4 What is Food Security? Definition: All people at all times have economic & physical access to adequate amounts of nutritious, safe and culturally appropriate foods, which are produced environmentally sustainable and socially just manner, and that people are able to make informed decisions about their food choices.
6 AvailabilityThe availability of sufﬁcient quantities of food of appropriate quality, supplied through domestic production or imports.
7 AccessAccess by individuals to adequate resources (entitlements) for acquiring appropriate foods for a nutritious diet. Entitlements are deﬁned as the set of all commodity bundles over which a person can establish command given the legal, political, economic and social arrangements of the community in which they live (including traditional rights such as access to common resources).
8 StabilityTo be food secure, a population, household or individual must have access to adequate food at all times. They should not risk losing access to food as a consequence of sudden shocks (e.g. an economic or climatic crisis) or cyclical events (e.g. seasonal food insecurity). The concept of stability can therefore refer to both the availability and access dimensions of food security.
9 UtilizationUtilization of food through adequate diet, clean water, sanitation and health care to reach a state of nutritional well-being where all physiological needs are met. This brings out the importance of non-food inputs in food security.
10 Household LevelThe concept of food security can be applied at a household level to hunger in developing countries, as well as to low income earners in otherwise rich countries - with different implications for policy.
21 Definition;The process of increasing food production and improving its quality to sustain population growth without compromising enviromental safety.
22 Agricultural Evolution Mankind has engaged in agriculture for only 1% of his existenceAgriculture has been practiced for 10,000 yearsPregriculture hunter/gatherersSubsistence agriculture 8500 yearsFeudal agriculture 1000 yearsScientific agriculture last 400 yearsGreen Revolution last 30 years
24 What made people to think an idea like Green Revolution? More urban peoplePopulation increasing rapidlyFood production not keeping pace with population
25 What Was the Green Revolution? Term coined by U.S. Agency for International Development director William Gaud (March 1968)Movement to increase yields by using:New crop cultivarsIrrigationFertilizersPesticidesMechanization
26 What Was the Green Revolution? A planned international effort funded by:Rockefeller FoundationFord FoundationMany developing country governmentsPurposed to eliminated hunger by improving crop performanceImportant figure Norman Borlaug
27 Norman Earnest Borlaug (1914 -) Considered father of Green RevolutionU.S. plant pathologist/plant breederJoined the Rockefeller Foundation in 1944Assigned to the international maize and wheat improvement center (CIMMYT) in MexicoWon the 1970 Nobel Peace Prize
28 Why are we in the Aftermath? Rapid increases in yield greatly diminishingPopulation is still on the riseModern practices haveCaused many environmental problemsIncreased the cost of production
29 Promise of Green Revolution Eliminate hunger, More urban peoplePopulation increasing rapidlyFood production not keeping paceIncrease global carrying capacityIncrease yieldsIncrease technological knowledgeGet the materials to rural farmers
30 Traditional Practices Little fertilizerLittle irrigationSubsistence farmingConventional cultivars
31 Traditional Varieties Little response to fertilizerIncreased vegetative growthResults in lodgingGreat variability in fieldsRequired long growing seasonsSome years yield adequateSome years NOT
32 New High Yield Cultivars Semi-dwarf rice and wheatUniformGood response to fertilizerEarlier maturing
33 Fertilizer New varieties responded reproductively Grain yields drastically increasedMexico1950: 300,000 metric tons of wheat1970: 2,600,000 metric tons of wheatWorldwide1950: 14 million tons of food1990: 144 million tons of food
34 New Irrigation Strategies Tubewells and electric pumpsMinimize drought failuresModern systems provided 5 times the waterMore efficient
35 Extended Seasons and Land Use Use of drought resistant strainsMultiple croppingTwo crops of wheat in many countriesFertilizer plus irrigationCrop growth in dry seasons & dry landProduction on previously nonarable land
36 Pesticides Decreased crop loss by pests Created easier mechanical harvestIncreased food quality
37 Mechanization Ability to farm much larger acreages Less field variabilityFewer people involved in productionHigher total output
38 Social ImprovementsFood production increased over 1000% from 1960 to 1990Famine decreased 20% from 1960 to 1990Caloric consumption per capita increased 25% from 1960 to 1990Rise in incomes and standards of living
39 Post Green Revolution Problems Many direct problems createdVariety and input accessibilityProduction costEnvironmental issuesDistribution problemsSome problems are still unsolved
40 Inaccessibility Not every farmer has access to: New varieties FertilizerEquipmentPesticides(tarım ilaçları)Irrigation
41 Production Cost Modern varieties require Irrigation Fertilizer Some cultivars are non-drought tolerantFertilizerPoor growth without itPesticidesMore susceptible to pestsMany farmers can’t afford these
42 Environmental Issues Salinization by irrigation Aquifers drying up Top soil erosionSoil nutrient depletionPesticide-resistant species
43 Distribution Problems Transportation poor in many countriesCan’t get the inputs to the farmCan’t get the crops off the farmStorage problemsFood produced, but lost
44 Unsolved Problems Growth rate of population still increasing Growth rate of production slowing downNot much more crop landLosing crop land to urbanizationFamine still existsMeat consumption increasingLess efficient use (10%)
45 Green Revolution Success Story? Increased food production 1000+% by:Using new crop varieties, irrigation, fertilizers, pesticides and mechanizationDecreased famine 20%Increased global carrying capacity
46 Green Revolution Success Story? Did not eliminate faminePopulation still increasingIncreased cost of productionAn increased negative environmental impactDidn’t work for everyone
51 From Green Revolution to Gene Revolution Cansu Eriş
52 Genetic EngineeringTechnique that transfers gene(s) of interest to develop and improve plants, animals and other organisms
53 Genetic engineering makes it possible to combine characteristics from genetically different plants and to incorporate desired traits into crop lines and animals, producing so-called transgenic, or genetically modified organisms (GMOs).
55 1) DNA Isolation All of the DNA is extracted out of an organism that has the desired traits
56 2) Cloning Genes The single gene that codes for the desired protein must then be located and copied out all of the DNA extracted from the organism’s cell
57 3) Designing Genes Once the gene of interest has been cloned, genetic engineers modify it to express in a specific way when inside the plant.
58 3) Designing Genes (Cont.) Enzymes are used to cut the gene apart.
59 3) Designing Genes (Cont 3) Designing Genes (Cont.) One or more of the three gene regions can then be replaced or modified.
60 3)Designing Genes (Cont 3)Designing Genes (Cont.) The gene regions are bonded back together and function as a normal gene. Since the DNA has been cut apart and put back together in a new combination, it is called recombinant DNA
61 5) Transformation After gene modification, the new gene is inserted into a single plant cell using one of the transformation methods such as gene gun or agrobacterium.
62 6) Tissue Culture Plant cells divide in tissue culture; each cell contains the foreign gene. Using tissue culture techniques, cells are regenerated into plants.
63 The result is a transgenic plant with a new gene in every one of its cells.
64 7) Plant Breeding Cross breeding is used to move the transgene into high yielding elite line
65 Question: What are the differences between Genetic engineering and Conventional breeding ?
66 Conventional Breeding Genetic Engineering Answer: Allows the direct transfer of one or just a few genes, between either closely or distantly related organismsCrop improvement can be achieved in a shorter time compared to conventional breedingConventional BreedingGenetic EngineeringLimited to exchange between the same or very closely related speciesLittle or no guarantee of obtaining any particular gene combination from the millions of crossed generatedUndesirable genes can be transferred along with desirable genes.Take a long time to achieve desired results
67 Conventional Breeding Differences Cont.Wild RelativeCrop PlantWild RelativeCrop PlantThrough genetic engineering, the gene controlling the expression of a short plant can be transferred into a tall but high yielding plant. The resulting plant will now be a short type but with high yield. can now produce a flower with red and white-colored petals.Genetic EngineeringConventional Breeding
69 Biotechnology Offers Great Promises The Promise
70 The Objectives of Agricultural Biotechnology To incorporate resistance to diseases and pests that attack important tropical plantsTo increase tolerance to environmental conditions such as drought and a high salt level which stress most plantsTo improve the nutritional value of commonly eaten cropsTo produce pharmaceutical products in ordinary crop plants (pharma crops)
71 Important Environmental Benefits of Bioengineered Crops Reductions in the use of pesticides crops are already resistant to pestsLess erosion no-till cropping is facilitated by the use of herbicide-resistant cropsLess environmental damage associated with bringing more land into production existing agricultural lands will produce more food
72 Possible Pathways How GM Crops Could Impact Food Security GM crops could contribute to food production increases improving the availability of food at global and local levels.GM crops could affect food quality.GM crops could influence the economic and social situation of farmers.
73 First PathwayGM technologies could make food crops higher yielding and more robust to biotic and abiotic stresses. This could stabilize and increase food supplies, which is important against the background of increasing food demand, climate change, and land and water scarcity.
76 Second Pathway GM technology can help to breed food crops with higher contents of micronutrients. Projections show that they could reduce nutritional deficiencies among the poor, entailing sizeable positive health effects.Eg. Golden Rice with provitamin A in the grain
77 Third PathwayHalf of all undernourished people worldwide are small-scale farmers in developing countries. GM crop is used by smallholder farmers in developing countries.Eg. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton, which is grown by around 15 million smallholders in India, China, Pakistan, and a few other developing countries.When cotton farmers began turning to Bt cotton:Less pesticide usageSaving moneySaving time
79 2Food Safety1Environmental Problems3Access to the New Techniques
80 1. Environmental Concerns Pest-resistant properties of GM crops genetically enhanced weedsEconomic disaster for farmersEcological impact of the cropsEg. Beneficial insects be killed by the toxin of Bt cornGenes for herbicide resistance or for tolerance to drought and other environmental can spread by pollen to ordinary crop plants or their wild relativesSuper weeds
81 2. Food SafetyTransgenic crops contain proteins from different organisms and might trigger an unexpected allergic response in people.Eg. Soybean containing gene from Brazil nutAntibiotic-resistant genes used as markers in some transgenic plants could spread to disease causing bacteria in humans.Pharma crops could contaminate ordinary food crops – some of the compounds being harmful if ingested by people or animals.
82 3. Access to the New Techniques Farmers in the developing countries are less able to afford the higher costs of the new seeds.Genetically modified seeds are spreading rapidly through seed “Piracy”
83 What is the first genetically modified crop in the world? A. SoybeanB. CornC. TomatoD. Cotton
84 What is the first genetically modified crop in the world? A. SoybeanB. CornC. TomatoD. Cotton
85 ReferencesInroduction to Biotechnology William J. Thieman Micheall, A. Palladino Third EditionEnvironmental Science Richard T. Wright, Dorothy F. BoorseEnvironment Peter H. Raven ,Linda R. Berg, David M. HassenzahlEnvironmental Science Daniel B. Botkin, Edward A. Keller