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Food Security: Sustainable Production and Distribution

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Presentation on theme: "Food Security: Sustainable Production and Distribution"— Presentation transcript:

1 Food Security: Sustainable Production and Distribution

2 01 02 03 Outline Food security definition Green Revolution From Green
Revolution to Gene Revolution

3 Food Security Cansu Kurban

4 What is Food Security? Definition:
All people at all times have economic & physical access to adequate amounts of nutritious, safe and culturally appropriate foods, which are produced environmentally sustainable and socially just manner, and that people are able to make informed decisions about their food choices.


6 Availability The availability of sufficient quantities of food of appropriate quality, supplied through domestic production or imports.

7 Access Access by individuals to adequate resources (entitlements) for acquiring appropriate foods for a nutritious diet. Entitlements are defined as the set of all commodity bundles over which a person can establish command given the legal, political, economic and social arrangements of the community in which they live (including traditional rights such as access to common resources).

8 Stability To be food secure, a population, household or individual must have access to adequate food at all times. They should not risk losing access to food as a consequence of sudden shocks (e.g. an economic or climatic crisis) or cyclical events (e.g. seasonal food insecurity). The concept of stability can therefore refer to both the availability and access dimensions of food security.

9 Utilization Utilization of food through adequate diet, clean water, sanitation and health care to reach a state of nutritional well-being where all physiological needs are met. This brings out the importance of non-food inputs in food security.

10 Household Level The concept of food security can be applied at a household level to hunger in developing countries, as well as to low income earners in otherwise rich countries - with different implications for policy.


12 National Level A nation’s ability to meet domestic food demand.
Both domestic production and international trade contribute to national food security.

13 National Level - Turkey
Turkey: Per capita food supply Quantity [kcal/capita/day] 1994 1999 2004 2009 Food Supply 3728 3618 3615 3697

14 Global Level Production and distribution of sufficient food to meet fundamental nutritional requirements around the world.

15 Global Level

16 Global Level

17 Question What should a nation/government do to provide food security?

18 Some answers… Increase production Improve financial access
Improve physical access Provide income support Population planning

19 Refrences

20 Green Revolution Ece Oğuzkan 13306

21 Definition; The process of increasing food production and improving its quality to sustain population growth without compromising enviromental safety.

22 Agricultural Evolution
Mankind has engaged in agriculture for only 1% of his existence Agriculture has been practiced for 10,000 years Pregriculture hunter/gatherers Subsistence agriculture 8500 years Feudal agriculture 1000 years Scientific agriculture last 400 years Green Revolution last 30 years


24 What made people to think an idea like Green Revolution?
More urban people Population increasing rapidly Food production not keeping pace with population

25 What Was the Green Revolution?
Term coined by U.S. Agency for International Development director William Gaud (March 1968) Movement to increase yields by using: New crop cultivars Irrigation Fertilizers Pesticides Mechanization

26 What Was the Green Revolution?
A planned international effort funded by: Rockefeller Foundation Ford Foundation Many developing country governments Purposed to eliminated hunger by improving crop performance Important figure Norman Borlaug

27 Norman Earnest Borlaug (1914 -)
Considered father of Green Revolution U.S. plant pathologist/plant breeder Joined the Rockefeller Foundation in 1944 Assigned to the international maize and wheat improvement center (CIMMYT) in Mexico Won the 1970 Nobel Peace Prize

28 Why are we in the Aftermath?
Rapid increases in yield greatly diminishing Population is still on the rise Modern practices have Caused many environmental problems Increased the cost of production

29 Promise of Green Revolution
Eliminate hunger, More urban people Population increasing rapidly Food production not keeping pace Increase global carrying capacity Increase yields Increase technological knowledge Get the materials to rural farmers

30 Traditional Practices
Little fertilizer Little irrigation Subsistence farming Conventional cultivars

31 Traditional Varieties
Little response to fertilizer Increased vegetative growth Results in lodging Great variability in fields Required long growing seasons Some years yield adequate Some years NOT

32 New High Yield Cultivars
Semi-dwarf rice and wheat Uniform Good response to fertilizer Earlier maturing

33 Fertilizer New varieties responded reproductively
Grain yields drastically increased Mexico 1950: 300,000 metric tons of wheat 1970: 2,600,000 metric tons of wheat Worldwide 1950: 14 million tons of food 1990: 144 million tons of food

34 New Irrigation Strategies
Tubewells and electric pumps Minimize drought failures Modern systems provided 5 times the water More efficient

35 Extended Seasons and Land Use
Use of drought resistant strains Multiple cropping Two crops of wheat in many countries Fertilizer plus irrigation Crop growth in dry seasons & dry land Production on previously nonarable land

36 Pesticides Decreased crop loss by pests
Created easier mechanical harvest Increased food quality

37 Mechanization Ability to farm much larger acreages
Less field variability Fewer people involved in production Higher total output

38 Social Improvements Food production increased over 1000% from 1960 to 1990 Famine decreased 20% from 1960 to 1990 Caloric consumption per capita increased 25% from 1960 to 1990 Rise in incomes and standards of living

39 Post Green Revolution Problems
Many direct problems created Variety and input accessibility Production cost Environmental issues Distribution problems Some problems are still unsolved

40 Inaccessibility Not every farmer has access to: New varieties
Fertilizer Equipment Pesticides(tarım ilaçları) Irrigation

41 Production Cost Modern varieties require Irrigation Fertilizer
Some cultivars are non-drought tolerant Fertilizer Poor growth without it Pesticides More susceptible to pests Many farmers can’t afford these

42 Environmental Issues Salinization by irrigation Aquifers drying up
Top soil erosion Soil nutrient depletion Pesticide-resistant species

43 Distribution Problems
Transportation poor in many countries Can’t get the inputs to the farm Can’t get the crops off the farm Storage problems Food produced, but lost

44 Unsolved Problems Growth rate of population still increasing
Growth rate of production slowing down Not much more crop land Losing crop land to urbanization Famine still exists Meat consumption increasing Less efficient use (10%)

45 Green Revolution Success Story?
Increased food production 1000+% by: Using new crop varieties, irrigation, fertilizers, pesticides and mechanization Decreased famine 20% Increased global carrying capacity

46 Green Revolution Success Story?
Did not eliminate famine Population still increasing Increased cost of production An increased negative environmental impact Didn’t work for everyone


48 Question? Is Green Revolution a successful story?

49 Answer Is Green Revolution a successful story? It depends which side
you are looking from.

50 References

51 From Green Revolution to Gene Revolution
Cansu Eriş

52 Genetic Engineering Technique that transfers gene(s) of interest to develop and improve plants, animals and other organisms

53 Genetic engineering makes it possible to combine characteristics from genetically different plants and to incorporate desired traits into crop lines and animals, producing so-called transgenic, or genetically modified organisms (GMOs).

54 Process of Crop Genetic Engineering

55 1) DNA Isolation All of the DNA is extracted out of an organism that has the desired traits

56 2) Cloning Genes The single gene that codes for the desired protein must then be located and copied out all of the DNA extracted from the organism’s cell

57 3) Designing Genes Once the gene of interest has been cloned, genetic engineers modify it to express in a specific way when inside the plant.

58 3) Designing Genes (Cont.) Enzymes are used to cut the gene apart.

59 3) Designing Genes (Cont
3) Designing Genes (Cont.) One or more of the three gene regions can then be replaced or modified.

60 3)Designing Genes (Cont
3)Designing Genes (Cont.) The gene regions are bonded back together and function as a normal gene. Since the DNA has been cut apart and put back together in a new combination, it is called recombinant DNA

61 5) Transformation After gene modification, the new gene is inserted into a single plant cell using one of the transformation methods such as gene gun or agrobacterium.

62 6) Tissue Culture Plant cells divide in tissue culture; each cell contains the foreign gene. Using tissue culture techniques, cells are regenerated into plants.

63 The result is a transgenic plant with a new gene in every one of its cells.

64 7) Plant Breeding Cross breeding is used to move the transgene into high yielding elite line

65 Question: What are the differences between Genetic engineering and Conventional breeding ?

66       Conventional Breeding Genetic Engineering Answer:
Allows the direct transfer of one or just a few genes, between either closely or distantly related organisms Crop improvement can be achieved in a shorter time compared to conventional breeding Conventional Breeding Genetic Engineering Limited to exchange between the same or very closely related species Little or no guarantee of obtaining any particular gene combination from the millions of crossed generated Undesirable genes can be transferred along with desirable genes. Take a long time to achieve desired results

67 Conventional Breeding
Differences Cont. Wild Relative Crop Plant Wild Relative Crop Plant Through genetic engineering, the gene controlling the expression of a short plant can be transferred into a tall but high yielding plant. The resulting plant will now be a short type but with high yield. can now produce a flower with red and white-colored petals. Genetic Engineering Conventional Breeding


69 Biotechnology Offers Great Promises
The Promise

70 The Objectives of Agricultural Biotechnology
To incorporate resistance to diseases and pests that attack important tropical plants To increase tolerance to environmental conditions such as drought and a high salt level which stress most plants To improve the nutritional value of commonly eaten crops To produce pharmaceutical products in ordinary crop plants (pharma crops)

71 Important Environmental Benefits of Bioengineered Crops
Reductions in the use of pesticides crops are already resistant to pests Less erosion no-till cropping is facilitated by the use of herbicide-resistant crops Less environmental damage associated with bringing more land into production  existing agricultural lands will produce more food

72 Possible Pathways How GM Crops Could Impact Food Security
GM crops could contribute to food production increases improving the availability of food at global and local levels. GM crops could affect food quality. GM crops could influence the economic and social situation of farmers.

73 First Pathway GM technologies could make food crops higher yielding and more robust to biotic and abiotic stresses. This could stabilize and increase food supplies, which is important against the background of increasing food demand, climate change, and land and water scarcity.



76 Second Pathway GM technology can help to breed food crops with
higher contents of micronutrients. Projections show that they could reduce nutritional deficiencies among the poor, entailing sizeable positive health effects. Eg. Golden Rice with provitamin A in the grain

77 Third Pathway Half of all undernourished people worldwide are small-scale farmers in developing countries. GM crop is used by smallholder farmers in developing countries. Eg. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton, which is grown by around 15 million smallholders in India, China, Pakistan, and a few other developing countries. When cotton farmers began turning to Bt cotton: Less pesticide usage Saving money Saving time

78 Eat or Not? The Problems

79 2 Food Safety 1 Environmental Problems 3 Access to the New Techniques

80 1. Environmental Concerns
Pest-resistant properties of GM crops genetically enhanced weeds Economic disaster for farmers Ecological impact of the crops Eg. Beneficial insects be killed by the toxin of Bt corn Genes for herbicide resistance or for tolerance to drought and other environmental can spread by pollen to ordinary crop plants or their wild relatives Super weeds

81 2. Food Safety Transgenic crops contain proteins from different organisms and might trigger an unexpected allergic response in people. Eg. Soybean containing gene from Brazil nut Antibiotic-resistant genes used as markers in some transgenic plants could spread to disease causing bacteria in humans. Pharma crops could contaminate ordinary food crops – some of the compounds being harmful if ingested by people or animals.

82 3. Access to the New Techniques
Farmers in the developing countries are less able to afford the higher costs of the new seeds. Genetically modified seeds are spreading rapidly through seed “Piracy”

83 What is the first genetically modified crop in the world?
A. Soybean B. Corn C. Tomato D. Cotton

84 What is the first genetically modified crop in the world?
A. Soybean B. Corn C. Tomato D. Cotton

85 References Inroduction to Biotechnology William J. Thieman Micheall, A. Palladino Third Edition Environmental Science Richard T. Wright, Dorothy F. Boorse Environment Peter H. Raven ,Linda R. Berg, David M. Hassenzahl Environmental Science Daniel B. Botkin, Edward A. Keller

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