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Materials Handling, Storage, and Waste Disposal

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Presentation on theme: "Materials Handling, Storage, and Waste Disposal"— Presentation transcript:

1 Materials Handling, Storage, and Waste Disposal
These handouts and documents with attachments are not final, complete, or definitive instruments. This information is for guidance purposes only. You should independently verify and satisfy yourself as to its accuracy. The AHBSIF does not assume any liability for damages arising from the use of this information or exhibits and attachments thereto and renders no opinion that any of the terms, conditions, and/or cited federal standards in this document and the exhibits and attachments should be explicitly followed by the fund member. Seek specific guidance from the appropriate regulator (OSHA) or professional advisor.

2 General Requirements For Manual Handling
Employees should seek help when: A load is so bulky it cannot be properly grasped or lifted An employee can’t see around or over it A load cannot be safely handled. Personal Protective equipment is an integral part of safe handling procedures. Boots with sturdy soles Gloves Forearm Protection Safety Glasses

3 Manual Handling - Back Injury Facts
There are approximately 700,000 back-related injuries in the United States each year. Back injuries comprised 32% of all injuries reported, but consumed more than 40% of all workers' compensation dollars. Because they are often slow to heal and are likely to reoccur, back injuries are a costly injury.

4 The NIOSH Lifting Equation
NIOSH – National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Created a formula for evaluating on-the-job lifting tasks The equation establishes an “RWL” or Recommended Weight Limit for the individual employee/task ( RWL = LC x HM x VM x DM x AM x FM x CM )

5 Components of the Equation
LC (Load Constant) – Usually 51 lbs HM (Horizontal Multiplier) – The distance of the hands from the midpoint of the body (10 to 25 in) VM (Vertical Multiplier) – vertical distance from hands to floor (0 to 70 in) DM (Distance Multiplier) – vertical distance of lift from start to finish (10 to 70 in) AM (Asymmetric Multiplier) – measured angle of twist of the lift from start to finish (0° to 135°) FM (Frequency Multiplier) – lifts per minute CM (Coupling Multiplier) – ease of grasping the load (rated as GOOD, FAIR, or POOR)

6 Using the Equation Once the RWL is determined, the LI (Lifting Index) is used; LI = Load Weight/RWL If the Lifting Index is at or above 1.0, the lifting task should be redesigned What factors can help create an easier lifting task?

7 Mechanics of Proper Lifting
The following slides will demonstrate the basics of proper lifting technique Don’t forget these basics; Warming up before attempting to lift is good practice, don’t be afraid to get your blood flowing with some simple stretches. There is no shame in the buddy system, get help if you think you’ll need it! If management has provided equipment for helping you lift something, use it. Never take a short cut or put yourself in an unsafe position with a load.

8 - Establish a solid base - Bend your knees
- Position yourself close to the load - Lift with your legs -Complete the lift before twisting or turning

9 General Requirements For Mechanical Handling
When moving materials avoid overloading, consider the weight, size, and shape of the material Equipment capacity ratings must be displayed on each piece of equipment and must not be exceeded. Follow safe lifting procedures for the specific machinery in use OSHA requires that all machine operators are trained.

10 Forklifts NIOSH Fatality Statistics
Average age of a fatally injured worker was 38 The largest proportion of fatalities occurred to workers in manufacturing followed by transportation, communication and public utilities. Three most common causes of fatalities forklift overturn (operator not restrained) pedestrians struck by forklift workers crushed by forklift

11 Forklifts Operator training was made mandatory for all industries as of March 1, 1999. Employer must train operators using federal guidelines for certification. Equipment that was designed to move earth but will accept forks is not covered, nor are over the road haulage trucks.

12 Which machine falls under 1926.602(d) ?
Exempt Not Exempt

13 Forklifts Training must incorporate the following subject matter:
Familiarization with the Machine Understanding the basics of stability Understanding the forces that cause tip-over Vehicle Inspection Vehicle Operation Load Handling Power Source LPG Handling and Use Battery Charging Hands-On Training

14 Forklifts Refresher Training must be provided when:
An operator has an incident or near-miss incident An operator is asked to run a different type of truck The operator has been evaluated as not operating in a safe manner Training records must be kept on file after the date of completion for at least three years Operators are not subject to fitness tests OSHA does not require certification cards

15 Mobile Cranes

16 Mobile Cranes Inspection
OSHA requires all mobile cranes to be inspected regularly. A pre-operational (frequent) inspection must be made by a competent person before each use of the crane. OSHA also requires a monthly inspection of critical items and a thorough inspection of the entire crane at least annually. Stand-by cranes must also be inspected to a pre-operational level at least every six months.

17 Mobile Cranes Inspection  Wire rope and reeving Electrical equipment
In accordance with federal regulations and the manufacturer’s guidelines, the following items must be inspected at minimum; Wire rope and reeving Electrical equipment All operational aids Control mechanisms Fluid Levels Tires Hooks and latches Hydraulic system

18 Mobile Cranes Crane Set-Up
The operator must be aware of potential contact with power lines and maintain an adequate separation distance based on the voltage of the line. Some form of highly visible physical barrier must be erected around the swing radius of the crane. Blocking under outriggers should exceed the surface area of the float by at least three times and have no separation between lumber.

19 Mobile Cranes Crane Set-Up
Load charts must be either posted or bound and readily accessible in the cab. Inspection records and operators manual should also be on the vehicle at all times. Accurate leveling of the crane is essential for safe lifting. Also, particular care must be taken to insure the surface under crawler cranes and cranes operating “on rubber” are level before making the lift.

20 Mobile Cranes Safe Operating Procedures
Enforce the “no rider” rule. There must be approved seating for all personnel. Operators must use seatbelts at all times. Never use a crane to drag a load sideways. (Sideloading) If the operator has to leave the controls he/she must: Land the load and place all control levers in neutral Secure the crane against accidental travel Set all brakes and locking devices Shut off the engine

21 Mobile Cranes If crane operation is frequently interrupted, the operator may leave the crane with the engine running so long as the crane remains in view and unauthorized entry is prevented. Use tag-lines to control larger loads and in conditions where the weather is inclement. Operator must take direction from only one designated signaler.

22 Signaling Operators must only respond to signals given by the designated signal person. Unless radios are available, the standard hand signals prescribed by ANSI/ASME B30.5 are to be used. The following slides show basic hand signals

23 Signaling

24 Signaling

25 Sling Safety Synthetic Web Slings Can handle loads of up to 30,000 lbs
Will adjust to the load contour and hold it with a tight, non-slip grip Is not affected by mildew, rot, or bacteria, resistant to most chemicals, has excellent abrasion resistance Has low cost and long service life Can absorb heavy shocks without damage Is unaffected by temps up to 180°F Comes equipped with warning threads sewn into core to show wear and prompt replacement.

26 Sling Safety Wire Rope Composed of individual wires twisted to form strands Strands are then twisted to form the rope Ropes utilizing wire cores have good heat resistance capabilities Factors such as bending stresses, loading conditions, jerking, abrasion, corrosion, sling design, and materials handled are all factors that contribute to the shortened service life of a wire rope sling.

27 Sling Safety Chains Commonly used because of their strength and ability to adapt to the shape of the load. Are prone to damage through sudden shocks Chain slings are ideal for high heat applications, can be exposed to temperatures of up to 1000°F

28 Sling Safety Inspection Check slings for; Severe corrosion.
Localized wear(shiny worn spots or frayed, isolated spots) Damage or displacement of end fittings, hooks, rings, links, or collars. Distortion of eyelets, individual links, or strands. Limited flexibility OSHA requires that wire rope slings be removed from service if it contains 6 randomly distributed broken wires or 3 broken wires in one strand in one lay. **Note** Proper storage is critical to maximizing the life of a sling.

29 Rigging Hardware Hooks Clevis and Eye types are most common
Should be inspected for spot wear and elongation Hooks should never be painted, this can hide cracks and other causes of failure Latches should be in working order if originally equipped

30 Rigging Hardware Shackles Chain or Anchor type
Shackle pins should never be replaced with bolts Pin side always goes to the rigging hook, shims may be necessary to maintain center position Inspection includes Pin seats Straightness Signs of spreading Overall wear

31 Rigging Hardware Turnbuckles Clevis, eye, and hook types
Unit can have any combination type on ends Observe working load limits for safe use

32 Flammable and Combustible Liquids
The quantity of flammable or combustible liquid that may kept outside of a storage room or cabinet inside the building shall not exceed: 25 gallons of Class IA liquids in containers 120 gallons of Class IB, IC, II, III liquids in containers 660 gallons of Class IB, IC, II, III liquids in a single portable tank

33 Flammable Liquid Classification
Flammable Liquid refers to any liquid having a flash point below 100° F FP - Flash Point BP - Boiling Point Class IA Class IB Class IC FP < 73° FP ≥ 73° BP < 100° BP ≥ 100°

34 Combustible Liquid Classification
Combustible Liquid refers to any liquid having a flash at or above 100° F FP - Flash Point Class II Class IIIA Class IIIB FP ≥ 100° FP ≥ 140° FP ≥ 200° FP < 140° FP < 200°

35 Inside Storage Rooms Shall be of fire resistant construction
Liquid tight were the walls join the floor Have approved self closing doors at all openings At least 4” sills, ramps, or depressed floors or open integrated trench which drains to safe location

36 Inside Storage Rooms A ventilation system that provides at least six room changes / hour For Class I liquids, electrical wiring approved for hazardous locations Explosion resistant lighting fixtures Wood at least 1 inch nominal thickness for shelving, racks, dunnage, scuffboards, floor overlay, and similar installations

37 Flammable Storage All solvent wastes and flammable liquids must be kept in fire-resistant, covered containers until they are removed from the worksite Firm separation should be placed between containers of combustibles or flammables, when stacked one upon another, to assure their support and stability   Permanently installed sprinkler system heads must not spray into operating electrical switch boards and equipment

38 Flammable Liquids Spills of flammable or combustible liquids must be cleaned up promptly   Storage tanks must be adequately vented to prevent the development of excessive vacuum or pressure as a result of filling, emptying, or atmosphere temperature changes   Storage tanks must also be equipped with emergency venting that will relieve excessive internal pressure caused by fire exposure Insure that all connections on drums and combustible liquid piping and vapor are liquid tight

39 Flammable Liquids Use approved metal safety cans for handling of any flammable liquids in quantity greater than a gallon Keep flammable liquids in closed containers when not in use (example: parts cleaning tanks, pans, etc.)  Ground and bond bulk drums of flammable liquids to containers during dispensing

40 Combustible Storage Combustible scrap, debris, and waste materials (oily rags, etc.) should be stored and removed from the worksite as promptly as possible  Proper storage practiced to minimize the risk of fire including spontaneous combustion Keep combustible materials away from potential ignition sources Never store flammable or combustible liquids in access or egress areas

41 General Storage Requirements
Storage areas must be kept free from materials that may cause tripping, fires, or explosions. Storage areas should not block or intrude on facility pathways When stacking and piling materials consider Height Weight Accessibility Condition of the container

42 General Requirements For Storage
Consider availability of materials, safe movement of material handling equipment, and personnel. Employees required to work in stored material vessels shall be equipped with a personal fall arrest system. When a difference in work levels exists, some means of smooth transition must be employed, i.e. grading, ramps, blocking.

43 General Requirements For Storage
Compressed gas cylinders must be secured and upright. Different gases must be separated by at least 20 ft. or by partition with specific dimension and fire retardant capabilities. Observe height limitations for stacked materials. Ex. Lumber must be stacked no more than 16 ft. high if it is handled manually, 20 ft. for forklift use Used lumber must have all nails removed before stacking. Lumber must be stacked and leveled on solidly supported bracing.

44 General Requirements For Storage
Bags and bundles must be stacked in interlocking rows. Drums, barrels, and kegs must be stacked symmetrically. If stored on their sides, the bottom tiers must be blocked. Boxed materials must be banded and baled. Paper or rags stored inside a trailer must not be closer than 18 inches to walls, partitions, or sprinkler heads. Non-compatible materials must be separated in storage.

45 General Storage Requirements
If space above office or any other elevated area is used for storage, handrails must be installed per the OSHA’s handrail requirements Top Rail height: 42” (+ or – 3”) Mid Rail height: 21” (+ or – 3”) Must be able to support 200 lbs of outward and downward force on the top, 150 lbs on the mid rail Toe Boards are necessary only if an exposure exists for those below

46 Disposal of Waste Materials
Materials dropped more than 20 feet to any point lying outside the exterior walls of the building, require an enclosed chute. Signs warning of the hazard of falling materials shall be posted at each level. All scrap lumber, waste material, and rubbish should be removed from the immediate work area as the work progresses. Disposal of waste material or debris by burning must comply with local fire regulations, borough ordinances, and project management requirements. All solvent waste, oily rags, and flammable liquids shall be kept in fire resistant covered containers until removed from the worksite.

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