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U.S. Food Aid / P.L. 480 Title II Food for Peace - 101 Challenges and Opportunities USAID Office of Food for Peace Dale Skoric April 2008
U.S. Food Assistance - General Outline Title I: Trade & Development Assistance USDA Title II: Emergency & Develop. AssistanceUSAID Title III: Food For Development USAID Title V: Farmer to Farmer USAID Section 416(b): Surplus Donations USDA Emerson Trust: EmergenciesUSAID/USDA Food for ProgressUSDA McGovern-Dole Global Food for EducationUSDA
Program Context AccountAgency FY 2009 Request (mil)Description P.L. 480 Title IUSDA0Concessional loans P.L. 480 Title IIUSAID1,226 Emergency and non- emergency grants P.L. 480 Title IIIUSAID0 Government-to- government commodity donations Farmer-to-FarmerUSAID10* Voluntary technical assistance to farmers, farm groups and agribusinesses Food for ProgressUSDA340.1 Commodity donations to CSs and private entities linked to expansion of free enterprise agricultural economies Section 416(b)USDAN/ASurplus donations McGovern-DoleUSDA100Food for Education Bill Emerson Humanitarian Trust USDA/ USAID N/AEmergency reserve Major International Affairs ProgramsU.S. Government Food Aid Programs AccountAgency FY 2009 Request (mil) Global HIV/AIDS InitiativeState4,779 Economic Support FundState3,154 Millennium Challenge Account MCC2,225 Development AssistanceUSAID1,639 Child Survival and HealthUSAID1,578 P.L. 480 Title IIUSAID1,226 Migration and refugee Assistance State764 Independent States of Former Soviet Union State346 International Disaster Assistance USAID298 Eastern Europe and Baltic States State276 *Funds provided by Title II budget
FFP’s Operating Environment – Many Stakeholders FFP U.S. Shipping Industry Food Processing Interests -Bagging, fortification, milling WTO United Nations -WFP, FAO Congress U.S. Agribusiness USDA/OMB PVOs Also of note: FACG FAPC FAC
Legislative Context: Appropriations New Title II Funding Availability *Does not include MARAD reimbursements, carry-over funds, and deobligations from prior year agreements
P.L. 480 Title II Budget: Commodity vs. Non-commodity
Most Common Commodities Title II Commodities Ordered (FY 2007, metric tons)
Types of Food for Peace Programming Food Distributions - (e.g. free food distributions, food for work, food for training, etc) Monetization Programs – food aid commodities shipped to a recipient country; tendered and sold; and proceeds used to fund programs
Strategic Country approach / Non-Emergency Food Aid Funding prioritized to 19 countries for greatest impact Open and transparent application process Overall and country specific guidelines Washington and field technical review committees 120 Days requirement Country Afghanistan Bangladesh Burkina Faso Burundi Chad Congo (DRC) Ethiopia Guatemala Haiti Liberia Madagascar Malawi Mali Mauritania Mozambique Niger Sierra Leone Uganda Zambia Non-Emergency Priority Countries
Emergency Food Aid Direct distribution and food for work Prioritized based on magnitude, severity of needs Many operations in high risk environments Ten Largest Emergency Programs Funding by Region Country/ Region FY07 (USD mil) Sudan$356 Ethiopia$182 Southern Africa$103 Zimbabwe$96 Kenya$81 Afghanistan$60 Uganda$44 Congo (DRC)$38 Chad (Eastern)$38 Somalia$35
Food Aid Operations Steps: –Assessment –Operational Design/Planning –Logistics –Integration
Assessment – Key Issues Basic questions: –Is food aid needed and why –For whom, where, when, how much Assessment partners Nature of shock Causes of malnutrition Coping strategies Local response capacity Gender Seasonality
Program Design – Key Issues Food assistance strategy Beneficiary selection Appropriate interventions: –General food distribution –Supplementary/therapeutic –Monetization Food basket, ration levels Non-food inputs, partnerships Management Distribution mechanism Monitoring, reporting, supervision Contingency planning
Food Aid Logistics – Key Issues Port capacity Import requirements Transport routes –Road –Rail –River –Air Cost effectiveness Warehousing –Locations –Cost –Monitoring
Integration - Food Aid and Foreign Assistance Reform U.S. Foreign Assistance was not Strategically Focused Duplicative budgeting processes Overlapping roles in Washington and the field Inability to track funds and results centrally
Five Objectives of the Transformational Diplomacy Goal: 1.Peace & Security: To help nations effectively establish the conditions and capacity for achieving peace, security, and stability; and for responding effectively against arising threats to national or international security and stability 2.Governing Justly & Democratically: To promote and strengthen effective democracies in recipient states and move them along a continuum toward democratic consolidation 3.Investing in People: To help nations achieve sustainable improvements in the well-being and productivity of their populations through effective and accountable investments in education, health, and other social services 4.Economic Growth: To generate rapid, sustained, and broad-based economic growth 5.Humanitarian Assistance: To save lives, alleviate suffering, and minimize the economic costs of conflict, disasters and displacement. Foreign Assistance Framework (October 2006)
FEWS NET Provides decision makers with accurate, timely, and actionable information to prevent famine in Africa, Central America & Haiti, and Afghanistan
Current and Future Issues Commodity Price Increases Farm Bill WTO Doha Renegotiation of the Food Aid Convention More diversity and collective action among NGOs Enhancing American leadership in food aid– but USG alone can’t meet all global food aid needs A toolkit well suited to the challenges of global hunger and poverty The public’s understanding and the policymakers’ responses
Thank You and Questions
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