Presentation on theme: "RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) and Transcription Chapter 10."— Presentation transcript:
RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) and Transcription Chapter 10
Background Info DNA stores and transmits the genetic code Information needed to make proteins Genes are stored in the nucleus But, the enzymes and amino acid building blocks are in the cytoplasm We need RNA to move genetic info from the DNA to the cytoplasm
RNA Structure Ribose = Sugar Phosphate 4 nitrogen bases Adenine = A Uracil = U (Replaces Thymine = T) Guanine = G Cytosine = C RNA is a single strand
Types of RNA Each type has a different function Messenger RNA (mRNA) Carries genetic info from DNA from nucleus to cytoplasm Transfer RNA (tRNA) Uses the RNA message to construct proteins in the cytoplasm Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) Ribosomes are made out of this kind of RNA. Proteins are made inside of ribosomes.
Transcription The DNA sends its coded message from inside the nucleus to the cytoplasm through a process called transcription.
Steps of Transcription The strands of DNA are separated by the helicase enzyme. Complementary RNA starts to add to one of the separated DNA strands. By the RNA polymerase enzyme When RNA polymerase reaches a “stop sign” in the DNA strand, it stops transcribing and releases the newly formed RNA strand. Stop sign is called the termination signal The RNA leaves the nucleus for the cytoplasm, where it can be used to make proteins. The separated DNA strands come back together.