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Nigeria History and Development of Nigerian Political Culture.

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Presentation on theme: "Nigeria History and Development of Nigerian Political Culture."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nigeria History and Development of Nigerian Political Culture

2 Important Themes to the Development of Nigerian Political Culture Overarching Themes 1)North vs. South 2)Impact of British Rule 3)National Question? Historical Periods 1)Pre-Colonial Era 2)The Colonial Era 3)Independence Era

3 Pre-Colonial Era (800 – 1860)  ‘Democratic’ Roots  Rulers were seen as representatives of the people, expected to seek advice and govern in the interest of the people Political History of Nigeria Nigerian pendant ivory mask 16 th century

4 Pre-Colonial Era (800 – 1860)  Contact w/ the Outside World  North  Arabic education  Islam  Sharia Law  Larger states emphasized authority and policymaking by the elite  South  European influence  Christianity  Slave Trade Impact  Smaller kinship-based/village level politics Political History of Nigeria

5 Regional Differences in Nigeria

6 The Colonial Era (1860 – 1960)  British Influence  Authoritarian/Indirect Rule  Ruled through native chiefs  Strengthened leaders’ authority  Citizens expected to passively accept the actions of their rulers  Christianity spread throughout the south and west  Education access created cleavages  Elite vs. the People  North vs. South Political History of Nigeria

7 The Colonial Era (1860 – 1960)  Intensification of Ethnic Politics  To manage the colony, the British pitted three main ethnic groups against one another 1.Hausa-Fulani (North) 2.Igbo (South) 3.Yoruba (West) Political History of Nigeria

8 Independence Era (1960 – Present) Lack of Constitutionalism Lack of Constitutionalism – Constitutionalism – acceptance of a constitution as a guiding set of principles Ex.) Nigeria has had 9 different Constitution versions (1999 latest) Military Rule Military Rule – Lack of Constitutionalism, Ethnic/Regional Conflict, Corruption led to a series of Military Dictatorships. – Promised to return power to the people as soon as the ‘violence/turmoil lessened’ – Violence, coup d'états, corruption Political History of Nigeria

9 Independence Era (1960 – Present) Governmental Changes Governmental Changes – In an effort to keep Nigeria together, a system of Federalism was created – In 1979 the British Style Parliamentary System was replaced by a Presidential System Popularly-elected President Separate Legislature Independent Judiciary Political History of Nigeria

10 Independence Era (1960 – Present) Economy Based on Oil Economy Based on Oil – Nigeria has become a rentier state – Corruption & Lack of Economic Equality Intensifying Ethnic/Regional Conflict Intensifying Ethnic/Regional Conflict – Power vacuum caused rival ethnic/regional/religious groups to compete for power – Islam vs. West/Christianity Political History of Nigeria

11 National Question - even though it has been independent since 1960, neither its leaders nor its citizens agree on the basics of who should rule and how or even if Nigeria should remain as one nation. Political History of Nigeria






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