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Chapter 10 Biology 25: Human Biology Prof. Gonsalves

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1 Chapter 10 Biology 25: Human Biology Prof. Gonsalves
Los Angeles City College Loosely Based on Mader’s Human Biology,7th edition

2 Kidneys remove nitrogen containing waste from blood.
Excretory (Urinary) System Components: Kidneys, bladder, urethra, and associated ducts. Functions: Kidneys remove nitrogen containing waste from blood. Urine with waste is temporarily stored in bladder. Excretion of urine. Homeostatic Role: Regulates water levels in body. Removes excess water Helps conserve water


4 Kidney Function Regulation of ECF through formation of urine. (primary function). Regulate volume of blood plasma. BP. Regulate concentration of waste products in the blood. Regulate concentration of electrolytes. Na+, K+, and HC03-. Regulate pH. Secrete erythropoietin.

5 Micturition Reflex Actions of the internal urethral sphincter and the external urethral sphincter are regulated by reflex control center located in the spinal cord. Filling of the urinary bladder activates the parasympathetic neurons causing rhythmic contraction of the detrusor muscle and relaxation of the internal urethral sphincter. Voluntary control over the external urethral sphincter.



8 Structure of the Urinary System
2 distinct regions: Outer cortex: Many capillaries. Medulla: Renal pyramids separated by renal columns. Pyramid contains minor calyx which unite to form a major calyx.



11 Nephron Functional unit of the kidney. Consists of: Blood vessels
vasa recta peritubular capillaries Urinary tubules PCT LH DCT CD



14 Renal Blood Vessels Afferent arteriole: Glomeruli: Efferent arteriole:
Delivers blood into the glomeruli. Glomeruli: Capillary network produces filtrate that enters the urinary tubules. Efferent arteriole: Delivers blood from glomeruli to peritubular capillaries.

15 Renal Blood Vessels Peritubular capillaries:
Deliver blood to vasa recta. Juxtamedullary nephrons. Deliver blood to veins. Cortical nephrons.

16 Nephron Tubules Glomerular capsule Proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)
Loop of Henle (LH) Distal convoluted tubule (DCT) Collecting duct (CD)

17 Glomerular Capsule Bowman’s capsule: Surrounds the glomerulus.
Location where glomerular filtration occurs. Passes into the urinary space.

18 Proximal Convoluted Tubule
PCT: Single layer of cuboidal cells with millions of microvilli. Increase surface area. PCT functions: Reabsorption. Secretion.


20 Loop of Henle LH: Descending limb: H20 reabsorption. Ascending limb
Active transport of Na+. Impermeable to H20.

21 Distal Convoluted Tubule
DCT: Few microvilli. Functions: Secretion. Reabsorption.

22 Collecting Duct CD: Receives fluid from the DCT of several nephrons.
Passes through renal pyramid into minor calyx. Functions: Reabsorption. Secretion. H20 reabsorption influenced by ADH.



25 Type of Nephrons Cortical nephron: Osmolarity of 300 mOsm/l.
Involved in solute reabsorption. Juxtamedullary nephron: Important in the ability to produce a concentrated urine.

26 Glomerular Filtration Membrane
Basement membrane: Filtrate must pass through the basement membrane: Thin glycoprotein layer. Negatively charged. Podocytes: Foot pedicels form small filtration slits.

27 Glomerular Filtration
Mechanism of producing ultrafiltrate under hydrostatic pressure. GFR (glomerular filtration rate): Volume of filtrate produced by both kidneys each minute. Averages 180 L/day.

28 Juxtaglomerular Apparatus
Region in each nephron where the afferent arteriole comes in contact the the thick ascending limb of the loop. Granular cells: Secrete renin. Converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I. Initiates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Negative feedback. Macula densa: Inhibit renin secretion when blood [Na+] in blood increases.


30 Regulation of GFR Vasoconstriction or dilation of afferent arterioles affects the rate of blood flow to the glomerulus. Affects GFR. Mechanisms to regulate GFR: Sympathetic Nervous System. Autoregulation. Hormonal: Renin-angiotension.



33 Renal Acid-Base Regulation
Kidneys help regulate blood pH by excreting H+ and reabsorbing HC03-. Most of the H+ secretion occurs across the walls of the PCT in exchange for Na+. Antiport mechanism. Normal urine normally is slightly acidic because the kidneys reabsorb almost all HC03- and excrete H+. Returns blood pH back to normal range.

34 Reabsorption of HCO3- Apical membranes are impermeable to HCO3-.
Reabsorption is indirect. HCO3- combines with H+ to form H2C0-, which is catalyzed by carbonic anhydrase (ca) located in the apical cell membrane of PCT. As [C02] increases in the filtrate, ca forms H2C03. H2C03 dissociates to HCO3- and H+. Shunt HCO3- generated within tubule cell to peritubular capillary.


36 Urinary Buffers Nephron cannot produce a urine pH < 4.5.
IN order to excrete more H+, the acid must be buffered. H+ secreted into the urine tubule and combines with HPO4-2 or NH3. HPO4-2 + H H2PO4-2 NH3 + H NH4+



39 Glucose and Amino Acid Reabsorption
Filtered glucose and amino acids are normally reabsorbed by the nephrons. Carrier mediated transport: Saturation. Exhibit Tm. Renal transport threshold: Minimum [plasma] of a substance that results in excretion of that substance in the urine.

40 Electrolyte Balance Kidneys regulate Na+, K+, H+, Cl-, HC03-, PO4-2.
Control of Na+ important in regulation of blood volume and pressure. Control of plasma of K+ important in proper function of cardiac and skeletal muscles. Match ingestion with urinary excretion.

41 Role of Aldosterone 90% K+ reabsorbed in early part of the nephron.
When aldosterone is absent, no K+ is excreted in the urine. Final [K+] controlled in CD by aldosterone. High [K+] or low [Na+] stimulates the secretion of aldosterone. Only means by which K+ is secreted.

42 Na+ Reabsorption 2% is excreted (30 g/day).
In the absence of aldosterone, 80% remaining Na+ is reabsorbed. 2% is excreted (30 g/day). Final [Na+] controlled in CD by aldosterone.

43 ANP Produced by atria due to stretching of walls.
Antagonist to aldosterone. Increases [Na+] excretion.

44 Na+, K+, and H+ Relationship
Na+ reabsorption in CD creates electrical gradient for K+ secretion. Plasma [K+] indirectly affects [H+]. When ECF [ H+] increases, H+ moves into the cell, causing K+ to diffuse into the ECF. In severe acidosis, H+ is secreted at the expense of K+.


46 Diuretics Inhibit NaCl transport out of the ascending limb of the LH.
Increase urine volume excreted. Increase the proportion of glomerular filtrate that is excreted as urine. Loop diuretics: Inhibit NaCl transport out of the ascending limb of the LH. Thiazide diuretics: Inhibit NaCl reabsorption in the DCT. Ca inhibitors: Prevent H20 reabsorption when HC0s- is reabsorbed. Osmotic diuretics: Increase osmotic pressure of filtrate.


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