“Islam” = “Surrendering to the will of Allah” “Allah” = Arabic word for “God” Muhammad – Prophet of Islam How did Muhammad’s early childhood affect his beliefs? –Honor the family – remember his hardships? –Be fair in business – remember his early job? –Help the poor – remember his reliance on others? Some Islamic beliefs –All people are equal before Allah –The rich should share their wealth –People should lead a good life –On Judgment Day, God will reward the good and punish the evil
Why was there initial opposition to Islam? –Wealthy merchants and religious leaders did not like his message because it threatened their power Why is A.D. 622 the first year in the Muslim calendar? –That’s when Muhammad left Makkah to go to Yathrib What was that journey called? –Hijrah Yathrib was renamed…..? –Madinah “City of the Prophet”
Muhammad became a political, religious, and military leader He set up what kind of government? –An Islamic State –This required all Muslims to place their loyalty to the Islamic state above the loyalty to their tribe Muhammad created an army and conquered which city in A.D. 630? –Makkah He destroyed all the idols around the Kaaba and said: “Truth has come and falsehood has vanished” Muhammad died two years later, but he succeeded in unifying the Arabian Peninsula under Islam.
Islam Basics: Muhammad’s message was from Allah The holy book of Islam was the…. –Quran Moral teachings: –Be honest –Treat others fairly –Honor parents –Show kindness to neighbors –Give to poor –Don’t murder, lie, steal Customs based on Muhammad’s words and deed were called…….. –Sunna
Shari’a Shari’a is a body of Islamic law –No pork, liquor, gambling –laws regarding marriage, divorce, family life, property rights, business practices The Shari’a regulates family life, moral conduct, business conduct, and community interactions Islamic law pertains to all aspects of a Muslim’s life This brings unity to all Muslims The Quran teaches Muslims to be tolerant towards Christians and Jews. In fact, Christians and Jews are referred to as “people of the book”, since they share the same God.
The Five Pillars of Islam Iman – Faith/Belief Salah – Prayer Zakah – Charity Sawm – Fasting Hajj - Pilgrimage
Iman – Faith (Belief) “There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet” This declaration of faith is called the Shahadah. This states the only purpose of life is God, and this is achieved through the teachings and practices of the Last Prophet Muhammad
Salah or Prayer Muslims must pray five times a day at dawn, mid-day, late- afternoon, sunset and nightfall. Muslims are called to prayer by a muezzin in a minaret. They use public address system or radio broadcasting.
A Call to Prayer: God is Great. God is Great. God is Great. God is Great. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except God. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except God. I testify that Muhammad is the messenger of God. I testify that Muhammad is the messenger of God. Come to prayer! Come to prayer! Come to success! Come to success! God is Great! God is Great! There is none worthy of worship except God.
Salah or Prayer Ideally, Muslims worship together in a mosque, but a Muslim can pray almost anywhere. “Mosque” = “place of kneeling to God” Muslims use movement during prayer to include the body and mind in worship. There are no priests in Islam. Prayers are led by a learned person who knows the Quran and is generally chosen by the congregation. Prayers are said in Arabic Friday afternoons – communal worship and prayer
Zakah - Charity Muslims believe everything belongs to God, and that wealth is therefore held by human beings in trust. Muslims believe that it is their responsibility to support the less fortunate. Muslims are required to give 2.5% of their wealth to charity every year.
Sawm (Fasting) Every year during Ramadan, all Muslims fast from dawn until dusk At dusk they eat a simple meal This is to remind Muslims that they have “greater needs than bread”. The Quran states: "O you who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you as it was prescribed to those before you that you may learn self- restraint." (Qur'an 2:183)
Ramadan Muslims believe that Allah revealed the Quran to Muhammad during the ninth month of the Islamic calendar The Islamic calendar is based on moon cycles – from crescent moon to crescent moon. The timing of Ramadan therefore changes from year to year.
Hajj - Pilgrimage All Muslims must make a pilgrimage, known as the hajj to Mecca once in their life. When they arrive in Mecca, they wear identical simple white garments which represent humility and their equality before Allah.