Presentation on theme: "BACKWARD MAPPING: Beginning with the end in mind"— Presentation transcript:
1 BACKWARD MAPPING: Beginning with the end in mind New Scheme Teachers ConferenceSeptember 14, 2011Rooty Hills RSLIf the ladder is against the wrong wall, every step we take gets us to the wrong place faster STEPHEN R.COVEY – The seven
2 OutcomesLearn about the research base that underpin the Backward Mapping model.Build skills and knowledge around effective assessment principles.Develop quality rubrics to assist with Consistent Teacher Judgement in your schoolUse the NSW Model of pedagogy – QT framework as a tool to enhance assessment and, teaching and learning
3 What is it?A framework used to improve curriculum design in order to develop and deepen students’ understanding.The logic of a ‘backward design’ approach to programming suggests a planning sequence for curriculum with three stages—Identify desired results, determine acceptable evidence, and plan learning experiences and instruction.
4 Jay McTighe & Grant Wiggins “Understanding by Design” Where did it come from?Jay McTighe & Grant Wiggins“Understanding by Design”The “Twin Sins” of curriculum design:aimless activitysuperficial coverage
6 Stephen R Covey, The seven habits of highly effective people In the words of Covey“To begin with the end in mind means to start with a clear understanding of your destination. It means to know where you’re going so that you better understand where you are now so that the steps you take are always in the right direction.”Stephen R Covey, The seven habits of highly effective people
7 Backward mapping framework Identify desired results Unpack the content and focus on the big ideasDetermine acceptable evidence Analyse and design multiple sources of evidence aligned with Stage 1Plan learning experiences and instructionPlan the learning experiences that align to Stages 1 and 2Assessment EvidenceLearningActivitiesUnderstandings Essential Questionsstage23Standard(s):1PerformanceTask(s):Other Evidence:STAGE 1STAGE 2STAGE 3
8 Backward mapping framework Adolescents share common struggles in growing up.Writers use a variety of stylistic techniques to persuade readers.Novelists can provide insight about human experience.What’s wrong with Holden? Studentsassume the role of a staff member atthe psychiatric hospital and write aletter to Holden’s parents explaining hisbehaviour.Wiggins & McTigheAssessment EvidenceLearningActivitiesUnderstandings Essential Questionsstage23Standard(s):1PerformanceTask(s):Other Evidence:STAGE 1Identify desired resultsSTAGE 2Determine acceptable evidenceThe Catcher in the Rye, written by J.D. SalingerHolden Caulfield is himself the narrator of the story. He is however, somewhat unreliable as it is implied in the book that he is in a mental institution at the time of telling this story. That's why readers cannot wholly believe what he is saying. To start with Holden Caulfield character analysis, he is a typical teenager who is very unlike the heroes that we see in other novels. He is presented as somebody who is discontented with his life and does not shy away from expressing his displeasure about everybody and everything in life. He is stubborn and refuses to compromise and cooperate in any situation.STAGE 3Plan learning experiences and instruction
9 Why the backward mapping framework? Without building courses ‘backward’ from key tasks, big ideas and performance standards, there are no clear priorities.Wiggins & McTighe ‘05By thinking through the assessment upfront, we ensure greater alignment of our goals, and therefore teaching is focused on the desired results.
11 Links to key DET planning documents Curriculum planning and programming, assessing and reporting to parents K-12 PolicyCurriculum Planning and ProgrammingTeaching programs will incorporate assessment as an integral component.Teaching programs will indicate the outcomes being addressed, the teaching activities planned and the intended assessment strategies.
12 Links to key DET planning documents Curriculum planning and programming, assessing and reporting to parents K-12 PolicyAssessingSchools plan assessment so that:students can demonstrate achievement of outcomes for the relevant stage of learning;valid and reliable assessment strategies are used.
13 Links to key DET planning documents Curriculum planning and programming, assessing and reporting to parents K-12 PolicyAssessingTeachers plan assessment strategies whendeveloping teaching programs.Teachers use a variety of appropriateassessments for judging student achievement.
14 Assessment for Learning is Assessment that enhances learning recognises that learners use their current understanding to discover, develop and incorporate new knowledge, understanding and skills.Assessment for learning helps teachers and students to know if that current understanding is a suitable basis for future learning.
15 Principals of Assessment for Learning emphasises the interactions between learning and manageable assessment strategies that promote learningclearly expresses for the student and teacher the goals of the learning activityreflects a view of learning in which assessment helps students learn more effectively, rather than just achieve a better markAssessment for learning encourages self-assessment and peer assessment. Students can develop and use a range of strategies to actively monitor and evaluate their own learning and the learning strategies they use.
16 Principals of Assessment for Learning 4. Provides ways for students to use feedback from assessment5. Helps students take responsibility for their own learning6. Is inclusive of all learners.
17 Designing effective learning and assessment When designing assessment activities, teachers should consider whether the activity:has explicitly stated purposes that address the outcomesis integral to the teaching and learning programshows a clear relationship between the outcomes and content being assessedallows students to demonstrate the extent of their knowledge, understanding and skillsDesigning Effective Learning and AssessmentDesigning effective learning experiences requires the selection of activities that develop students’ knowledge, understanding and skills and that allow evidence of learning to be gathered. Methods of gathering evidence could include informal teacher observation, questioning, peer evaluation and self-evaluation, as well as more structured assessment activities. Assessment should be an integral part of each unit of work and should support student learning.
18 Designing effective learning and assessment (cont.) focuses on what was taught in class and what students were informed would be assessedprovides opportunities to gather information about what further teaching and learning is required for students to succeedprovides valid and reliable evidence of student learning and is fair.
19 Accessing Deep Knowledge Knowledge is shallow or superficial in a task when it does not require students to address significant concepts or key ideas of a topic or subject, or when concepts or ideas are fragmented and disconnected from a central focus.Assessing Deep KnowledgeKnowledge is deep when it concerns the central ideas or concepts of a topic or subject and when the knowledge is judged to be crucial to the topic or subject. Deep knowledge is evident ion a task when students are required to provide information, reasoning or arguments that address the centrality or complexity of a key concept or idea, or to articulate relatively complex relationships with other central concepts.Knowledge is shallow or superficial in a task when it does not require students to address significant concepts or key ideas of a topic or subject, or when concepts or ideas are fragmented and disconnected from a central focus.The coding scale below can be used when reviewing your ideas for assessment tasks.The task does not require students to address significant concepts of ideas.The task requires students to address some key concepts and ideas but only at a superficial level.The task requires students to address a significant idea, but on general they are not required to sustain a focus on key concepts and ideas.The task requires sustained focus on key concepts or ideas but also directs some attention to superficial or unrelated ideas.The task requires sustained focus on key ideas and concepts.
20 Students as the experts… Allowing students opportunities to play an ‘expert’ role and engage in authentic tasks for different audiences using a range of appropriate technologies, will assist in maximising engagement, relevance and deep understanding.
21 Quality Assessment Tasks: connect naturally with what has been taughtaddress a range of outcomes within the one taskare time efficient and manageableallow all students to make a startengage the learnercan be successfully undertaken using a range of methodsprovide an opportunity for students to transfer knowledge from a known context to a less familiar onehelp teachers to decide what specific help students may require in the relevant content areaspromote higher order thinking
22 Quality Assessment Tasks provide a measure of choice or “openness”encourage students to disclose their ownunderstanding of what they’ve learnedallow student to show connections betweenconcepts they have learnedare themselves worthwhile for students’ learningprovide a range of student responses
23 Modelling the process Developing the marking criteria (rubric) brainstorm what the expectation of a highstandard might look likeuse KLA syllabus language for descriptorsuse the Common Grade Scale to differentiatebetween levelsAligning GradesElaborate on Common Grade Scale for each stageand KLA to develop contextAnalyse work samples and read grade commentariesto develop understanding of standards
24 Planning to ReportingFor planning, programming & delivery think Syllabus and OutcomesFor assessment, recording and reporting think Foundation Statements or Course Performance DescriptorsIntegrated assessment; not fragmented assessing and reporting of each individual outcomeCommon Grade Descriptors provide a common language
25 AssessmentThe major purpose of assessment is to support learning and to inform teaching.Narrative in action to make a point23 Heart Surgeons agreed to observe each other in the operating room and share their know-how, insights and approaches.In the following two years, the death rate of their patients fell by 25%.“Merely by emphasising teamwork and communication, instead of functioning like solitary craftsmen, all the doctors brought about major changes in their individual and institutional practices.”Coalition of Essential Schools (Kathleen Cushman, November 1996)