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María Gregoria Martínez Spanish – Literature & Culture WLC Capstone, Spring 2013 Advisors: Dr. Donaldo Urioste, Dr. Rafael Gómez.

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Presentation on theme: "María Gregoria Martínez Spanish – Literature & Culture WLC Capstone, Spring 2013 Advisors: Dr. Donaldo Urioste, Dr. Rafael Gómez."— Presentation transcript:

1 María Gregoria Martínez Spanish – Literature & Culture WLC Capstone, Spring 2013 Advisors: Dr. Donaldo Urioste, Dr. Rafael Gómez

2  Significance of study  Research questions  Abstract  History about the Incas  Rituals & Tasks  Fall of the Empire  Conclusion Outline

3 Talking about civilizations, ancestors and the past history is something that I have always enjoyed. I decided to do my Capstone project on the Incas civilization because I took a Spanish class when I was in a community college and I learned about the beliefs and traditions of the Incas. I was fascinated to learn more in depth about their culture and life as I already knew about the main civilizations from my culture such as the Mayas and the Aztecs. Learning about the Incas is important to me because I can compare it to my culture and see how past civilizations have influenced today’s culture. Significance of Study

4 Research Questions  Were men and women treated equally during the Incas Period?  What were the roles of men and women?  Who was responsible for the children? the men, women, or both?

5 Abstract This research will be based on one of the oldest civilizations of Peru that began as a small empire and then expanded to be one of the most powerful empires of pre-Columbian America. I will talk briefly about the origins of the Incas. The main focus will be on the roles of women and men in the humbled and privileged classes during some important stages such as birth, adolescence, marriage and rituals. I will also speak about the work and lifestyle that the Incas had depending on their age and social class. At the end, I will conclude with a brief explanation of how this powerful empire died and the memories that we keep from them in Peru.

6 Origins of the Incas  Largest pre-Hispanic society of South America  1200’s  Quechua language  Wanakawri, Sawasiray  1400 expansion of the empire  The Inca Viracocha Died  War between the Incas and Chacas  Conflict between the two brothers Huascar y Atahualpa  1531- Huascar was killed

7 The significance of a new birth in the Empire Perfect age to have a child was between 18 and 20 years old. A baby was a symbol of the peace and harmony for the Empire. Abortion was not allowed for humble class women just for privilege class. Rituals for women so the baby can be born healthy (corn was chewed by adolescents and put in the woman’s womb). After birth, mom and baby were taken to the nearest lake to be washed and blessed with water. The baby had to stay in a cradle all day called "quiran" without being touched by anybody.

8  This celebration takes place at age two.  Women and men wear their best clothes.  Godparents are chosen from the same social class.  A small special plate and scissors are presented.  The godparents start to do the hair cut and then the family relatives finish it off.  This ceremony is celebrated with corn and chicha.  Kids are assigned a temporary name.  Education depends on the sex of the child, parental responsibilities and social class.

9 Education Base on Social Class Humble class kids didn’t go to school and were educated at home. They had certain tasks such as collecting wool, firewood and scaring birds away. Girls were responsible for cleaning, cooking, waving and taking care of younger siblings. Privileged class attended Cuzco centers called Yachay Huasis They were trained by Amautas (wise men ) in different fields such as science, oral history, administration, the quipus system and the use of weapons. Girls received religious classes to serve in religious ceremonies at the empire.

10 “Quiquichiay” The Hairstyle Celebration for Adolescent Girls  Keep absolute fasting for 48 hours before the ceremony.  Privileged as well as humble class tie their hair in braid and wear similar clothing, but of different material.  They present themselves to the Inca and received a final name.  Women become ayllu or acllas.  They receive gifts such as clothes and jewelry by family members.

11 The Ayllu and Acllas Women Roles Acllas Women: Chosen women “ Virgins of the Sun”, privileged class. No men were allowed in the house They lived in the house of the chosen “ temple” They wove the clothes for the Inca and the Coya ( Incas main wife) Prepared the jewels and floral decorations for the empire festivals They cooked and prepared chicha( traditional drink for festivals) They had no right for a relationships unless it was the Inca Worked in textile, agriculture fields Were responsible for sowing seeds (corn), fallowing land, carrying water, collecting medicinal plants, caring for the children Wove clothes for the family Variety of boyfriends and prestige Ayllu Women : Humble class women from families that own land in common and that serve as an administrative unit.

12 “Warachicuy” Courage and Skill Test “Warachicuy” Courage and Skill Test  Only for adolescent males  Fight for "wara“ (breechcloth) and "chapin“(sword)  In order to get the "wara”, the young men had to pass different athletic tests.  The test required speed, courage, concentration, strength, balance, skills, mentality to circumvent the risks and dangers of height.  The best warriors and chaquis ( messengers) were selected.  Winner’s face was stained with llamas blood  Youth became classified as future Orejones and the rest were assigned tasks.  This ritual is still alive in Peru and is known as the Inti Raymi Celebration

13 Freedom to go in handbarrow Paid no taxes Heads of conquered lands Important positions in the government Trusted men by the Inca Chaquis : Messenger that could travel 250 miles in one day by running. Mita - Collective work to pay taxes - Irrigation canals, temples, bridges, crops, food transport Minca- Helped disabled people to volunteer. Ayni -worked to help each other. Construction of houses. "Today for you, tomorrow for me” Inca Men Tasks and Responsibilities

14 The Incas Creations Qhapaq Ñan – The Grand Route Machu Picchu Quipus Terraces Qeswachaka –Bride made of grass Sacsayhuaman- Head of a puma

15  Same social class marriages.  Young humble men could not choose their partner.  Once a year, the village governors lined up the young men and girls.  Pre-married to one another for a few months.  Couple exchanged sandals with each other to be considered officially wedded.  The couple received free land “ Tupu” as a gift by the state.  Houses were built for the privileged and humble classes.

16 Fall of the Inca Empire *Civil war between Huascar and Atahualpa  1532- Francisco Pizarro and a group of Spanish sailed from Panama to South America.  Atahualpa ( emperor of the empire)  Cajamarca meeting – Pizarro and Atahualpa  Pizarro's priests asked Atahualpa to give up the Inca religion and accept Christianity, and the King of Spain as ruler.  Tatahualpa refused and Pizarro took him prisoner.  To gain his freedom, Atahualpa promised Pizarro enough silver and gold to fill a whole room.  1533 - Atahualpa was killed  The Spaniards made slaves of the Inca people.  The Inca silver and gold was sent to Spain.

17 The Incas Civilizations is interesting because they didn’t have technology like we have today, but still they were very smart people in many different fields such as architecture, agriculture, communication, transportation, and religion.

18 References Baudouin, Bernard. "El Imperio Inca Frente a La Conquista Española." Los Incas: [los Adoradores Del Dios Sol]. De Vincci ed. Barcelona. 2012. 1642- 761. (Spanish Edition) (Kindle Location 1642). Baudouin, Bernard. Los Incas: [los Adoradores Del Dios Sol]. De Vincci ed. Barcelona: De Vecchi, 2012. Print. Benson, Sonia G., Sarah Hermsen, and Deborah J. Baker. "Daily Life in the Inca Empire." Review. 1 (2005): n. pag. Web. 8 Mar. 2013. Betanzos, Juan De. Suma Y Narración De Los Incas. Lima: Univ. Nacional Mayor De San Marcos, Fondo Editorial De La Fac. De Ciencias Sociales, Unidad De Post Grado, 2010. Print. Cicerón, Marco Tulio. "La Mujer En La Sociedad Incaica-América Precolombina Y Comienzos De La Conquista." HISTORIA UNIVERSALIS - LA MUJER INCA - Foro América Precolombina Y Comienzos De La Conquista. N.p., 21 July 2010. Web. 3 Mar. 2013. Cobo, Bernabe. "Inca Religion and Customs." Inca and Spanish Women. 1st ed. Austin, Texas: n.p., 1990. Print. Díez, Jordi. La Virgen Del Sol. Barcelona: Ediciones B, 2008. Print. Guaman, Felipe Poma de Ayala, Letter to a King, A Peruvian Chief's Account of Life Under the Incas and Under Spanish Rule (New York, 1978), 84-86, in Richard Bulliet, et al. The Earth and Its Peoples. A Global History (New York, 1997), 366] Oliver, Carlos. "Warachikuy – Prueba De Valor Y Destreza Inca." Arte Y Cultura RSS. N.p., 11 Aug. 2011. Web. 12 Apr. 2013.

19 References Silisque, Adrian. "Inkakuna." Inkakuna- Los Hijos Del Sol. Primera ed., 2013. Print. Temoche, Cortez Patricia. "Capitulo 5. La Vida Diaria Y El Cliclo Biologico Y Trabajo." Breve Historia De Los Incas. Primera edición. Madrid: Nowtilus, 2010. 1330-585. Print. Temoche, Patricia (2011-09-26). Breve historia de los incas (Spanish Edition) (Kindle Locations 1373-1374). Nowtilus. Kindle Edition. Varela, Monserrat. "El Sirvinacuy Matrimonio a Prueba." Web log post. El Sirvinacuy- Matrimonio a Prueba. Hueber, 2005. Web. 1 Apr. 2013. Vega, Inca Garcilaso De La. "XII: Los Estatus Y Ejercicios De Las Vírgenes Escogidas." Comentarios Reales. Red- ed. Bacelona: Editorial Castalia, 2009. 607-47. Print. Vega, Inca Garcilaso de la (2009-11-12). Comentarios reales “ Algunas de las leyes que los Incas tuvieron en su Gobierno “ (Spanish Edition) (Kindle Location 26).. Kindle Ed William R. Fowler "Inca Empire,” Public Work. Online Encyclopedia 2000.

20 By. María G. Martínez

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