diverse needs, the agency found it necessary to develop a tool for rapid assessment to guide immediate and mid- and long-term interventions. In 2004, UN-HABITAT’s Regional Office for Africa and the Arab States took the initiative to develop the approach further for application in over 24 countries. This was achieved through collaboration with many departments within the agency. The implementation of RUSPS was supported by the Governments of Italy, Belgium, and the Netherlands as well as the Cities Alliance, the World Bank (WB), and the German Association for Technological Cooperation (GTZ) in Egypt. The idea behind RUSPS is to help formulate urban poverty reduction policies at the local, national, and regional levels through a rapid, participatory, crosscutting, holistic, and action-oriented assessment of needs. RUSPS initially addressed four main themes: governance, slums, gender, and environment. It seeks to build a national profile and three city profiles. TABLE OF CONTENTS ROSETTA PROFILE – EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ….……………2 ROSETTA PROFILE – INTRODUCTION ……….…………………3 ROSETTA PROFILE – BACKGROUNG ……….....………………4 ROSETTA PROFILE – HERITAGE OR HISTORIC AREAS ..…. 8 ROSETTA PROFILE – GOVERNANCE ………………………….10 ROSETTA PROFILE – SLUMS & SHELTERS ………………...12 ROSETTA PROFILE – GENDER AND HIV/AIDS ROSETTA PROFILE – ENVIRONMENT ROSETTA PROFILE – BASIC URBAN SERVICES ROSETTA PROFILE – LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ..20 PROJECT PROPOSALS HERITAGE OR HISTORIC AREAS GOVERNANCE SLUMS & SHELTER GENDER AND HIV/AIDS ENVIRONMENT BASIC URBAN SERVICES LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

4 ROSETTA URBAN PROFILE – EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Introduction Rapid Urban Sector Profiling for Sustainability (RUSPS) is an accelerated and action-oriented urban assessment of needs and capacity-building gaps at the city level. It is currently being implemented in over 20 countries in Africa and the Arab states. RUSPS uses a structured approach where priority interventions are agreed upon through consultative processes. The RUSPS methodology consists of three phases: (i) a rapid participatory urban profiling at national level, focusing on governance, slums, gender and HIV/AIDS, environment, and proposed interventions (due to the local conditions, the World Bank and the Government of Egypt added two issues of important local concern – local economic development and basic urban services); (ii) detailed priority proposals; and (iii) project implementation. RUSPS in Egypt encompasses a national profile as well as profiles for Alexandria, Suez, Menia, Baltim, Tanta, and Rosetta, each published as a separate report. This is the Rosetta Urban Sector Profile and it constitutes a general background, a synthesis of the seven themes – heritage (or historic areas), governance, slums, gender and HIV/AIDS, environment, local economic development, and basic urban services – and priority project proposals. Background The city of Rosetta is under the jurisdiction of Al-Beheira Governorate and is located 12 km away from the mouth of the Rosetta branch of the Nile River, along its western bank. The city is approximately 65 km east of Alexandria and 55 km away from Damanhour, the capital of Al-Beheira Governorate. Heritage or Historic Areas The city dates back to the ancient Egyptian era and is internationally known for the Rosetta stone, which led to the modern understanding of hieroglyphs. Although there was a law issued declaring Rosetta a tourism city, it does not fully use its tourist potential in a suitable manner. The city lacks adequate sanitation; this has led to an increase in the groundwater level, which in turn affected historic buildings. The city also has numerous informal peddlers and markets scattered throughout the streets of the historic area, which lead to traffic-clogged streets and the accumulation of garbage. Governance The local authority in Rosetta is clearly popular, and this is underpinned by a sustainable trust relationship between the society and the local authority officials. However, among both citizens and local authority officials, there is a lack of understanding of what urban governance truly stands for (e.g. transparency, decentralisation, and accountability). This situation is applicable to most small Egyptian cities; progressive understandings of urban governance are quite novel in Egyptian cities, with wrong concepts often embedded in people’s minds. Slums and Shelters Five slum areas are on the periphery of the old centre of the city (Ezbit Hassan Ali, Abou El Reesh, Katkat, El Kassara, and Behind Transformers) with a total area of 2.15 km². The estimated population of the slum areas in 2005 was approximately 20,391, which represents 29 percent of the total population of the city. The old city streets are crowded with peddlers and informal markets. Gender and HIV/AIDS Women in slum areas experience a poor quality of life, low standards of public services, and high rates of violence against them. Although the crime rate is high, religious and customary practices sometimes protect women from common violence. Generally, women in Rosetta suffer from poverty, social and economic problems, and weak political participation. Environment Rosetta is privileged by a number of features that could help it to be an environmentally unique city. It is situated on the Nile River, with wonderful vistas; in addition, it has many unique heritage areas, which make it different from other cities in Al-Beheira Governorate. Despite these features, Rosetta suffers from many environmental problems, including widespread pollution. Basic Urban Services The lack of drainage facilities in the city, coupled with the delays in completing the wastewater treatment plant (under the National Project for Sanitation) due to lack of mechanical equipment, has negatively impacted historic buildings in the city. The poor drainage leads to a high water table that, ironically, delays the operations of the National Project for Sanitation. Local Economic Development Although there are huge economical potentials in Rosetta (e.g. tourism, agricultural land, shipbuilding), they are not fully taken advantage of. Basically, there is no investment map that shows potential investment areas. 2

5 ROSETTA URBAN PROFILE – INTRODUCTION
Rapid Urban Sector Profiling for Sustainability Rapid Urban Sector Profiling for Sustainability (RUSPS) consists of an accelerated and action-oriented assessment of urban conditions, focusing on priority needs, capacity gaps, and existing institutional responses at local and national levels. The purpose of the study is to develop urban poverty reduction policies at local, national, and regional levels, through an assessment of needs and response mechanisms, and as a contribution to wider-ranging implementation of the Millennium Development Goals. The study is based on analysis of existing data and a series of interviews with all relevant urban stakeholders, including local authorities and government, civil society, the private sector, development partners, academics, and others. This consultation typically results in a collective agreement on priorities and their development into proposed capacity-building and other projects, all aimed at urban poverty reduction. RUSPS is being implemented in over 20 African and Arab countries, offering an opportunity for comparative regional analysis. Once completed, this series of studies will provide a framework for central and local authorities and urban actors, as well as donors and external support agencies. Methodology RUSPS consists of three phases: Phase one consists of rapid profiling of urban conditions at national and local levels. Small, medium, and large cities, representing a wide range of local conditions, are studied to provide a representative sample in each country. The analysis focuses on seven themes: heritage and historic areas, governance, slums, gender and HIV/AIDS, environment, local economic development, and basic urban services. Information is collected through standard interviews and discussions with institutions and key informants, in order to assess the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) of the national and local urban set-ups. The findings are presented and refined during city and national consultation workshops and consensus is reached regarding priority interventions. National and city reports synthesise the information collected and outline ways forward to reduce urban poverty through holistic approaches. Phase two builds on the priorities identified through pre-feasibility studies and develops detailed capacity-building and capital investment projects. Phase three three implements the projects developed during the two earlier phases, with an emphasis on skills development, institutional strengthening, and replication. This report presents the outcomes of RUSPS Phase One at the local level in Rosetta. RUSPS in Rosetta RUSPS in Rosetta is one of six similar exercises conducted in Egypt: Alexandria and Suez represent coastal cities; Baltim and Menouf represent small cities; Tanta is an example of a delta city; and Rosetta is an example of a medium-sized city along the Nile in Lower Egypt. Rosetta also serves as a representative of those cities in which cultural heritage is vulnerable. Each city profile is published as a separate report. In Rosetta, many national development projects are being implemented: there is the national development of rural strategies and a national project for western expansion, as well as many pro-poor and slum-upgrading projects financed and implemented by NGOs or foreign donors. The aim of RUSPS was to develop options for formal inter-agency collaboration in order to create a coordination body integrating a wide range of stakeholders in a single response mechanism. Report Structure This report consists of: A general background of the urban sector in Rosetta, based on the findings of the Rosetta assessment report, a desk study, interviews, and a city consultation that was held in Rosetta in May 2006 (see back cover for a list of participants in the city consultation). The background includes data on administration, urban planning, economy, the informal and private sector, urban poverty, infrastructure, water, sanitation, public transport, energy, health, and education, at both government and city level; A synthetic assessment of seven main areas – heritage or historic areas, governance, slums, gender and HIV/AIDS, environment, local economic development, and basic urban services – in terms of the institutional set-up, regulatory framework, resource mobilisation, and performance. The second section also highlights agreed priorities and includes a list of identified projects; A SWOT analysis and an outline of priority project proposals for each theme (this is the third and final section). The proposals include beneficiaries, partners, estimated cost, objectives, activities, and outputs. 3

6 ROSETTA URBAN PROFILE – BACKGROUND
ROSETTA IN DATA The area of the city is approximately 5 km², which represents 2.6 percent of the county area; the county in turn represents 2.11 percent of the governorate area. The estimated population of the city in 2005 was 70,314. Rosetta is located at south latitude 28° 35' and at longitude 34° 31', 65 km east of Alexandria and 55 km from Damanhour, the capital of Al-Beheira Governorate. The city has a master plan that sets guidelines until The master plan identifies and allocates space for all activities that should be in the city; it particularly focuses on its tourism role by including areas for tourism and its services. ROSETTA - Master Plan- 2022 4

7 ROSETTA URBAN PROFILE – BACKGROUND
ROSETTA’S DEVELOPMENT After the construction of the Aswan High Dam, which controlled the Nile floodwater, the sea started to cover the shores and 2 km of central Rosetta, with all its tourist buildings, were completely submerged. Projects for tourism development have been initiated, including erecting seawater barriers to protect the shores and enable the rebuilding of submerged tourist villages. The importance of Rosetta as a tourist destination was confirmed in the law 113/1986, which identified Rosetta as a tourist city. The Supreme Council of Antiquities started the first phase of preservation of the city’s historic buildings in 1985. About 760 Feddans have been allocated to build a new residential village, in addition to 2,000 Feddans for building a tourist city and summer vacation housing on the Mediterranean Sea. No population statistics have been gathered since 1996, but the population is estimated by calculating the growth rate as shown in the following table. Estimated Population for 2005/2006 with a Growth Rate of 2.1 male female Total 2005 2006 Rosetta 35,852 34,462 70,314 36,605 35,186 71,791 ElBorg Village 8,377 7,761 16,138 8,553 7,924 16,477 Mahlet Elamir Village 24,649 23,154 47,703 25,169 23,640 48,809 Edfina 16,647 18,029 34,676 16,997 18,407 35,404 El Sahel 13,929 13,654 27,983 14,221 13,940 28,161 Total of Centre 99,454 97,060 196,514 101,545 99,097 200,642 The city is internationally known for the Rosetta stone, which was the key to the deciphering of hieroglyphs. It also takes an impressive second place after Cairo in the number of Islamic heritage buildings it has; meanwhile, the number of historic residential buildings in Rosetta exceeds those in Cairo. 5

8 ROSETTA URBAN PROFILE – BACKGROUND
ADMINISTRATION The city is under the Local Authority of the County and City of Rosetta. Administrative Divisions 3 local village units 15 main and secondary villages 3 police posts police station dependant villages Edfina 6 (Edfina - Eastrn Amria - Western Amria - ElTaftish - ElMolkah - Manshaet Elwan) - Edfina 2- ElTaftish 3- Borg Rosetta 1 71 El Sahel 4 (ElSahel - ElKom - Sidi Omar - ElGadeeda) Mahalet El Amir 5 (Mahalet El Amir – Ehamad -ElGediah - Diby - ElShamasma) Local Government and Main Stakeholders Head of Neighborhood Stakeholders Public council Local Authority Governor NGOs/ CBOs Private Sector Experts Local Government 6

9 ROSETTA URBAN PROFILE – BACKGROUND
EMPLOYMENT Number of male and female employees in important administrative units: Administrative Unit male female Total Local Administrative Centre in Rosetta 531 115 646 Local Village Centres 202 57 259 Health Unit in Rosetta and Villages 346 570 916 Educational Authority and Schools 1,007 1,147 2,154 Village Schools 1,065 732 1,797 Social Unit 41 50 91 NGOs And Nurseries 3 95 98 5,961 LITERACY Number of illiterate persons in county for year 2006: Number of illiterate persons in county male female Total City 2219 3311 5530 Rural Areas 7146 9092 16238 9365 12403 21768 PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION Rosetta is privileged to be located close to the International Coastal Road. The city has poor railway tracks connecting it to Alexandria (single track). The city also suffers from the problem of silt sedimentation in its strait, which often leads to a total blockage, thus affecting the economy of the city. SOCIAL SERVICES The city lacks adequate social services (e.g. youth centres, playgrounds, clubs, culture centres, and libraries). Rosetta is known for its agricultural products: citrus and other fruits, vegetables, and different kinds of dates 7

10 ROSETTA URBAN PROFILE – HERITAGE OR HISTORIC AREAS
The number of heritage buildings has decreased from 52 in 1963 to 37 in The city has numerous informal peddlers and markets in the streets of the historic area, which lead to traffic jams and the accumulation of garbage. REGULATORY FRAMEWORK •National policies support the upgrading of heritage cities. The government has issued law 13/1986 declaring Rosetta a tourist city. •There is a lack of specific building codes for heritage areas that would enable the preservation of the old urban fabric of the city. •Building codes concerning setbacks in heritage buildings are issued by the Supreme Council for Antiquities; the codes specify 2.5 meters for setbacks to give space to build a scaffold needed for preservation work. •There is conflict among the three authorities responsible for the city and its historic area. First, Al-Beheira Governorate is responsible for issuing licenses for the erection of new buildings, or the alteration or clearance of existing ones, either inside or outside the historic areas. In addition, it solves problems related to housing, public buildings, and providing basic urban services. Second is the Ministry of Endowments, which is responsible for providing services to a number of historic mosques (maintenance, furniture, salaries for mosque employees). The ministry has also rented out space in historical buildings. Third is the Supreme Council for Antiquities, which is responsible for providing maintenance and restoration for historical buildings that are listed on the national registrar. The conflict among the authorities and their lack of coordination led to the decline of historic areas. Some rented stores in the ground level of the historic buildings have been used for such functions as raising cattle and poultry and keeping horses, activities that are not suitable for the nature and value of the area and have a negative impact on the buildings. •Fifteen percent of the income from entry tickets at historic buildings is diverted to the local authorities for the purpose of cleaning the area and paving streets around the buildings. •The Supreme Council of Antiquities faced problems when needing to temporary evacuate a rented building for preservation work. The tenants refuse to obey as they are renting the building from another authority which is the Ministry of Endowments. A legal mechanism for compensation is being studied. •There is no participatory mechanism for the development of historic areas. . ِ“Abohoum” residency located in Dehliz El Molk street is considered a drastic example of the lack of specific building codes for the historic district. The building stands alone in the middle of the street while all adjacent buildings have a clear setback. 8

11 9 RESOURCE MOBILISATION DEVELOPMENT OF HERITAGE AREAS N° 2
• Inadequate recourse is considered the main problem of historic building conservation. • The Supreme Council of Antiquities depends on self-generated resources acquired from entry tickets, international exhibits, and replicas. DEVELOPMENT OF HERITAGE AREAS • The historic area is provided with all basic urban services except a sanitation network. • The lack of sanitation has led to an increase of the groundwater level, which directly affects historic buildings. An example: Zaghloul Mosque is undergoing a major preservation project to raise the mosque foundation level to one meter above ground after the floor was submerged in rising groundwater. • Rosetta suffers from pollution caused by heavy vehicles; the vibrations also affect the structure of the historic buildings in the city. • The city (municipality and local government) does not have any authority over centres operating under the supervision of ministries and central institutions. • There is a shortage of trained technical workers in the conservation field. • Weak public awareness about cultural heritage resources and their significance has led to low budget priorities and illegal acts of vandalism. • Restoration of the Arab Kelly residence, which currently houses the Rosetta museum. • The Tourism Development Agency provides direction signs for public streets AGREED PRIORITIES • Development of the area surrounding Qait Bey Fortress. • Development of Dehliz El Molk Street in the heart of the city. • Development of the city’s waterfront, from the city entrance to the brick workshops to the north. • Documentation of heritage in Rosetta. • Public awareness for city residents. • Preparing the city as a tourist destination by putting up signs and publishing a tourist guide. • Developing an effective institutional set-up for authorities responsible for heritage. INSTITUTIONAL SET-UP AND CAPACITY BUILDING • The stakeholders that cooperate with the local government in developing poor neighbourhoods are the non-governmental organizations (NGOs). • Rosetta receives great attention from researchers in Egyptian universities as well as international researchers. An information system project has been completed; it was a collaborative project between the Supreme Council of Antiquities and the University of Lille in France and Italy (as well as other countries), with several research studies by the authority responsible for continuous development. • There is a need for capacity building and training in the field of historic restoration. HERITAGE AREAS N° 1 Project proposal page 23 A project for developing the area surrounding Qait Bey Fortress in Rosetta HERITAGE AREAS N° 2 Project proposal page 23 A project for developing Dehliz El Molk street 9

12 ROSETTA URBAN PROFILE – URBAN GOVERNANCE
INTRODUCTION The local authority in Rosetta benefits to a large extent from a clear popularity among the members of society, despite the lack of resources and the deficiency in some of the services provided to the citizens. This popularity is underpinned by a trust relationship between the society and the local authority officials. Because of the historical position of Rosetta, there is a significant interest in the historical buildings and areas from foreign agencies and international NGOs. These actors desire to help the city council in preserving and improving historical building, as well as enacting governorate policies to preserve Rosetta’s culture, civilisation assets, and historical identity. There is a lack of understanding of what urban governance truly stands for (e.g. transparency, decentralisation, and accountability) among citizens and local authority officials. THE CITY’S ORGANIZATIONAL SET-UP CITY PRESIDENT Youth & Sports Real Estate Taxes Legal Affairs Dept. Economic Development Dept. Services Branches Planning & follow up Public Relations Dept. Complaints Office Engineering Dept. City Secretary Administration Affairs Dept. Human Resources Council Affairs & Committees Infrastructure Mechanical Dept. Financial Dept. Building & Projects Physical Planning & Permits • The central government appoints the governor. • The Minister of Local Development appoints the president of the city. • The members of the governorate council are appointed according to law 47 of 1979. • The members of the popular local council for the city and for the district are elected; they represent political parties and the list of candidates is checked by security. • The local city council consists of 24 men with no representation of women (the law does not specify a specific minimum number of women). • The city council has specialised departments: administration, technical, professional, and auxiliary services. RESOURCE MOBILISATION Income Resources (Revenues) Budgets The first budget (which includes salaries of permanent workers plus promotions and bonuses) is part of the Al-Beheira Governorate budget. It amounted to $ (US Dollars) in 2005 – a 8.5 percent increase over the 2004 budget and a 17 percent increase over the budget of 2003. The second budget (services and product fees) amounted to $ (US Dollars) in 2005, a 33 percent increase over the 2004 budget and a 34 percent increase over 2003. The “Urgent Plan” budget in 2005 was (US Dollars) , which was a 24 percent increase over 2003. The sum of revenues from the local authority projects in 2005 was (US Dollars). Though the first budget provides the most revenue for the city, this does not diminish the importance of the revenues of the local authority projects, when the total share per person of all these budgets and revenues amounts to (US Dollars). • Properties fees (real estate and building permits) • Physical planning fees (land ownership) • Entertainment fees (cafes, cinemas, cafeterias) • Sanitary works fees • Local commercial and industrial fees (workshops and commercial stores) • Revenues from government land properties • Revenues from the projects of the local authority (e.g. river transport, bakeries, services and local development funds, cleanliness funds, city enhancement funds, gas project, road projects) 10

13 11 INCLUSIVE DECISION MAKING URBAN ADMINISTRATION AGREED PRIORITIES
• The constitution allows civilians the right to access basic services such as food, education, work, health care, shelter, potable water, sanitation, and other basic needs for a decent life. • In the decision-making processes, the actual vision for increasing participation in urban management is frail. • The percentage of women working within the city council amounts to 21.6 percent of the total (646 employees). • The executive bodies create the governing plans for development processes, despite the participation of the people in the crediting processes (smaller districts receive credits which amount to 250,000 EGP). • No adequate representation of women in the local city council and there are no women representatives in the local governorate council. • Training programmes in local development centres are used to empower women and help them to participate in the decision-making processes concerning public and local issues. These programmes are not beneficial and have no positive impact on actual participation because political parties choose the training candidates. • The elected public councils initiate development issues to be discussed. Strategies and plans are later shown to them for approval according to the local governing law. • The resources of the city council are too limited to fulfil the society’s needs. This emphasises the importance of NGOs. • There is not a trained, qualified work force capable of providing a better standard of service. • There is no direct relationship between employees’ skills and the increase of salaries. • In the local city council, there is a special office dedicated to receiving citizens’ complaints, in order to improve services. • There is no investment plan for the city that indicates investment potentials that will support local economic development. • Work should be done to raise the awareness of the public regarding the real issues affecting their society. TRANSPARENCY AND ACCOUNTABILITY RESPONSIBILITY AND PERFORMANCE • The local authority announces general tenders and bids through the contracts department according to the governing law. • Budgets are not disclosed to citizens in a way that would allow them to evaluate performance and adequately participate in modifying the approaches. • Implementation of the participation process is clearly lacking in the urban management sector. AGREED PRIORITIES  Developing leadership skills in the local council.  Supplying the council in general and the physical planning department in specific with computers to improve city management.  Creating an urban development strategy that involves all stakeholders in society.  Initiating a dedicated centre for the management of Rosetta’s heritage and history.  Building capacities of local authority personnel to implement partnerships with the private sector and NGOs.  Training the local authority on initiating budgets using a participatory process.  Building a tourist office dedicated to helping tourists and providing them with a high level of service. INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORT • The strategy plans of the public councils are announced to the public before approval. • The approval of the projects by the public councils is the only available system for the inclusion of civil society. • There is no adequate representation of women in the council or the decision-making circles. • No clear/concrete partnerships or cooperation exist among the council, NGOs, and the private sector to support and develop the services the council offers to the people. BUILDING CAPACITIES AND TRAINING • There is a significant lack of trained workers and an absence of effective training programmes to help create new young cadres qualified to bear the responsibilities. • The salaries are small with no adequate financial or career incentives. • There are no training plans for city council employees. • The local authority as a whole has only 4 computers while the local council has 14. Computers and other electronic equipment should be provided to support the different departments. GOVERNANCE N° 1 Project proposal page 25 Developing leadership skills in the local council GOVERNANCE N° 2 Project proposal page 25 Initiate a dedicated centre for the management of Rosetta’s heritage & history. 11

14 ROSETTA URBAN PROFILE – SLUMS & SHELTERS
SECURE TENURE • The city contains five slum areas (Ezbit Hassan Ali, Abou El Reesh, Katkat, El Kassara, and Behind Transformers), with a total area of 2.15 km². • The estimated population of slum areas in 2005 was 20,391,which represents 29 percent of the total population of the city. • The streets of the old city are crowded with peddlers and informal markets. • Legal documents for securing tenure in slum areas include official records from the housing tax authority or payment receipts for basic services, if available. • Payments (between 1–1.5 EGP) are collected from peddlers and street markets; these are considered very low compared to the negative side effects of this kind of activity (namely, the destruction of the image of the city and its historic areas). The money is used to improve the services in the city. Slum Areas Area in m2 Location Planning Population Male Female Total ElKassara 37500 West Inside city limits/ urban boundary 1805 1739 3548 Katkat 45000 2183 2099 4282 Behind Transformers 77000 South 3743 3598 7341 Abou El Reesh North Ezbit Hassan Ali 10000 Inside city limits/outside urban boundary 478 460 938 214500 10397 9994 20391 POLICY AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK • National policies support the upgrading of slum areas through issuing laws that organize the process of (informal) land ownership. The most well-known is law No. 1558, concerning slum clearance or upgrading for the benefit of the public. • Updating the master plan of the city until year 2022 has been finalised but this has not yet been endorsed by the authorities. The plan identifies all activities that should take place in the city, but there are no detailed schemes. • There are problems resulting from the differences between the city limits and the urban boundary. This is clear in Ezbit Hassan Ali, which is inside the city limits but at the same time outside the urban boundaries. • Land plots are mostly small and therefore, when applying the master plan, land will be lost. • There is no central funding or even local funding to enable the implementation of the master plan (e.g. compensating residents). • The local authority encourages the development of slum areas through providing them with basic urban services. 12

15 13 RESOURCE MOBILISATION EL KASSARA AREA
• Two slum areas have been upgraded (Katkat and Abou El Reesh). • Narrow streets in the slum areas make it difficult to provide electricity cables; these are hung on poles in an informal manner near windows, making it dangerous for residents. • NGOs are involved in women-related issues. • The city is free from homeless people. • Road pavement lasts only for one year due to sanitation problems and groundwater flooding. • The new residential city, which is about to be built on an area of 760 Feddans, is an opportunity to provide homes for the youth and lower the population pressure on the city. • Workshops producing baskets woven from palm fronds are commonly found in slum areas. • There are problems between rope fabrication workshops and the employment and insurance office. • Authorities interested in upgrading slum areas are NGOs, organizations for public works, and university staff. • The tourist city that is to be constructed on an area of 2,000 Feddans is considered the city’s chance to increase its income and upgrade its services. EL KASSARA AREA  The area of El Kassara is considered the worst slum area in the city. Its houses are lower than the surrounding ground level, causing problems in winter with the rain completely submerging the ground level; therefore, it is at the top of the list for upgrading.  It is considered one of the most crowded areas – the population is 3,548 (887 families).  The position of its houses and its narrow streets (2–4 meters) lead to poor ventilation and a high level of humidity; in addition, these factors increase the groundwater level in walls and footings.  It represents a difficult area to penetrate for services and security. INSTITUTIONAL SET-UP AND CAPACITY BUILDING • The stakeholders who cooperate with the local government in developing the poor neighbourhoods are the NGOs. • Rosetta receives much attention from researchers in all Egyptian universities, as well as international scholars. • There is an urgent need for capacity building and training in the field of slum upgrading. • Relocating peddlers and informal markets to two proposed areas. • Developing El Kassara area, as its condition is deteriorating. • Training the local authority to deal with slum areas. • Establishing an updated database for slum areas. AGREED PRIORITIES SLUMS N° 1 Project proposal page 27 Constructing two market places SLUMSN° 2 Project proposal page 27 Rebuilding the area of El Kassara 13

16 ROSETTA URBAN PROFILE – GENDER AND HIV/AIDS
THE POLICY SUPPORTING GENDER ISSUES Rosetta is considered the north gate of Egypt. This gives Rosetta opportunities in commerce and fishing-related industries. Women in slum areas have a poor quality of life and experience inadequate public services and high rates of violence. Although the crime rate is high, religious and customary practices sometimes protect women from common violence. Women in Rosetta suffer from poverty, social and economic problems, and limited political participation.  Factors that hinder the progress of women in Rosetta: • Customs and traditions. • No specified seats in parliament for women. • Women do not comprehend their rights. • Economic deterioration. • Weakness of awareness programmes.  Waterfront development of the city has had a positive impact by providing families with security and minimising crime; it has also created a recreational area for Rosetta residents.  The government registers cases of violence against women through crime research centres and complaints committees in family courts.  There are no known cases of HIV/AIDS at the county level but there is a specific policy for this disease that is concerned with patient care, protecting infected children, and protecting the caregivers.  Classified data of HIV/AIDS patients, including their employment and education details, are collected but gender issues are not impacting the development plans of the city. EMPOWERMENT AND INSTITUTIONAL SET-UP  There is a good number of women leaders in the city and girls’ education reaches postgraduate level.  Public institutions empower women to improve their sources of income through promoting equality between men and women in economic activities, especially in accessing finance and credit.  Childcare facilities for working women are presented through nurseries and other related structures.  Women are well represented in the administrative hierarchy (46 percent of the workforce, which is 3.9 percent of the total number of women in the county).  There is only one woman in the local public council and one elected woman from the county level.  Local institutions dedicated to women’s affairs: • National Democratic Party and National Council of Women • Social Security Authority • Private organizations and gender-related NGOs  NGOs are considered important agents for supporting gender issues: there are 24 NGOs working in this field, 19 in motherhood and childcare and 5 in community development. RESPONSIBILITY ISSUES  Steps that are being taken to secure women and decrease violence against them include increasing the general awareness of gender issues and the importance of women in the community, increasing religious awareness, improving street lighting, and clearing informal settlements on the waterfront.  Family court and family consultant offices are the authorities responsible for violence issues.  Gender issues are considered a major challenge due to the entanglement of customs and cultural heritage.  There are no organizations specialising only in gender issues; most deal with gender issues as an additional activity.  A new law for childcare grants stipulate the amount of 50 pounds.  Working women face difficulties when using public transportation as there are no spaces allocated for them.  The Ministry of Health distributes iron tablets to overcome anaemia problems facing women. 14

17 15 CAPACITY BUILDING AND TRAINING GENDER-BASED SUPPORT
• Training is available for government officials to increase sensitivity towards gender issues through community participation; ministries related to gender issues and women’s organizations conduct this training. • The Ministry of Health and other concerned organizations present awareness programmes. • The World Health Organization (WHO) organizes some programmes. • The local authority offers some training. GENDER-BASED SUPPORT First: Productive Family projects increase the income of men and women, elevate the standard of living, and make good use of professional skills and provision of services (training services and marketing services). Second: Training projects contribute to combating poverty and improving the rural woman’s ability to increase her income (carried out by the special administration for women’s affairs). Third: Projects carried out by donors (Social Development Fund). AGREED PRIORITIES • Constructing an exhibit for marketing productive families’ products. • Establishing training centres for the handicapped. • Increasing the social security pension for all categories. • Increasing incentives for trainers within the social security authority. • Establishing technical projects for released prisoners. • Establishing a training project for sewing, needlework, and carpet weaving. • Establishing a fund to care for widows and female-headed households with no income. • Establishing centres for pre-marriage medical testing. • Increasing medical visits and health care for slum dwellers. • Increasing culturally appropriate services for birth control. GENDER HIV/AIDS N° 1 Project proposal page 29 Establish a fund to care for widows and women headed households with no income GENDER HIV/AIDS N° 2 Project proposal page 29 Increasing medical visits and health care for slum dwellers 15

18 ROSETTA URBAN PROFILE - ENVIRONMENT
THE ENVIRONMENT LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK • Law 4/1994 and its charter constitute the current legislative framework for addressing environmental issues. • This law is applied through the Rosetta Environmental Management Unit (EMU). The Rosetta EMU files citations for inhabitants who are not complying with environmental conditions. • Although high fines are specified by law, during implementation they are usually reduced and- because of the centralization- directed to the central government thus the city doesn’t benefit from those collected fines. • The system is based on centralization; collected fines go directly to the central fund for environmental preservation at the Egypt Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) in Cairo. INTRODUCTION The city of Rosetta is privileged to have a number of features that could help it be an environmentally unique city. It is situated on the Nile River with wonderful vistas; in addition, it has many unique heritage areas, making it different from other cities in Al-Beheira Governorate. Despite all these features, Rosetta suffers from many environmental problems and one result is widespread pollution. URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES Main Issues in Rosetta: • Lack of working sewage networks: all city establishments rely on septic tanks and city dwellers make use of trucks owned by Rosetta City Council to empty these tanks. • Lack of a solid waste landfill specified for the local authority, which is temporarily using a piece of land in west Rosetta as a dumpsite. • Equipment for solid waste collection is not sufficient and this is hampering the local authority’s collection of solid waste. Most members of the unit’s labour force are temporary labourers coming from adjacent villages. The reasons behind this are the limited financial profits gained from such work and the refusal of Rosetta dwellers to work in this field. • The medical waste incinerator in Rosetta’s public hospital is not operating. This incinerator – established in 2000 – is considered the only incinerator at the Rosetta city level. It is essential for stopping open-air burning of medical waste. • There is an interpenetration of industrial and residential activities. For example, there are mechanical, carpentry, and ironsmith workshops, which cause polluting emissions as well as noise and annoyance. • There are numerous fish cages in the Nile. These cages were allocated in an ad hoc manner, without any monitoring. They are destroying the aesthetic scenery along the main street in the city. In addition, they are hampering navigation along the river. • High rates of air pollution, due to vehicle emissions and smoke from burning coal. INSTITUTIONAL SUPPORT • A successful partnership was established between the Rosetta Local Authority Unit and factory owners. Through this partnership, all factories complied with environmental regulations under the supervision of the Rosetta EMU. • Rosetta’s EMU inspects and monitors brick factories to ensure the proper operation of burning units. In addition, the EMU supervises medical waste collection from clinics and laboratories and the safe disposal thereof. • More than 80 percent of industrial plant owners responded to Rosetta’s EMU and complied with environmental regulations. They consequently contributed to solving environmental problems. • Local community associations in Rosetta city have no activities concerning the environment. • There is a lack of coordination between Rosetta’s EMU and the Industrial Safety Department. • The local authority incorporated a number of environmental issues into city development plans. Thus, some procedures have been created to address the problems (e.g. solid waste and sewerage problems). Role of Rosetta’s Environmental Management Unit (EMU): • The EMU is continuously inspecting establishments and monitoring their compliance with environmental regulations. It closes non-compliant establishments with the support of other specialised departments in the Rosetta local unit. • Rosetta’s EMU addresses environmental issues through cooperation and coordination with a number of key departments: the EMU at governorate level, the licensing department, the engineering department, and the occupations department. • Rosetta’s EMU also follows up all incoming complaints and assures legal removal of their causes. • Currently, the Rosetta EMU is affiliated to Al-Beheira Governorate administratively and to the Ministry of Environment technically. This situation is not effective and EMU staff are requesting to be autonomous from the governorate and affiliated only to Ministry of Environment. 16

19 17 BEST PRACTICE (1) AGREED PRIORITIES RESOURCE MOBILISATION
In Urban Environmental Management Compliance of Rosetta factories with environmental regulations: The Local Authority Unit of Rosetta listed all city factories (in cooperation with the licensing section) and obliged their owners to improve their performance to comply with environmental regulations. Results are as follows:  Clay brick factories were provided with complete burning units; as a result, black smog and pollution were reduced.  Tile factories that dispose of their liquid waste in the Nile River were forced to demolish pipelines reaching the river and to treat and recycle wastewater in a closed internal cycle.  In the year 2000, improvement of the last factory took place. Since that date, no factory is polluting the environment and inspection is taking place periodically. AGREED PRIORITIES • Support decentralisation of environmental management and develop the institutional set-up of the Rosetta Environmental Management Unit. • Support partnerships among different stakeholders. • Support local community associations’ capacities for working in the environmental field. • Support the Rosetta EMU financially and provide it with essential equipment. • Develop effective financial mechanisms to mobilise finance at the local level. • Support effective cooperation among Al-Beheira Governorate, businessmen, and community associations. • Implement awareness-raising programmes for city inhabitants. • Develop training programmes for Rosetta EMU officials to improve their performance. • Increase recycling programmes to decrease pollution. RESOURCE MOBILISATION  The Environmental Management Unit in Rosetta does not have autonomy, since it is part of the local authority. As such, no budget is allocated for the Rosetta EMU.  No incentives are paid to Rosetta EMU officials (as EEAA officials and officials of other units at governorate level receive).  The Rosetta EMU lacks measurement equipment. It requests it when needed from the Damanhour EMU but there is usually a long delay. CAPACITY BUILDING AND TRAINING  Current training activities are very scarce; the last training course for Rosetta EMU officials took place two years ago. The course addressed the inspection of brick factories.  Most training activities are directed to the Damanhour EMU at governorate level.  EEAA organizes a number of training courses for EMUs in Cairo; however, Rosetta EMU officials are rarely nominated to attend such courses.  Scarcity of training courses is the main reason behind the lack of good environmental management skills. Key Requirements for Capacity Building:  There is a need for training in the following topics: • Environmental Impact Assessments for different establishments; response to different environmental complaints; identification of key environmental issues; • Environmental inspection; • Supporting the improvement of institutional and administrative capacities of EMUs.  There is also a need for measuring equipment (e.g. devices to measure emissions and noise intensity) and computers. BEST PRACTICE (2) In Urban Environmental Management Efforts in solid waste management:  The Rosetta local authority takes care of 90 percent of waste collection from city streets and houses. City dwellers dump their waste in containers located at special points, to be collected by the authority.  The local authority purchased a special truck to collect medical waste and dispose of it through open burning at a site located to the west of Rosetta.  A partnership was established with a medical syndicate, through which a medical waste collection project was initiated.  A chicken waste collection project was implemented to collect waste from chicken stores in order to avoid waste disposal in the streets. The local authority hired a private contractor to collect the waste and transfer it to fodder factories. Unfortunately, the project stopped due to concerns about bird flu. ENVIRO-NMENT N° 1 Project proposal page 31 Establish a solid waste recycling plant 17

20 ROSETTA URBAN PROFILE – BASIC URBAN SERVICES
RESOURCE MOBILISATION Provision Sources for Infrastructure and Services First: the state budget and the investment plan of the government. Second: : the replacement, renovation, and upgrading of transformers through the Electricity Distribution Company – for informal as well as formal sectors. PROVISION OF BASIC URBAN SERVICES – Main Issues  Uncompleted drainage networks and delayed completion of the wastewater treatment plant, due to the lack of mechanical equipment.  Current drainage networks dump waste directly into the Nile without treatment.  Lack of equipment for collecting solid waste in the city.  The absence of an integrated system to manage the solid waste and the lack of a suitable dumpsite.  Inadequate drainage, the high water table, and operational delays in the national sanitary project have made a negative impact on historic buildings in the city. BEST PRACTICE The efforts of Al-Beheira Governorate in Rosetta in the field of facility management • An integrated sewerage project that covers the city treatment plant was established and 70 percent of the network was completed. The project is now stalled because of a lack of funds. • The local administration (city council) is responsible for 90 percent of the city waste collection (from streets, houses, and existing waste containers). The Department of the Environment is mandated to collect and dispose of the waste. INSTITUTIONAL SET-UP  The city encourages slum upgrading by delivering public services such as drinking water, sanitation, and electricity.  There is no support from investors, the private sector, or any foreign partnerships for providing or upgrading existing facilities.  Old partnership with a Chinese company to erect barriers to protect the beach from waves and erosion. This project will be completed through an Egyptian company (Arab Contractors). 18

21 19 CAPACITY BUILDING AND TRAINING AGREED PRIORITIES N° 1 N° 2 N° 3
The Training Programme:  There is an urgent need for training programmes for workers and professionals in the management of the city's electricity.  Training cadres in facility management and maintenance.  Providing equipment and spare parts (for waste sweeping and clearing) and ensuring a level of expertise in mechanical sweeping and disinfecting.  Acquiring sufficient allowances for trainees from the city utilities sector. AGREED PRIORITIES  Accelerating the implementation of the delayed sanitation project in the city.  Constructing a new fishing dock.  Facilitating regulations for the provision of services and utilities in new residential areas.  Expanding the current city entrance road and constructing a new one at the Nile corniche. BUS N° 1 Project proposal page 33 Construction of a fishing dock BUS N° 2 Project proposal page 33 Solid waste recycling BUS N° 3 Project proposal page 34 Financing of the current delayed Sanitation project to complete implementation and operation. BUS N° 4 Project proposal page 34 Expand the current city road entrance, and constructing other new city entrance through the beach. 19

22 ROSETTA URBAN PROFILE – LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
INTRODUCTION Rosetta is both a city and a district in Al-Beheira Governorate; it is an old port at one of the Nile branches that flows into in the Mediterranean Sea. Rosetta city has a unique group of Islamic buildings and is second only to Cairo in terms of the quantity of its Islamic monuments. The city’s most famous piece of heritage is the Rosetta stone, now exhibited in the British Museum. The per capita share of gross domestic income in Rosetta was 5,518 EGP in the year 2000/2001. The population is estimated to be 65,000 and unemployment in Rosetta is 8.4 percent. LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ISSUES  Although there are big economic advantages in Rosetta, as yet there is no investment map that shows potential investment areas. There is no industrial zone in Rosetta; as a result, investors face many difficulties in getting licenses to establish projects, as all recommended land is agricultural and not valid for industrial projects. A new 720 Feddans housing city and a 2,000 Feddans tourist city have been drafted, but until now no physical planning has been done.  Although there are big possibilities in Rosetta in the fishing sector, the city has no fishing port. Also, for four months out of the year, there is the Al-Bogaz lock problem to contend with.  No location for the fisheries association, which is comprised of 12,000 members (40 percent of Rosetta inhabitants are fishermen).  No efficient guarantees to get loans from donors for setting up income-generating projects and small businesses – one of the many obstacles the poor face when seeking employment. Illiteracy rates are high, with many youth dropping out of school. This leads to a lack of appropriate qualifications for the labour market; in addition, the prevailing traditions and conventions of the society affect women's ability to work. LOCAL ECONOMY DYNAMICS  Rosetta has a unique location, as it lies at the meeting point of the Nile River and the Mediterranean and is located on the International Coastal Road.  There are agricultural lands in Rosetta and it has good quality agricultural products, including vegetables, fruits, and all kinds of dates. However, there are no agro-industrial factories related to these products and various elements (including fruit flies) threaten to destroy the wealth of fruit and palms in Rosetta. The city also lacks good agricultural drainage because there is no drainage system in western Rosetta (it is currently being prepared). Moreover, agricultural wastes are not being re-used.  Rosetta has a very good international reputation in yacht construction.  In spite of the existence of many tourist sites, they are not exploited as tourist resources. In addition, there is an inadequate number of public parks for spending leisure time (only one small one).  The numerous fish cages in the Nile which are destroying the aesthetic scenery along the main street in the city can be relocated ( not cleared) in the same waterway but in the 28 km long between Rosetta and Edfeena, this would save the 7000 workers in this sector from unemployment 20

23  The poor face many obstacles when trying to get credit
 The poor face many obstacles when trying to get credit. There are no efficient guarantees, there are high interest rates, and the social fund only finances existing projects, not new ones. ANALYSIS OF MARKET FLOW Wood products, clothes, glass products, and car spare parts are purchased from outside the city, as they are not available therein. AGREED PRIORITIES Economic development of Rosetta mainly depends on the existence of resources, both natural and manmade (e.g. fishing wealth and tourism capabilities). Therefore, the first step of economic development in Rosetta will focus on exploiting these resources. Establishing a fishing port is a very important step towards benefiting from the fishing wealth. Meanwhile, reviving tourist interest in Rosetta city depends on restoring old Islamic and historic buildings and promoting Rosetta both inside and outside Egypt. INDUSTRIES Agriculture • Shipbuilding • Sea fishing • Fish farms • Brick factories • Palm tree industries • Handicrafts (weaving) • Tourism LED N° 1 Project proposal page 36 The project of tourist refreshment of Rosetta city LED N° 2 Project proposal page 36 Establishing fishing port and widening the river waterway 21

24 SWOT HERITAGE OR HISTORIC AREAS Priorities Threats Opportunities
Weaknesses Strengths REGULATORY FRAMWORK and INSTITUTIONAL SET-UP • Develop the tourism sector in the city. • Establish an office for tourism development in Rosetta. • Continuous transgression over historic area will lead to the loss of its unique identity. • The negative impact on the city’s historic buildings if the national drainage project is delayed. • Adding the city to the UNESCO World Heritage Sites list. • Adding the city to the list of historic attractions in Egypt. • An agreement between Rosetta and Figeac, the birthplace of Jean-François Champollion. • The lack of adequate sanitation, which directly affects the heritage buildings. • There is no clear plan for developing the tourism sector in the city. • Contradiction of authorities responsible for the city and for its historic area. The city in general is not fit to receive tourists (number of hotel rooms, level of cleanliness, number of recreational facilities). • There are no tourism agencies in the whole city and the Tourism Development Authority has no representative in Rosetta • National policies support the upgrading of heritage cities. • Rosetta is uniquely located on the Nile. • The heritage potential of Rosetta, in addition to it taking second place to Cairo in its number of Islamic heritage buildings. • The city is internationally recognised for discovering the Rosetta stone RESOURCE MOBILISATION Preparing the city for tourism. • Weakness in attracting investment. • Opportunity to mobilise resources for conservation from international organizations interested in heritage. • Inadequate recourse for historic building conservation. • The Supreme Council of Antiquities is the only agency that funds the conservation process and it relies on self-generated resources acquired from entry tickets, international exhibits, and replicas. • Most of the historic houses have been restored through previous projects. DEVELOPING HERITAGE AREAS • Building codes for the historic area. • Development of the historic city centre. • The completion of the national drainage project. • Development of the railway tracks. • Lost of identity of the historic area due to the lack of building codes specified for historic areas. • Opportunity to connect Rosetta to the city of Fuwa and together form an attractive Islamic heritage area. • The lack of specific building codes for heritage areas. • Each historic building is dealt with separately and not within its context. • Weak public awareness about cultural heritage resources and their significance, which might lead to the loss of the unique old city image. • Poor railway tracks, which cannot be depended on for tourist transportation. CAPACITY BUILDING AND TRAINING • Deficiency of data related to historic buildings. • Weak coordination among different authorities responsible for historic buildings. • Rosetta received great attention from researchers in all Egyptian universities as well as international researchers. 22

25 PROJECT PROPOSALS– HERITAGE OR HISTORIC AREAS
N° 1 Project proposal A project for developing the area surrounding Qait Bey Fortress in Rosetta HERITAGE N° 2 Project proposal A project for developing Dehliz El-Molk Street LOCATION: Qait Bey Fortress in Rosetta. DURATION: 36 months BENEFICIARIES: City inhabitants. IMPLEMENTED PARTNERS: Local authority, Ministry of Waqf (Religious Trust), the Supreme Council for Antiquities, NGOs, and architectural consultant offices and their affiliations. ESTIMATED COST : US$4 million BACKGROUND: The fortress goes back to the year 1472 when it was built on the west bank of the Nile River, north of Rosetta. The place is directly connected to the Rosetta stone, which was said to be discovered in this location during the French expedition in 1799. OBJECTIVES: The main objectives of the project are to develop the area surrounding the fortress and provide services in order to prepare it for receiving tourists. ACTIVITIES: : 1) Plan the surrounding area to accommodate parking areas for buses and vehicles. 2) Build restaurants and cafeterias. 3) Improve the façades of surrounding buildings. 4) Add bazaars, gift shops, and exhibits for handmade carpets and crafts. OUTPUTS: The area surrounding the fortress developed and services provided in order to prepare it for receiving tourists. LOCATION: : Dehliz El-Molk Street, one of the historic streets of the old centre of Rosetta (it lies between Masjid El-Arabi Street and Amasyalli Street). DURATION: 36 months BENEFICIARIES: City inhabitants. IMPLEMENTED PARTNERS: Local authority, Ministry of Waqf (Religious Trust), the Supreme Council for Antiquities, NGOs, and architectural consultant offices and their affiliations. ESTIMATED COST : : US$1 million BACKGROUND: With its particular historic background, Dehliz El-Molk Street is considered one of the most important streets in the historic district and is seen as the entrance to the historic area of the city. The street has a concentration of historic buildings (Orabi Mosque, Ramadan residence, Abohoum residence, Kohie residence, Bassioni residence, Elgamal residence, and Moharam residence). OBJECTIVES: Developing the street while respecting its historic background and preparing it to receive tourists. ACTIVITIES: : 1) Transformation of Dehliz El-Molk into a pedestrian street, with all the requisite changes (viewing the street as the gateway into the historical area). 2) Adaptive re-use of historic buildings with suitable functions (e.g. arts workshops, galleries). 3) Façade treatment of existing buildings alongside the street. 4) Façade treatment for commercial shops alongside the street and standardisation of signs, colours, and pavilion design. In addition, transformation of the shops into bazaars, gift shops, and exhibits for handmade carpets and crafts. OUTPUTS: The street developed and prepared for receiving tourists; the project implemented in such a way that it can be duplicated in other historic streets. 23

26 SWOT G OVERNANCE Priorities Threats Opportunities 24 Weaknesses
Strengths INSTITUTIONAL SET UP – LOCAL ATHOURITY RESOURCES AND CAPACITY • Developing leadership skills in the local council. • Supplying the council in general and the physical planning department in specific with computers to improve city management. • The centralised policies hinder the scale of development and impede rapid decision-making processes. • The lack of young, qualified cadres in the council capable of bearing responsibilities. • Improving the standards of the already existing training programmes. • Creation of effective training programmes to empower young cadres bearing responsibilitie. • The effectiveness of the council in responding to the citizen complaints. • The low level of resources in the council reduces the level of performance; this is mainly with regard to electronic equipment, which might help improve service provision. • The number of trained, qualified cadres is very low. • There is no clear training plan for employees. • Decentralisation is frail at the decision-making level • Various departments exist in the city council and they serve all sectors. • In the city council, a special office is dedicated to receiving citizen complaints. EQUITY AND PARTICIPATION IN DECISION MAKING • Building capacities of local authority personnel to implement partnerships with the private sector and NGOs. • Building a tourist office dedicated to helping tourists and providing them with a high level of service. • Individuals question the effectiveness of their participation to improve the current situation. • The public participates and is willing to participate more, whether in the public councils or the NGOs. • There is good successful representation of women in social work. • Encouraging NGOs to participate in the decision-making processes. • The implementation of the concepts of transparency and accountability is frail. • In the decision-making processes, there is a lack of clear vision for the actual implementation of participation in urban management sector. • There is no adequate representation of women in the council. • Women working in the city council constitute less than 25 percent of the total number of employees. • A strong trust relationship exists between the citizens and the NGOs because of the success of existing small-scale projects. RESOURCE MOBILISATION - ISSUES OF RESPONSIBILITY AND PERFORMANCE • Create a development strategy that involves all stakeholders of society. • Train the local authority on initiating budgets using a participatory process. • The centralised policies hinder the scale of development and impede rapid decision- making processes. • There are several successful projects whose revenues represent additional income for the local authority. • The success of the existing small-scale project by the NGOs. • The elected public councils initiate the issues to be discussed and the resolving plans are later shown to them for approval according to the local governing law. • No partnerships exist with the private sector. • No partnerships with NGOs. • No actual partnerships in the disclosing and planning of budgets. • There is no investment plan for the city that highlights potential investments that support local economic development. • Budgets are not disclosed to citizens in a way that would allow them to evaluate performance and adequately participate in modifying the approaches. • Independent sources of revenue exist for the local authority. 24

27 PROJECT PROPOSALS – GOVERNANCE
Developing leadership skills in the local council GOVERNANCE N° 2 Project proposal Initiate a dedicated centre for the management of Rosetta’s heritage and history LOCATION: • Official training centres (Sakkara) and/or Leader Development Centre. • On the premises of the local council in Menouf (meeting halls), using independent/external trainers. DURATION: : Phase 1 (urgent) is six months; the long-term plan is to sustain the training programmes. BENEFICIARIES: : The leaders of the local council and, in the long term, young cadres that would improve the efficiency and the effectiveness of the services provided. IMPLEMENTING PARTNERS: Specialised training centres, institutes, and the department of human resources in the council, which will directly affect all departments (engineering, urban planning, contracts, planning, legal affairs, information, and decision support). ESTIMATED COST : US$100,000 Broken down as follows: 10 percent administration fees 40 percent training programmes 30 percent institutional support 20 percent office equipment BACKGROUND: : The city of Rosetta endures a low standard of services provided to its citizens from the local authority. There is a lack of actual implementation of the principals of urban governance in terms of participation, decentralisation, transparency, and accountability. Decision making is centralised, and management processes are often inefficient. This is due to the inadequacy of existing training programmes as well as the insufficient resources such as electronics and office and managerial tools. OBJECTIVES: Adequate implementation of the principles of urban governance on all levels, starting from the level of decision makers and leaders and ending with the inclusion of all stakeholders in society in the decision-making processes. Stakeholders will also participate in creating concrete training plans and delivering specialised training programmes. In addition, providing the local authority with some electronic resources to enhance the managerial level and raise the efficiency of service delivery. ACTIVITIES: Condensed training programmes, providing the local authority with resources that would allow the trainees to implement what they learn; organizational consultancies and institutional support for the council. OUTPUTS: Capacities of leaders built and an improved level of services provided. STAFF REQUIRED: Specialised consultancy body in building capacity and institutional support. LOCATION: The city of Rosetta. DURATION: 12 months BENEFICIARIES: Al-Beheira Governorate, the local authority, the citizens of Rosetta, businesses, and investors in the tourism sector. IMPLEMENTING PARTNERS: The governorate, Rosetta City Council, the Ministry of Tourism, and the Egyptian Tourist Authority. ESTIMATED COST : US$200,000 (this is the cost if a new, independent building is built; if an existing building is used, the cost will decrease by 30–40 percent) BACKGROUND: : The city of Rosetta benefits from a long, rich history that goes back to the discovery of the Rosetta stone, which enriched the city with a distinctive character and an important collection of antiquities. Unfortunately, these antiquities are neglected and unattractive to tourists, despite their importance. The tourism and antiquities sector in Rosetta is deteriorating and neglected because there is no clear organizational body to serve that sector. This diminishes the strong potential in the city to improve the preservation of such antiquities. OBJECTIVES: Initiate an organizational managerial body to be directly responsible for the antiquities in the city and manage them efficiently. ACTIVITIES: : Construct a building independent from the city council that will host an antiquities centre (or use one of the existing historical buildings). Identify and train cadres to manage such a centre, which will enhance the existing antiquities, market them to the tourism sector, and improve the level of services for tourists and other visitors. OUTPUTS: : The creation of an antiquities management centre for Rosetta, while working on remarketing the city with a modern, civilized image that is worthy of the historical riches the city holds. STAFF REQUIRED: An engineering firm to design the new building or remodel and refurbish an existing building to fit the purpose; a principal coordinator for the project, with a managerial team to coordinate among stakeholders in the governorate: the city council, the Ministry of Tourism, the Egyptian Tourism Authority, and the Supreme Council for Antiquities. 25

28 SWOT SLUMS AND SHELTER Priorities Threats Opportunities 26
Weaknesses Strengths REGULATORY FRAMEWORK AND INSTITUTIONAL SET-UP – SLUM-UPGRADING STRATEGIES • Updated population statistics. • Endorsement of master plan. • Updated database for the slum areas. Danger of the deterioration of slum areas, especially those below ground level. • Opportunity to encourage tourism investment in the city. • No detailed scheme for implementing the master plan. • Twenty-nine percent of the city population are slum dwellers. • No population statistics have been gathered since 1996, but the population is estimated by calculating the growth rate. • There are obstacles in implementing the master plan due to the long period of endorsement. • Problems resulting from the differences between city limits and the urban boundary. • The city has an updated master plan. • There are organizing laws for urban planning in the city. SECURE TENURE • Secure tenure • Legalisation of slum dwellers. • Although feeling a high level of secure tenure, slum dwellers are afraid of any change of policy. • Opportunity to secure tenure through decrees and laws for the poor. • Slum dwellers are not keen to formalise their tenure. High levels of secure tenure due to the non eviction policy. RESOURCE MOBILISATION – ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT • Providing proper shelter. • Resource mobilisation. • Funding income-generating projects. • Slums behind electrical transformers may experience catastrophe if they are not improved or relocated. • The threat of losing the old city image. • Opportunities for income generation and improving the local economy (various unique activities). • Opportunities for youth in the tourism field. • The new residential city that is about to be built will provide homes for the youth and lower the population pressure on the city. • The lack of sanitation in the city deteriorates its urban environment, especially in the slum areas (narrow roads and an unhealthy environment). • There is no central funding or even local funding to enable the execution of the master plan, e.g. compensating residents. • Slum areas are on the historical city’s periphery, threatening the city’s touristic future. • The city has numerous informal peddlers and markets scattered throughout the streets of the historic area, causing the accumulation of garbage. • Weak city financial resources. • Rosetta has natural and historic potential, which increases its chance in economic development. • The local authority encourages slum development through providing them with basic urban services. • NGOs are interested in slum dwellers’ affairs. INSTITUTIONAL SETUP - CAPACITY BUILDING AND TRAINING • Mechanism for information updating. • Improve capabilities of authorities dealing with slum areas. • Mechanism for coordination. • Weak capabilities of personnel in the slum development programmes. • Opportunity to find a participation mechanism in capacity building for slum development. • Capacity building for the engineering department to follow up the implementation of the master plan. • No capacity-building support received from bilateral and multilateral agencies in slum upgrading. • Weak follow-up by the engineering department for the implementation of the master plan. • Rosetta receives much attention from researchers in all Egyptian universities and from international researchers. 26

29 PROJECT PROPOSALS– SLUMS & SHELTERS
N° 1 Project proposal Constructing two market places SLUMS N° 2 Project proposal Rebuilding the area of El-Kassara LOCATION: In the location of the old transportation hub (bellow the Kassara area - and the other location is the old garage (near Abou El-Reesh area) DURATION: 32 months BENEFICIARIES: City inhabitants IMPLEMENTING PARTNERS: Local authority, Businessmen ESTIMATED COST : US$10 million BACKGROUND: : Numerous peddlers and informal markets in the streets of the historic area lead to several problems: • Fire danger. • General lack of cleanliness of the city centre. • A deteriorating aesthetic, touristic, and cultural image. • Less control over the slum areas and the informal markets. OBJECTIVES:  Remove scattered peddlers and informal markets from the historic district.  Provide an alternative market that is suitable for the new tourism image of the city.  Concentrate all similar activities in the same place so as to be able to present the customers with more accessible services.  Use the income of the markets to fund slum upgrading.  Get rid of the garbage and dispose of it in a clean and secure way, with full control over the process. ACTIVITIES: Constructing two market places (first level: units and shops for selling fish and meat; second level: units and shops for selling groceries and equipment). OUTPUTS: Upgrading of historic areas after removing the peddlers and informal markets. LOCATION: West of Rosetta, the limits of El-Kassara are as follows: the eastern limit is El-Edfini Street and the current transportation hub; the western limit is the urban limit or the city boundary; the northern limit is El-Hardi Street; and the southern limit is the old cinema street. DURATION: 33 months BENEFICIARIES: Residents of the area (estimated to be 3,548). IMPLEMENTING PARTNERS: The local authority, Social Services Department, Educational Building Authority, and the health administration. ESTIMATED COST : US$15.6 million BACKGROUND: El-Kassara is a slum area inside the urban and residential mass of the city. Its houses are lower than the surrounding ground level. Its juxtaposition of houses and its narrow streets (2–4 metres) lead to poor ventilation and a high level of humidity. There is inadequate sanitation and an increasing level of groundwater in the walls and footings. It represents a difficult area to penetrate for services and security. OBJECTIVES: Rebuilding the area after elevating it to ground level to avoid the problems caused by rainwater in winter. The rebuilding process will include providing streets of suitable width and services for residents of the area. ACTIVITIES: 1.Social-oriented study of the slum dwellers. 2.Study of their needs. 3.A detailed plan for rebuilding the area. 4.Feasibility study for implementing the rebuilding plan. 5.Implementing the plan with all its phases. OUTPUTS: Getting rid of a slum area with all its social and health problems, and providing a suitable living area for residents of El-Kassara. PROJECT PROPOSALS PROJECT PROPOSALS PROJECT PROPOSALS 27

30 SWOT GENDER AND HIV/AIDS Priorities Threats Opportunities
Weaknesses Strengths THE POLICIES SUPPORTING GENDER ISSUES Increase awareness of the importance of women in the community. The disregard of gender problems and the deterioration of women’s living conditions are due to their withdrawal and minimum participation in decision and policy making. • The dispersion of income-generating projects due to the success of the current projects and the increase in the number of settlements of accounts. Multiple constraints impede women’s advancement, especially customs and traditions and weak support in this field. • Local and central policies support the elimination of violence against women. • Classified data of HIV/AIDS patients. • There are no known cases of AIDS/HIV in the county. RESPONSIBILITY ISSUES Activating the role of awareness programmes • The danger of an increased occurrence of violence against women through the invasion of different cultures and a cultural conversion in the community. • Opportunity under the national policies to address violence cases. • Difficulty in registering cases of violence against women. • The city lacks police patrols that protect inhabitants. • Rigid specialisation between family courts and family council offices and the absence of a mechanism for their integration. • No publication of information related to the number of crimes in the city. • Difficulty in dealing with the phenomena of domestic violence and female circumcision due to customs and traditions. • Multiple education programmes quelling violence against women are diversified through NGOs and the social affairs administration; to decrease violence, offices provide social counselling and family courts as quick mechanisms to settle disputes within or between families. • Attention given to projects addressing female-headed households and simplifying access to funds for income-generation activities. INSTITUTIONAL SET-UP – EMPOWERMENT ISSUES Increasing the level of women’s empowerment in organizational systems. • The threat of the continuous weakness of gender representation in decision making. • Opportunities for women’s empowerment through international support in this field. • Weak women’s representation in the local councils and their withdrawal from decision making; in addition, discarding the natural women leaders in the branch of the National Council for Women. • There is an interest in women’s empowerment through organizations and female leadership in Rosetta. • High representation of women in the organizational system (46 percent of the total employment in the local administration). • Multiple institutions and organizations promoting women’s affair (19 organizations for childcare and motherhood, and 5 for community development). • A good percentage of social services projects deal with gender affairs. CAPACITY BUILDING AND TRAINING • Increase in the cultural services for birth control. • Encouraging NGOs specialising in gender issues. • The danger of the continuous weakness in representation of women in decision making in councils. Opportunity to increase the number of NGOs and efforts supporting gender issues. • There is no organization specialising in women’s affairs. • A number of supporting organizations (NGOs, social services, the National Council for Women). 28

31 PROJECT PROPOSALS– GENDER AND HIV/AIDS
Establish a fund to care for widows and female-headed households with no income GENDER HIV/AIDS N° 2 Project proposal Increasing medical convoys and health care for slum dwellers LOCATION: Rosetta DURATION: 12 months BENEFICIARIES: Widows and female-headed households with no income. IMPLEMENTING PARTNERS: Related NGOs, the social affairs administration, the Social Development Fund, and the private sector. ESTIMATED COST : US$50,000 BACKGROUND: Female-headed households refer to situations in which a woman takes total responsibility for her dependents and the maintenance of the household. The absence of a breadwinner is an economic crisis (sudden in many cases) and women are forced to work at an age that might not be suitable, particularly if she has inadequate qualifications in terms of skills or certificates. This reality increases the psychological pressure of a sense of inferiority, reinforced with economic pressure. OBJECTIVES: Providing income for widows, divorced women, and female-headed households to help them in facing life’s responsibilities and raising their children. ACTIVITIES: (1) Social survey to calculate the number of women benefiting from this fund. (2) Studying their needs. (3) Establishing a database for women benefiting from the fund. (4) Specifying a place for money dispersal and follow-up of beneficiaries. OUTPUTS: Developed living conditions of female-headed households with no income, allowing them to face life’s responsibilities and raise their children in a healthy environment. STAFF REQUIRED: Social workers and accountants. LOCATION: Rosetta DURATION: 12 months BENEFICIARIES: Slum dwellers, particularly women. IMPLEMENTING PARTNERS: Ministry of Health, medicine factories, and specialised doctors from government universities. ESTIMATED COST: US$50,000 BACKGROUND: Slum dwellers live in areas where they inherit poverty, unemployment, malnutrition, common diseases, and generally bad conditions. There is a lack of environmental services, as well as a lack of social and health services. Thus there is a drastic need for medical convoys to serve the area, in order to diagnose and treat difficult cases. OBJECTIVES: Offering medical services for slum inhabitants, especially women. ACTIVITIES: (1) Medical check-ups for women in slum areas. (2) Diagnosing and categorising. (3) Distribution of medicine to patients. (4) Surgery for patients in need. (5) Lectures about health awareness. OUTPUTS: Developed and improved health conditions of needy slum dwellers. STAFF REQUIRED:: Doctors (with different specialisations) and nurses. 29

32 SWOT ENVIRONMENT Priorities Threats Opportunities 30 Weaknesses
Strengths REGULATORY AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK Support decentralisation of environmental management and develop the institutional set-up of the Rosetta EMU. Support partnerships among different stakeholders. Build local community associations’ capacities to be able to work in the environmental field. Slow court procedures in finalising environmental cases and limited fine collection discourage people from complying with laws. Lack of measurement equipment results in reducing monitoring and inspection activities. Because of centralisation, collected fines go directly to the central fund for environmental preservation in EEAA in Cairo. The availability of financial resources from the central government to support environmental projects. Readiness of a large community association to work in the environmental field in the future. This opportunity could be used to implement awareness programmes and/or to implement projects in cooperation with the Rosetta EMU Rosetta EMU suffers from a lack of essential instruments and measurement equipment. It requests them when needed from Damanhour EMU; the response is usually delayed for a long time. Currently, Rosetta EMU is affiliated to Al-Beheira Governorate administratively and to the Ministry of Environment technically. This situation is not effective and EMU staff are requesting to be autonomous from the governorate and affiliated only to the Ministry of Environment. The EMU in Rosetta is not an autonomous entity; it is part of the local authority. Consequently, no budget is allocated for it. Local community associations in Rosetta city have no activities related to the environment. Governorate is concerned about environmental issues, incorporating them into city development plans and exerting efforts to improve environmental conditions. On top is the sewage problem since 70 percent of the sewage generated remains outside of the sanitation system. The Rosetta Environmental Management Unit cooperates with a number of key departments: the EMU at governorate level, the License Department, the Engineering Department, and the Occupation Department. Non-resistance of private sector owners of big plants to comply with environmental regulations – 80 percent of them complied already and the Rosetta EMU is capable of enforcing the laws with the rest. Rosetta EMU has the capability to carry out partnerships with different stakeholders to perform environmental improvement projects (factory development is the best practice). RESOURCE MOBILISATION – FINANCE Support the Rosetta EMU financially and provide it with essential equipment. Develop effective financial mechanisms to mobilise finance at the local level. Support effective cooperation among Al-Beheira Governorate, businessmen, and community associations. Collected revenues from environmental fines go directly to the environment preservation fund in Cairo. Lack of financial resources allocated for the EMU results in the lack of equipment, thus reducing inspection activities. Law 38/1967 is an opportunity to force people to remove their dissent and pay fines. The collected fines, via this law, could go to the local unit’s environmental cleaning fund and/or could be distributed as incentives to EMU officials. Readiness of businessmen to support environmental projects serving the city. Financial resources from the centre to support some environmental projects such as sewage – however, these are not sufficient. Donor agencies (such as UN-HABITAT and the World Bank) are ready to coordinate or provide donations. Lack of financial resources from the state and EEAA allocated for environmental projects. EMU does not obtain any financial resources and has no allocated budget because it is mainly a coordinating unit. No incentives are paid to Rosetta EMU officials, unlike with EEAA officials and officials of other units at governorate level. There is no budget allocated for environmental awareness. Thus the Rosetta EMU does not have any awareness-raising activities, in spite of residents’ weak environmental awareness. Businessmen are not contributing to any environmental activities outside the confines of their private plants. To support environmental improvement projects, some resources are mobilised from the state budget; there are some resources from local stakeholders, but these are very limited. The possibility of dependence on private owners for environmental improvements, but within their projects’ limitations only. PERFORMANCE – REDUCING POLLUTION Implement awareness-raising programmes for city inhabitants. Develop training programmes for Rosetta EMU officials to improve their performance. Increase recycling programmes to decrease pollution. Continuation of sewage disposal in water streams will increase water contamination in the future and thus increase the spread of disease. Continuation of open burning of medical waste and non-operation of the incinerator at the Rosetta public hospital will increase air pollution. Sewage drainage in the Nile near fish boxes will increase the spread of diseases. The intermingling of industrial and residential areas will lead to high rates of noise and air pollution for residents. The absence of awareness-raising programmes for residents will increase pollution rates in the future. Completion and operation of the sewerage network project in the future will decrease contamination of the Nile water resulting from sewage disposal. The availability of a piece of land for the recycling plant (allocated by the planning department) is a good opportunity to decrease pollution in the future. Current training activities are very scarce. Most training activities are directed at the Damanhour EMU at governorate level. EEAA organizes a number of training courses for EMUs in Cairo; however, the Rosetta EMU officials are rarely nominated to attend such courses. Dependence of the whole city on septic tanks because of noncompletion of the sewage network. Disposal of sewage in the Nile, resulting in contamination. Interpenetration of industrial and residential activities, producing harmful emissions as well as noise and annoyance. The existence of numerous fish boxes in the Nile River contaminates the water and destroys the aesthetic scene along the main street in the city. Solid waste management system lacks a landfill and a recycling plant. In addition, it lacks proper equipment and sufficient labourers. The good performance of the local authority in solid waste collection (covering 90 percent of the city), despite very limited resources. Readiness of school headmasters and mosque imams to cooperate in raising residents’ environmental awareness; however, this will happen only under EMU request. 30

33 PROJECT PROPOSALS - ENVIRONMENT
ENIRO-NMENT N° 1 Project proposal Establishment of a solid waste recycling plant LOCATION: Rosetta DURATION: 24 months BENEFICIARIES: Local authority of Rosetta, inhabitants of Rosetta city, businessmen, and investors. IMPLEMENTING PARTNERS: Local authority of Rosetta, a businessman society, investors, the Social Fund for Development, UN-HABITAT, and the World Bank. ESTIMATED COST: US$150,000 BACKGROUND: The Rosetta local authority collects 90 percent of the waste from city streets and houses. City dwellers dump their waste in containers located at special points to be collected by the authority. The unavailability of a landfill is a problem that hinders Rosetta local authority work. There is a temporary dumpsite located to the west of Rosetta. OBJECTIVES: •Solve the problem of land unavailability for landfills. •Minimise the amount of waste dumped in the landfill. •Create job opportunities for the youth. •Recycle most of the sorted waste materials, thus producing cheap products. ACTIVITIES: (1) Prepare the architectural design for the plant building, to be implemented on the allocated piece of land. (2) Estimate the cost and various partner contributions. (3) Construct the building. (4) Purchase the required equipment. (5) Provide the required labourers and give them proper training. (6) Develop awareness-raising programmes for city inhabitants that introduce the idea of sorting waste products at source. (7) Create local channels for marketing recycled products. OUTPUTS: A number of job opportunities created for the youth; businessmen mobilised to invest their money; recycling industry in Rosetta city activated; and cheap products marketed to low-income people. STAFF REQUIRED: An architectural firm (or the engineering department of Al-Beheira Governorate) to create the architectural design, a contractor for implementation, key coordinator/facilitator of project implementation activities, a specialized technician to purchase equipment, a factory director, administration staff, a marketing department, trained labourers, and secondary staff. 31

34 Threats Opportunities
SWOT BASIC URBAN SERVICES Threats Opportunities Weaknesses Strengths PROVISION OF BASIC URBAN SERVICES • Reduction of drinking water quality due to fish farms in the river. • The delay in the sanitation project affects heritage buildings negatively. The improvement of drainage services represents an opportunity. Drainage Facilities: • The lack of drainage facilities in the city; until now, the new treatment station under the national project for drainage facilities does not work due to the lack of equipment. • The current drainage line is inadequate, leaving some areas of the city to drain waste directly into the Nile without treatment. • The other areas of the city have a pump system, but still drain the waste into the Nile. • Manual sweeping of sanitation trenches results in overflows into the street. Solid Waste: • The absence of an integrated system to manage solid waste and the dumpsite. • Insufficient workers for waste collection and transportation at the city level. • The private sector is unable to continue offering the services because it is incapable of getting the service fees from inhabitants. Electricity: • Bare electrical components present danger in rain. Transportations and Roads: • The narrowness of roads in urban areas that obstruct passage. • The existence of permanent markets on some main roads (El-Malek tunnel, Zaghlol Street) and the consequent obstruction of commuters in the city. Water: • The new main Edfina purification station. • The network has been changed and new line has been installed using PVC. • The water pressure improved during the last period. • A descending 45 km network had been implemented. • The treatment station foundation has been laid and five pumping stations in the city have been set up. • Currently, expulsion lines are being installed for the city drainage network. • The collecting and transporting process is carried out by cleaning department labourers using city council vehicles. • Existence of a healthy dumping site 6 km outside the city. The electricity network covers the whole city. • Currently the transformers support 500 volts-amperes. Transportation and Roads: • There is variety in the available means of transportation inside the city, whether private sector or public sector. RESOURCE MOBILISATION • Low-cost systems are to be considered. Insufficient government resources for high-end systems. • The state budget and the investment plan of the government provide partially for services. INSTITUTIONAL SET-UP • The private sector has not been able to continue to provide the service because it is unable to collect garbage collection fees from homeowners. • Old partnership with a Chinese company to erect barriers to protect the beach from waves and erosion. Project will be completed through an Egyptian company (Arab Contractors). CAPACITY BUILDING AND TRAINING Only a small number of workers exist at the city level for collecting and removing garbage. 32

35 PROJECT PROPOSALS– BASIC URBAN SERVICES
BUS N° 1 Project proposal Establishment of a fishing dock BUS N° 2 Project proposal Solid waste recycling LOCATION: Rosetta DURATION: 36 months BENEFICIARIES: Fishermen and all the people of Rosetta. IMPLEMENTING PARTNERS: Local government, the Ministry of Housing and Utilities, and the Ministry of Irrigation. ESTIMATED COST: US$20 million BACKGROUND: Rosetta’s fishermen have been severely affected by the closure of the Al-Bogaz estuary (accumulated sand deposits were the cause of the closure). The area requires clearance periodically for fishermen to go about their business. However, such a process is very expensive and there has been no financial support for it. To rectify the problem, a fishing dock is required to facilitate the movement of the fishing vessels. OBJECTIVES: Facilitating the movement of fishing vessels, thereby saving about US$8 million annually (the cost of clearing sand deposits at Al-Bogaz). ACTIVITIES: (1) Determining the appropriate place. (2) Providing the required operational drawings. (3) Creating a timetable for implementation. OUTPUTS: The number of fishing vessels increased and the fishing industry improved in the city. The annual cost of clearing sand at Al-Bogaz reduced or eliminated. STAFF REQUIRED: Coordinator of stakeholders, director of employment, and labourers. LOCATION: Rosetta DURATION: Six months BENEFICIARIES: People of Rosetta. IMPLEMENTING PARTNERS: NGOs, the local administration, and the Egypt Environmental Affairs Agency. ESTIMATED COST: Undefined BACKGROUND: Rosetta has no operating system for the collection and recycling of solid waste. OBJECTIVES: Collection and disposal of waste through recycling and other environmentally sound methods; preparation of an integrated management system for such a process. ACTIVITIES: (1) Determining the appropriate place for the project. (2) Preparing a document showing different ways to recycle and the kind of equipment required. (3) Creating a timetable for implementation. OUTPUTS: The city’s solid waste disposed of in a proper way; increased employment opportunities, either in the recycling process or in the sale of recycled products. STAFF REQUIRED: Coordinator of stakeholders, director of employment, and labourers. 33

36 PROJECT PROPOSALS– BASIC URBAN SERVICES
BUS N° 3 Project proposal Financing of the current reluctant Sanitation project to complete implementation and operation. BUS N° 4 Project proposal Expand the current city road entrance, and constructing new city entrance through the beach. LOCATION: Rosetta DURATION : 12 months BENEFICIARIES: People of Rosetta. IMPLEMENTING PARTNERS: National Authority for Water and Sanitation, the local administration in the city. ESTIMATED COST : undefined BACKGROUND: Lack of drainage facility in the city & the wastewater treatment plant, that is following the National Project for Sanitation, hadn’t worked yet due to the uncompleted equipment. OBJECTIVES: Operating the wastewater treatment plant installed. City heritage preservation threatened as a result of direct discharge in the soil. ACTIVITIES: Identification of equipment required for the operation of the plant. Document preparation for the introduction of such a tender for the supply of equipment. A timetable for delivery and the start of implementation of the project. OUTPUTS: Supply city residents with access to unavailable sanitation. Operating the treatment plant and lines of the network that have been established and not operated yet. STAFF REQUIERED : Coordinator with stakeholders - director-employment and labors. LOCATION: Rosetta DURATION: 6 months BENEFICIARIES: People of Rosetta IMPLEMENTING PARTNERS: Local Administration and the Ministry of Housing and Infrastructure-NGOs. ESTIMATED COST : US$ BACKGROUND: The narrow entrance to the city, which is not commensurate with the importance of the city and tourism development planned in addition to the absence of another entrance required to facilitate the traffic movement from and to the city. OBJECTIVES: Facilitate the movement of traffic from and to the city of Rosetta ACTIVITIES: Identifying areas to expand the current road. Identifying the best locations for new entrance to the city. Establish timetable for implementation. OUTPUTS: Increase the number of visitors to the city either for commerce or tourism by facilitating the movement from and to the city. STAFF REQUIERED : Coordinator with stakeholders - director-employment and labors. 34

37 SWOT LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Priorities Threats Opportunities
Weaknesses Strengths LOCAL ECONOMY DYNAMIC & ISSUES OF LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Unemployment Unexploited economic resources in Rosetta Ignoring the spiritual and economical advantages of Rosetta squander resources that can be exploited to magnify the economical revenues at the local and national levels of Rosetta . The possibility of issuing presidential decree to set up industrial area. The expedient of terminating the drainage western Rosetta as it will increase the quality of the agricultural lands. Purification and covering Bogaz form two sides to prevent the sand from blocking it , and studying the sea waves that move the sand to eliminate thereof ,or putting waves walls , because opening this Bogaz will create many special investment opportunities in the fishing ships. Establishing fishing port in: "Marays“ which is the best place as it is 27 feddons, as it is behind the Bogaz which lies on the Nile and the Mediterranean. Establishing a private firm where Rosetta's youth can subscribe to set up large fishing in Rosetta, so the laborers will be owners, this will help in creating many job opportunities. Establishing an arsenal to gather the ships and yachts manufacturers, this is very useful for Rosetta, due to it is famous in manufacturing yachts. Establishing a factory to freeze fishes, and a refrigerators project for vegetables and fruits due to the overabundance of production, and refrigerators will be rented outside Rosetta. Preparing wide parks , finishing the Cornish project ,setting up coffee shops at it, and planting the streets with trees. The fast termination of constructing "Zaglool mosque “ , as it will develop the religious tourism . Codifying the fish bases after scientific confirmation of an independent scientific committee that such bases do not pollute the environment or the River Nile , in particularly, there are more than 7000 workmen work at it which help in solving the unemployment . No industrial zone, and till now no decision issued specifies an industrial area for Rosetta. Till present time the housing and tourist cities have not been implemented. The agricultural drainage is bad due to the non -existence of a drainage western Rosetta. The palms' liquorices will damage the main crop which is palms’ heritage, and the fruit fly which will negatively affect the fruits. No public facilities for spending interesting time The exploitation of the city doesn’t cope with its history. No exploitation for the agricultural wastes. No fishing port. No investment map shows the potential investment areas. No location for the fisheries association, which is compromised of 12 thousands members No efficient guarantees for the individuals to obtain loans. A unique location at the meeting point of the River Nile with the Mediterranean, and it is located through the international road of the coast. The tourism capabilities and Rosetta stone The existence of agricultural areas and production such as vegetables fruits and dates. Existence of well exploited large areas. Rosetta has good international reputation in the yachts manufacturing. The existence of waterway in the Nile with length 28 Km from Edfeena to Rosetta which can be used as natural fisheries . CURRENT PROGRAMS AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK Continuous isolation of city LED Training for Local authority and NGO Many projects ideas for the city capacity of local authority to manage local economic development The obstacles by the poor to obtain credit are inefficient guarantees , no efficient experiences and no areas allow establishing enterprises The local authority support the development of the local economy through simplifying the procedures of issuing licenses ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC & MARKET OUTFLOWS – CAPACITY BUILDING & TRAINING Investment attraction The small volume of the local market, weakness of the purchase power Wooden products , cloths, glass products and spare parts are purchased from outside Rosetta due to its un availability therein 35

38 PROJECT PROPOSALS – LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
LED N° 1 Project proposal The project of tourist refreshment of Rosetta city LED N° 2 Project proposal Establishing fishing port and widening the river waterway LOCATION: Rosetta DURATION: 4 Months BENEFICIARIES: Rosetta people IMPLEMENTING PARTNERS: Ministry of Culture, UNISCO and International Aid Agencies. ESTIMATED COST: US$ 0.9 billion BACKGROUND: Rosetta has a unique location, it lies at the meeting point of the River Nile with the Mediterranean, and it is located through the international road of the coast Rosetta city has a unique group of the Islamic buildings, it is the second city after Cairo in view of Islamic monuments, in addition to the existence of Rosetta stone. In spite of the existence of many tourist places, they are not exploited as a tourist source and there are no public parks for spending interested time (there is a small and inefficient one). OBJECTIVES: the projects aims at encourage the tourism in Rosetta through restoration 0f old Islamic and historic buildings, Preparing wide parks and let Rosetta stone go home from London. ACTIVITIES: (1) restoration of old Islamic and historic buildings, (2) Preparing wide parks , finishing the Cornish project ,setting up coffee shops at it, and planting the streets with trees OUTPUTS: encourage local and international tourism to Rosetta, put it on tourism map locally and internationally and create job opportunities for Rosetta’ People. STAFF REQUIERED : Fine and decorative artists, skilled builders and carpenters. LOCATION : Rosetta DURATION: 2.5 years BENEFICIARIES: Fishermen, owners of boats, owners of fisheries-related industries IMPLEMENTING PARTNERS: The State, Private sector investors (BOOT investment system) ESTIMATED COST: US$ 1.3 billion BACKGROUND: Although there are big possibilities in Rosetta in the field of fishing and fish wealth, there is no fishing port therein, in addition to Bogaz lock problem for four month per year. Therefore , Establishing of fishing port in: "Marays area” will help to boost fisheries industry as a main profession Rosetta people. The project will enhance the living standards of people there through creating job opportunities and decreasing unemployment. OBJECTIVES: the projects aims at exploit Rosetta’ comparative advantage, Rosetta has a huge of fishing wealth. The project has direct effects such as create new jobs for fishers as well as indirect effects such as encouraging of establishment of fisheries feed industries such as boats industries (nets) industries, ice factories and cargo companies……..etc. OUTPUTS : accelerate economic development process in Rosetta and encourage the fishing sector to be one of the most important leading sector of the Rosetta economic development. STAFF REQUIERED : many skilled and unskilled workers, many contractors companies, many engineering consultants……etc. 36

39 ROSETTA CITY CONSULTATION - 30 APRIL 2006 ATTENDANCE LIST
Name and Position Lieutenant General / Fathalla H. El Guindy Head of Rosetta Mohamed A. Abd El Latif General manger of Behiera Heritage Mr. Mahmoud Ahmed El Fanawany Secretary of local authority Mr. Yakout M. Gameel Head of product families dept. Mr. Nasr M. Hebala Member of local council Mr. Mohamed Hassan Ahmed Mr. Bassuiony Roushdy Deputy director of Eng. Dept. Mr. Ahmed Bahie El Din Director of Agricultural land protection agency Mr. Mohamed M. Hassan Head of prevention Dept. Nadia Andraous NGO Mrs. Ekhlas M. Hassan Secretary of women affairs Dr. Soheir El Meniawy MR. Mohamed H. El Azazi Mr. Mohamed Kamal El Farargy Mr. Abdallah A. Berish Mr. Mohamed TAha Zeid Malek Head of Social security affairs Mr. Maged H. Othman Head OF NGO Dept. Mr. Ibrahim Mohamed Auditor –medical dept. Mr. Mohamed Kamal Anwar NGO Mr. Ahmed Shaltout Head of Investment dept. Eng. Mohamed Elsaid Gouda Head of Information center Eng. Essam Aboumosaed Urban design dept. Eng. Sekina Shahat Head of Engineering dept. Eng. Fulla I. Elkheuoty Head of urban planning & Amlak dept. Eng. Mohamed Farahat Head of environment Mrs. Sit Elsaid Manea Organization dept. Eng. Ahmed A. Esmail Environment affair specialist Dr. Hassan Kass Head of technical dept. Mr. Ibrahim M. Elzein technical dept. Mr. Hassan A. Nour Eng. Ahmed M. Elbarrawy Head of plnning dept. Mr. Adelkarim El Gabas Head of Development dept. Mr. Hafiz Elmounofy Head of educational authority Mr. Mohamed H. Othman Social authority Mr. Abdelnaser N. Elseidy Head of employees affairs dept. Mr. Mazhar M. shalaby Financial auditor Dr. Hassan Shetta Head of Health dept. -Rosetta Mr. Hassan Nour Information center CONTACTS: Alioune Badiane, Chief, Regional Office for Africa and the Arab States, Mohamed El Sioufi, Senior Human Settlements Officer, RUSPS coordinator, Ali El Faramawy, Program Manager, UN-HABITAT National Office, Egypt, EGYPT RUSPS TEAM Hassanien Abouzeid, Abdelwahab Helmy, Moustafa Madbouly, Ghada Farouk Hassan, Hebatalla Abouelfadl, Mohab El Refaie, Doaa El Sherif, Alia El Mahdi, Anwar El Nakeeb and Mohamed Eid


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