Presentation on theme: "Urbanization 10 CHAPTER Placeholder opening page, but maybe we can duplicate the look of the SE chapter opener page by using the same fonts and colors."— Presentation transcript:
1 Urbanization10CHAPTERPlaceholder opening page, but maybe we can duplicate the look of the SE chapter opener page by using the same fonts and colors (and maybe that Ch 14 icon?)
2 Growing Pains in Portland, Oregon Senate Bill 100 sets guidelines for land use in Oregon, restricting development to urban areas and leaving open areas largely untouched.In recent years, further measures have challenged Senate Bill 100, arguing that it restricts landowners from increasing the value of their property through development.Talk About It Should governments be able to limit development on privately owned land if it means protecting the environment? Why or why not?
3 Lesson 10.1 Land Use and Urbanization For the first time in history, there are now more urban residents than rural residents.
4 Lesson 10.1 Land Use and Urbanization Land Cover and Land UseLand cover: Vegetation and structures that cover land.Land use: Human activities that occur on landHumans change land cover, especially in urban areas. These changes have environmental and economic effects.
5 Lesson 10.1 Land Use and Urbanization Urban and Rural AreasRural: Any other type of land use or land cover (includes forests, cropland, etc.)Urban: Land mostly covered with buildings and roads (includes suburbs)
6 Urbanization Occurs when people move from rural areas to cities Lesson 10.1 Land Use and UrbanizationUrbanizationOccurs when people move from rural areas to citiesCities are not new, but the enormous size of today’s cities is. More than 20 cities have at least 10 million residents.
7 Lesson 10.1 Land Use and Urbanization The Rise of Cities• Factors that contribute to the rise of urbanization include population growth and industrialization.Most cities are located near a transportation route such as a large body of water, railroad, or highway.Image - (Creative Commons licensed)Geyser info source - National Park Service:Chicago’s location on Lake Michigan helped it grow into a large and prosperous city.Did You Know? Since 1950, the world’s urban population has more than quadrupled. According to U.N. projections, it will double again by 2050.
8 Environmental Costs of Urbanization Lesson 10.1 Land Use and UrbanizationEnvironmental Costs of UrbanizationPollution: Increased waste, industrial byproducts, noise pollution, light pollutionHeat islands: Cities, several degrees warmer than surrounding areas, affect local weather and trap pollutants.Imported resources: Fossil fuels are burned to import food, water, fuel, and raw materials.
9 Environmental Benefits of Urbanization Lesson 10.1 Land Use and UrbanizationEnvironmental Benefits of UrbanizationEfficiency: Less fuel and resources needed to distribute goods and services to residentsUniversities and research centers: Urban areas tend to foster education and innovation.Land Preservation: Dense urban centers leave room for agriculture, wilderness, biodiversity, and privacy.
10 Lesson SprawlIn 1950, 65% of the U.S. population lived in urban (including suburban) areas, while 35% lived rurally. In 2010, 89% was urban and only 11% rural.Los Angeles, CA, is one the most sprawling U.S. cities.
11 Lesson 10.2 SprawlWhat Is Sprawl?The spread of low-density urban or suburban development outward from a dense urban coreOften, growth of suburban areas outpaces population growth because suburbs allow more space per person than cities.Las Vegas, Nevada Left: 1972; Right: 2002
12 Primary Contributors to Sprawl Lesson 10.2 SprawlPrimary Contributors to SprawlPopulation growthIncreased per capita land consumptionOn average, these two factors are equally important, but one may be more important than another in a specific city.
13 Patterns of Sprawl Uncentered commercial strip development Lesson 10.2 SprawlPatterns of SprawlUncentered commercial strip developmentLow-density single-use residential developmentScattered, or leapfrog, developmentSparse street network
14 Impacts of Sprawl Transportation: Little to no public transportation Lesson 10.2 SprawlImpacts of SprawlTransportation: Little to no public transportationPollution: Increased driving leads to pollution.Public health: May promote inactivity, and by extension obesity and high blood pressureLand Use: Less land left as open space, forests, and farmsEconomics: Wealth tending to concentrate in suburbs, leaving urban areas poorDid You Know? Every year, more than 1 million hectares (2.5 million acres) of rural land are converted to urban land in the United States.
15 Lesson 10.3 Sustainable Cities More than 600 “new urbanist” communities are planned or in construction across North America.
16 City Planning and Zoning Lesson 10.3 Sustainable CitiesCity Planning and ZoningCity planners attempt to design cities that both work well and look and feel appealing.Zoning: Classification of land areas for different types of development and land useAn area can be mixed use or single use.Involves restrictions on the use of private land
17 Urban Growth Boundaries (UGBs) Lesson 10.3 Sustainable CitiesUrban Growth Boundaries (UGBs)A line drawn around a city to separate urban areas from rural areas, with limited permission for developmentAdvantages: Saves 20% in infrastructure costs compared with sprawl; decreases per capita land use; promotes economic development within the cityDisadvantages: Does not completely stop sprawl; limits rights of private landowners
18 Lesson 10.3 Sustainable Cities Smart GrowthFocuses on economic and environmental approaches to avoiding sprawlBuilds “up,” not “out”Maintains open spaces by redeveloping existing urban areas, waterfronts, and industrial sites
19 Lesson 10.3 Sustainable Cities “New Urbanism”Seeks to design neighborhoods that minimize the need to driveRequires good public transportation systemsSometimes impossible due to zoning restrictionsDid You Know? A 2004 study found that residents of sprawling areas were heavier on average for their height, and had increased instances of high blood pressure.
20 Transportation Options Lesson 10.3 Sustainable CitiesTransportation OptionsPublic transportation a key factor in the quality of urban lifeBuses, subways, trains more efficient, less polluting than carsCities encourage mass transit with fuel taxes, vehicle taxes, rewarding carpoolers, and encouraging bicycle and bus use.Did You Know? Paris, France removed 200,000 parking spaces to encourage the use of public transportation within the city.
21 Lesson 10.3 Sustainable Cities Open SpaceProvides greenery, beauty, freedom of movement, recreation opportunitiesIncludes parks, playgrounds, community gardens, greenwaysRegulates climate, produces oxygen, filters air and water, provides habitatDid You Know? More than 24,000 km of abandoned public rail line in the U.S. have been converted to trails for walking, jogging, and biking.
22 Lesson 10.3 Sustainable Cities Green Building DesignThe goals of a green building are to save energy and resources without sacrificing people’s comfort.Ashland High School near Boston, Massachusetts is a sophisticated green building that saves the school system more than $75,000 a year in energy costs.
23 Urban Sustainability Successes Lesson 10.3 Sustainable CitiesUrban Sustainability SuccessesCuritiba, BrazilEfficient bus networkRecycling and environmental education providedNew York CityPlan underway to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, improve public transit, plant trees, clean up polluted sites, and improve open space accessThe tube at this Curitiba bus stop handles fare collection for passengers boarding or exiting.