Presentation on theme: "2 We need programming languages to communicate with a computer. The two broad classifications of programming languages are: Low-level and High- level."— Presentation transcript:
2 We need programming languages to communicate with a computer. The two broad classifications of programming languages are: Low-level and High- level languages.
3 Low-level languages are programming languages that use words and symbols that are close to the language the computer understands. High-level languages are programming languages that use the same words and symbols that are used by humans.
4 There are five generations of programming languages. They are: First Generation or Machine Languages Second Generation or Assembly- level Languages Third Generation or High-level Languages Fourth Generation Languages Fifth Generation Languages
5 1GLs were the first languages that were developed for computers. 1GLs is also called ‘First Generation Languages.’
6 An example of a code written in 1GL is: 10110011110011011.
7 ‘Machine dependent’ is a program that runs only on a particular type of computer system.
8 One advantage of 1GLs is: It is able to be executed very fast by the computer, as there is no need for translation. Three disadvantages of 1GLs are: It is difficult to read, write and understand by humans as the programs involve only 0s and 1s It is unable to be used on another machine that means it is ‘machine dependent’ It is difficult to correct or modify mistakes.
9 Second Generations languages were created since the writing of programs using Machine-level languages was cumbersome.
10 An example of 2GL is Assembly language. Instructions are written in Assembly language using mnemonics.
11 The term ‘Mnemonics’ means abbreviated forms of words.
13 The purpose of an assembler is to convert Assembly-level language instructions to Machine- level language.
14 Two advantages of Assembly languages are: It is easier to read, write and understand than Machine-level language. It is easier to correct or modify mistakes than Machine-level language. Two disadvantages of Assembly languages are: It is slower in execution than Machine- level language. It is still machine dependent.
15 Third Generation languages were created to make the programming easier that ALL (Assembly-level languages).
16 Some examples of 3GLs are: BASIC FORTRAN Pascal C COBOL
17 No, the computer cannot understand Third Generation Languages. It must be translated either using compilers or interpreters. These are needed because it convert High-level language to Machine language so the computer could understand what the user wants.
18 A translator program is used to convert High-level language to Machine-level language.
19 A compiler and an interpreter are both translators that convert High- level language instructions to Machine-level language but a compiler takes all the instructions together to form a single file that can run on its own while an interpreter takes one instruction at a time and does not produce files that can run independently.
20 Three advantages of using High-level languages are: It is easier to read, write and understand than Machine-level language and ALL. It is easier to modify or correct mistakes than Machine-level language and ALL. It is machine dependent. A disadvantage of using High-level language is: It is slower in execution than Machine- level language and ALL.
21 Fourth-generation computer programming language. 4GLs are closer to human language than other high-level languages and are accessible to people without formal training as programmers. They allow multiple common operations to be performed with a single programmer- entered command. They are intended to be easier for users than machine languages
23 A fifth-generation programming language (natural language) (abbreviated 5GL or NL) is a programming language based on solving problems using constraints given to the program, rather than using an algorithm written by a programmer. Most constraint- based and logic programming languages and some declarative languages are fifth-generation languages. While fourth-generation programming languages are designed to build specific programs, fifth-generation languages are designed to make the computer solve a given problem without the programmer. This way, the programmer only needs to worry about what problems need to be solved and what conditions need to be met, without worrying about how to implement a routine or algorithm to solve them. Fifth-generation languages are used mainly in artificial intelligence research.
24 Examples Of Fifth Generation Languages are: Prolog OPS5 Mercury
25 Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence of machines or software, and is also a branch of computer science that studies and develops intelligent machines and software. Major AI researchers and textbooks define the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents", where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success. John McCarthy, who coined the term in 1955, defines it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines". AI research is highly technical and specialised, deeply divided into subfields that often fail to communicate with each other. Some of the division is due to social and cultural factors: subfields have grown up around particular institutions and the work of individual researchers. AI research is also divided by several technical issues. There are subfields which are focused on the solution of specific problems, on one of several possible approaches, on the use of widely differing tools and towards the accomplishment of particular applications. The central problems (or goals) of AI research include reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, communication, perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects. General intelligence (or "strong AI") is still among the field's long term goals. Currently popular approaches include statistical methods, computational intelligence and traditional symbolic AI. There are an enormous number of tools used in AI, including versions of search and mathematical optimization, logic, methods based on probability and economics, and many others.