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Exploiting Semantic Web and Knowledge Management Technologies for E-learning Sylvain Dehors Director Rose Dieng-Kuntz INRIA Sophia Antipolis University.

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Presentation on theme: "Exploiting Semantic Web and Knowledge Management Technologies for E-learning Sylvain Dehors Director Rose Dieng-Kuntz INRIA Sophia Antipolis University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Exploiting Semantic Web and Knowledge Management Technologies for E-learning Sylvain Dehors Director Rose Dieng-Kuntz INRIA Sophia Antipolis University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis/ ED STIC

2 2 E-learning, this ?

3 3 A vision of e-learning For us: –Any learning activity mediated by a computer –Buzz Word, but also real change in practices Use of computers in daily activities All ages, from youngster to adult teaching In practice, several types of application –Simulation programs –Tutoring systems –On-line courses

4 4 Our e-learning situation Learning organization –Teacher(s) with a group of students Environment –Computers for daily usage –Either on-line or face-to-face Knowledge Sources –Course documents –Teachers expertise Provide computer support for taking advantage of the knowledge sources

5 5 Outline 1.Research question 2.Method Proposal 1.Selection and analysis of existing material 2.Semi automatic annotation 3.Learning activity 4.Analysis 3.Conclusion

6 6 Research question Proposal: –apply Knowledge Management techniques and Semantic Web technology –develop a practical method Illustration: a tool (QBLS) and experiments How can teachers and students better use knowledge sources, such as pedagogical documents, with computer interfaces ?

7 7 Inspirations Knowledge Management –The objective of a knowledge management structure is to promote knowledge growth, promote knowledge communication, and in general preserve knowledge within the organisation (Steels L., 93) Semantic Web: – The Semantic Web provides a common framework that allows data to be shared across application, enterprise, and common boundaries. (W3C) –Standards: RDF, RDFS, OWL, SPARQL

8 8 Existing methods and tools (Dieng et al.) Corporate semantic web Semantic annotation base ontologies Knowledge holder DB services Knowledge Management Syst. edit O edit A query documents User (collective task)User (Individual task) Apply to a learning organization - Tool: Corese semantic search engine to query formalized knowledge - W3C Standards expressing knowledge about the course

9 9 Method description Selection and analysis of existing material 2 - Semi automatic annotation 3 - Learning activity 4 - Analysis

10 Method description Original resources selection Semantization Conceptual navigation + adaptation Activity analysis tests Usage feedback Ontologies : Document Pedagogy Domain Annotations Select Enrich Use Analyze KM tools

11 11 Experiments Agenda QBLS-1 : 2 hours lab Signal Analysis QBLS-2 : 3 months course Java Programming QBLS-ASPL : Knowledge Web NoE Semantic Web studies

12 12 Resource selection First, establish a pedagogical strategy –Collaboration Teacher/QBLS designer –QBLS: Question Based Learning Strategy: Motivation, autonomy, self-directed learning Existing resources: –Objective criteria Availability, standard editable format (XML) Suitability for annotation (modularity, coherence, vocabulary used) –Subjective criteria Scope, goal, context Teachers acceptance

13 13 Original documents Power Point presentations –Signal analysis / Java programming –Used as hard copy course material Modularity Coherence, Vocabulary

14 14 Ontology selection Selection of existing models, ontologies? –Document: Must fit the course structure Document organization Document ontology –Pedagogy: Appropriate for the pedagogical approach –Domain to learn: Usually the biggest ontology Fit the document contents (vocabulary used, conceptualization) Fit the teachers vision Lots of constraints, difficult to find appropriate ontologies

15 15 1- Selection and analysis of existing material 2 – Semi automatic annotation 3 – Learning activity 4 - Analysis

16 16 Express additional knowledge about the course –Based on teachers expertise and vision Principles : –Use existing edition tools –Proceed through visual mark-up –Rely on XML technologies and Semantic Web formalisms Annotation

17 17 A semi-automatic process 3 steps –Pre-processing –Manual annotation –Automatic extraction resource to reuse annotable version annotated version annotation (RDF) content (XHTML) manual annotation xsl transform. pre-processing Ontologies (OWL, RDFS) (XML)

18 18 Preprocessing Identification of the content characteristics –Separation in small entities Automatic annotation –Vocabulary used domain concepts, automatic annotation with domain ontology –Resource roles pedagogical ontology Preparation –Styles reflect ontological concepts –enrich style lists with ontologies

19 19 Preprocessing

20 20 Preprocessing Fundamental concepts object class Objects and classes objects... Methods and parameters objects have operations which can be invoked (Java calls them methods) methods may have parameters to pass additional information needed to execute

21 21 Preprocessing

22 22 Preprocessing

23 23 Manual annotation Exploitation of tools functionalities by the teacher for a visual markup Evolution/enrichment/creation of corresponding domain ontology Practical objective: connecting navigation paths –Edition of the content –Linking concepts with semantic hierarchical relations (SKOS) Interface Keyword « implements » skos:broader Statement Conditional Statement Assignment Statement skos:broader

24 24 Final result: Open Office-Writer

25 25 Final result : MS-Word

26 26 Experimental results: ontology re-use Pedagogical ontology –Reused directly –Same intention as original: describe ped. role (generic?) Domain Ontology –Design intention very important: here offer conceptual views of the resources –Mostly developed specifically, comparisons with other domain ontologies show striking incompatibilities. Access rights publicprotectedprivate Method modifiers publicprotectedprivate

27 27 Experimental results: annotation cost QBLS-1QBLS-2 Number of resources92359 Num. of resources discardedNone54 Course duration2H3 months Number of pedagogical types used (directly) 8/812/27 Num. of domain concepts41171 Editing ToolMicrosoft WordOpenOffice Writer Annotation timeN/A20H Modification of contentYesNo

28 28 1- Selection and analysis of existing material 2 – Semi automatic annotation 3 – learning activity 4 - Analysis

29 29 Learning activity Offer conceptual navigation in the set of resources while answering questions or performing exercises Navigation through semantic queries –Take advantage of domain concepts hierarchy (broader links) –Use typology of pedagogical concepts for ordering (subsumption) Interface generation –Static XSL style sheets: performance, reuse, maintenance

30 30 Semantic Web architecture content (XHTML) Pedagogical ontology Domain vocabulary Doc. model (Skos) (OWL) (RDFS) Corese Semantic Search Engine XSLT Queries (Sparql) HTTP web-app Tomcat web server Answers (Sparql-XML) Interface (XHTML) Request Learner logs (RDF) Formalized Knowledge rules

31 31 Semantic Web at work Dynamic SPARQL queries: SELECT * WHERE { FILTER (?c = java:variable) { ?doc skos:primarySubject ?c } UNION { ?doc skos:primarySubject ?c2. ?c2 skos:broader ?c} ?doc rdf:type ?t ?t edu:order ?order ?doc dc:title ?docTitle ?t rdfs:label ?docLab ?c skos:prefLabel ?cLab } ORDER BY ?order Variable Local Variable Definition Example 3 7 skos:primarySubject skos:broader skos:primarySubject rdf:type Layout information edu:order

32 32 Semantic Web at work(2) Refining the query –Contextual information –User adaptation ?doc skos:subject ?ext_concept { ?ext_doc skos:primirySubject ?ext_concept } UNION { ?ext_doc skos:primirySubject ?c2. ?c2 skos:broader ?ext_concept } ?ext-doc edu:belongsTo java:Chapter1 OPTIONAL { FILTER (?user = epu:user1) ?user edu:profile ?profile ?profile edu:orderingRelationType ?p ?t ?p ?order }

33 33 QBLS-1

34 34 QBLS-2 Variable Fields Local variable skos:broader Human readable information

35 35 Experimental results: students feedback Good satisfaction Structured navigation appreciated for direct access to information Use of domain and pedagogical information QBLS-1QBLS-2 Num. of students using the system100%30% Num. of resources visited90%80% Overall Satisfaction4.3/53.9/5 Off-hours accessN/A50% of connections

36 36 QBLS-ASPL (Advanced Semantic Platform for Learning) Existing resources on a portal : REASE, MS-PowerPoint files

37 37 QBLS-ASPL Interesting Web sites for advanced learners

38 38 QBLS-ASPL Provided by QBLS

39 39 1- Selection and analysis of existing material 2 – Semi automatic annotation 3 – Exploitation by learners 4 - Analysis

40 40 Analysis Modeling user activity –A navigation model based on a graph representation Exploitation of logs –Visualization through automatically generated graphs –Use semantic querying to highlight particular characteristics of the graphs represented in RDF Concept Resource Concept Resource subject of mentions subject of User A Time t

41 41 Visualization

42 42 Visualization

43 43 Semantic querying Find regularities, patterns? –Using the graph structure –Relying on the ontology SELECT ?user count ?v WHERE { ?aux skos:primarySubject ?concept ?aux rdf:type edu:Auxilliary ?v edu:user ?user ?v edu:conceptVisited ?concept OPTIONAL { ?v2 edu:resourceVisited ?aux ?v2 edu:user ?user} FILTER(! bound(?v2)) } Object Def Ex. ?v ?v2

44 44 Experimental Results Involve teachers in the analysis –Problem with large size graphs –Visualization tools not sufficient yet –Needs to be coupled with other sources of information First step towards automated interpretation –Define a collection of patterns -> behavioral patterns Use in real-time?

45 45 Conclusion Learning Object Repositories LOM standard Scorm? Learning Design Adaptive hypermedia Annotation tools Linguistic analysis Learner modeling Activity tracking Semantic Web = valid connector

46 46 Conclusion (2) Semantic web interests: –Existing tools, Corese, Protégé, etc. –Existing models, in standard language –Unification and connection with other systems Ontologies for e-learning –Interest, reusability of domain might be limited –Need for simple expressivity, goal oriented design

47 47 Conclusion(3) Resource Reuse –Observed use and good satisfaction level –Definite interest, cost still high Knowledge management approach –Satisfaction of users –Initial goal fulfilled –May apply to other learning contexts

48 48 Perspectives (1) Short term –Further develop annotation system based on existing tools –Administrative tools to make teachers fully autonomous Middle term –Enhance scalability with large RDF bases ( when triples are generated by learner activity) –Generalize log visualization, work on usage of such representations (e.g. teachers interpretations)

49 49 Perspectives (2) Long term –Investigate the cognitive implications for learning of the annotations Importance of the pedagogical concepts Structure of the domain –Enhance user tracking (more information, refine model)

50 50 Acknowledgements Catherine Faron-Zucker Jean Paul Stromboni Peter Sander

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