Newton’s Third Law of Motion- Action and Reaction

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Newton’s Third Law of Motion- Action and Reaction
Chapter 4 Newton’s Third Law of Motion- Action and Reaction

4.1 Force is Part of Interaction
Force is more than a push or pull Force is mutual action, or interaction, between two things Forces occur in pairs Examples= car crash (2 cars), you walking, car tires, swimming (what are other examples?) Doesn’t have to be living to exert force! Do not possess force, exert it (do possess momentum, kinetic/potential energy)

4.2 Newton’s Third Law Newton’s Third Law- Whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first Aka = To every action there is always an opposed equal reaction (V for Vendetta, Count of Monte Cristo) Forces are called the action force and the reaction force

3rd Law continued Doesn’t matter which is called reaction, just have to keep in mind that both are needed (You complete me) or neither would exist But what happens with falling (floor is not equal and opposite to me)?

4.3 Simple Rule to Identify A & R
To identify action and reaction: Action- object A exerts force on object B Reaction-object B exerts force on object A Can switch around Action is what is not always present See drawings on board

4.4 Action and Reaction on Different Masses
Firing cannon, cannon recoils (kicks) Equal forces, different effects (examples) Cannon has more mass, cannonball has more acceleration How would this work for gas expelled from rocket? Used to think rocket needed to push against air, so couldn’t go to moon. Rocket just needs to push against expelled gases (and minimal air drag)

4.5 Action and Reaction on Different Objects
Why don’t forces cancel? Bodies are different Example: kicking ball with one foot, two feet (see drawing on board) Reaction slows foot down Only cancel if same body, but there still is action and reaction Other examples

4.6 Horse-Cart Problem Why pull cart if would be cancelled out by equal and opposite pulls (horse on cart and vice-versa) 3 systems Cart (farmer) Horse Horse-cart How does the horse move forward? What is needed?

More Horse-cart As a whole, can cancel horse vs. cart forces
Think about pushing a cart against the ground See drawing on board P. 61 How does this apply to Newton’s other laws?

4.7 Action = Reaction Pull on rope = tension in rope, otherwise acceleration and … Tug of war- both pulls in same magnitude So, how does one win? Force against ground, not rope! What if one side wears socks, the other shoes? Who would win? Why? Helicopter blades force air down (action) and air makes blades go up (reaction), or have lift. Greater lift equals rising helicopter

More action, reaction Birds fly by pushing air downward, so air pushes up When birds create updraft (swirl of air) for other birds, get the V Airplanes Why can’t we fly? Can’t fight way out of paper bag, even if champion boxer! Problems on board with pulleys

4.8 Summary 1st Law = at rest, stay at rest; in motion, stay in motion, unless change occurs 2nd law = law of acceleration, F = ma (a = g in vacuum) and have to take into consideration air drag if falling from air (terminal speed if constant) 3rd law = law of action-reaction: you push something, it pushes back equally and in opposite direction