Presentation on theme: "Thinking Globally about Managing Diversity"— Presentation transcript:
1 Thinking Globally about Managing Diversity Part 2
2 Learning ObjectivesHow is Cultural Competency demonstrated in the global arena?Why must we understand diversity in the global arena (Sowell)?How are International Management cultures classified (types)?How do national cultures vary (Hofstede)?
3 Culture Behavioral Symbols (language, clothing, appearance) Layer 1 consists of the values, beliefs, customs, morals, and laws shared by people in a particular society.shapes our perceptions and responses and influences the quality of our interpersonal interactions.Rao, p.150,1.The Culture Pit & ReligionBehavioral Symbols(language, clothing, appearance)Layer 1Attitudes, Rituals, Structures (attitudes toward work)Layer 2Core Values, (Stable) Beliefs (work ethic, centrality of work )Layer 3
4 Management Skills & Techniques that matter in international arena Perceptual skills – awareness, recognition of differencesCognitive skills – knowledge about differences and related tensionsBehavioral skills – ability to select the appropriate response; especially communication
5 A World View of Cultural Diversity (Sowell, p.41) Cultures exist to serve the vital, practical requirements of human life ---To structure a society so as to perpetuate a species,To pass on hard-earned knowledge and experience in order to spare the next generation the costly and dangerous process of learning everything all over again from scratch through trial and error, including fatal errors.
6 A World View of Cultural Diversity (Sowell) Why must we understand diversity in the global arena? Cultural diversity, viewed internationally and historically, is not a static picture of differentness but a dynamic picture of competition in which what serves human purposes effectively survives while what does not tends to decline or disappear. (p. 34)
7 Cultural leadership in various fields . . . Exists when particular groups - often a minority – dominate particular occupations or industries.Has changed hands many times from nation to nation, culture to culture.
8 Edward Hall classified National Cultures based on Communication Patterns The extent to which effective communication depends upon a sensitivity to non-verbal and situational cues.Low ContextCulturesHigh ContextCultures
9 Ruhly’s Cultural Iceberg Technical: VisibleFormal: Partly VisibleInformal: Not VisibleLittle emotional contentStraightforward communicationHigh emotional contentGeneral social rulesIntense emotional contentAutomatic learned behavior
10 Hofstede identified 5 dimensions of societal norms that reflect work behavior Hofstede studied 72,000 managers from more than 40 countries to define “5 Dimensions of Cultural Diversity”.Dimensions are “continuums” with opposing values at each end.Foreign cultures are not arbitrary or randomly different from one another. There are patternsCultures can be “mirror images” of one another.
11 Hofstede’s Cultural Continuum Time OrientationLong-Term Short TermSelf-importanceIndividualism CollectivismTradition - FlexibilityMasculinity FemininityUncertaintyRisk Avoidance Risk TakingPower RelationsEqual Distance Unequal
12 Hofstede’s Cultural Continuum Long-Term Short TermChinaWest AfricaIndividualism CollectivismUS, Britain, Canada, Aus.Columbia, Peru, PakistanMasculinity FemininityDenmark, Sweden, NorwayJapan, Austria, Venezuela, ItalyRisk Avoidance Risk TakingNetherlands, Greece, JapanSweden, Denmark, SingaporeEqual Distance UnequalNZ, Denmark, Israel, AustriaPhilippines, Mexico, India
13 MOW: Meaning of WorkA culture’s view of work is reflected in worker behavior and expectation for the job.Understanding how a foreign workforce regards work is critical to international mgt.Work is VERYCENTRALWork is NOTVERY CENTRALJapan, YugoslaviaIsraelU.S., BelgiumNetherlandsGermanyGreat Britain
14 Global Mgt. Orientations Ethno-centricHome-country centeredKey employees from home countryPoly-centric“Host”-country centeredKey employees from host countryRegio-centricInterdependent units within a regionHeadquarters selects regional mgt / corp. cultureGeo-centricWorld oriented, w/ local objectivesIntegrated system worldwide.
15 Modes of Acculturation AssimilationDominant Culture becomes the standard of behavior for other cultures.Everyone conforms to Dominant norms/values.SeparationMinority Culture unwilling/ unable to adapt to Dominant;Seeks cultural & physical autonomy.De-culturationDominant & Minority Culture not highly valued by membersNeither is influential in framing minority behavior.PluralismIntegration: a two-way process.Both Cultures change to some degree and reflect the norms and values of the other.Cox, Taylor, & Beale, R.L. Developing Competency to Manage Diversity. San Francisco, Berrett-Koehler, 1997, pp