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GEOG 135 – Economic Geography Professor: Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Hofstra University, Department of Global Studies & Geography Topic 4 – Natural Resources.

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Presentation on theme: "GEOG 135 – Economic Geography Professor: Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Hofstra University, Department of Global Studies & Geography Topic 4 – Natural Resources."— Presentation transcript:

1 GEOG 135 – Economic Geography Professor: Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Hofstra University, Department of Global Studies & Geography Topic 4 – Natural Resources A – Types of Resources B – Conventional Sources of Energy C – Alternative Sources of Energy

2 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Conditions of Usage ■ For personal and classroom use only Excludes any other forms of communication such as conference presentations, published reports and papers. ■ No modification and redistribution permitted Cannot be published, in whole or in part, in any form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. ■ Citation Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University.

3 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue A – TYPES OF RESOURCES 1.Resources and Reserves 2.The Renewable / Non-Renewable Dichotomy 3.Resources, Technology and Society 4.Minerals

4 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 1. Resources and Reserves ■ Context A resource is something held in reserve that can be used for a purpose. “Nature does not care”. Three major categories of resources. ■ Natural resources Derived from physiographical conditions. ■ Economic resources Derived from human activities. ■ Geographical resources Derived by spatial characteristics. Location Human Capital Endowments Minerals Biological resources

5 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 1. Resources and Reserves Economic Human resources Population and level of qualification. Commonly referred as the workforce. Capital (money) “Portable resource”. Measure the amount of resources available to an economy. Geographical Location Grants access to markets and resources. Derive wealth acting as intermediary places (Panama, Singapore, Hong Kong, the Netherlands). Endowments Scenery, mountains, beaches and coral reefs. Resources when tourism is involved. Natural Biological resources Used to sustain life. Can be converted. Soil, water, and forestry resources. Mineral resources Fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, oil), metallic minerals (iron, aluminum, copper) and non-metallic minerals (Nitrogen, calcium, potash, sulfur, salt, sand).

6 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Reserves and Total Resources Total Resources Available Resources Uncertainty Cost of Recovery Reserves (Identified and recoverable) Sub-economic Unidentified Potentially Unrecoverable Exploration Price / Technology

7 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 2. The Renewable / Non-renewable Dichotomy Extraction Rate / Replenishment Rate Extraction Rate / Replenishment Rate Non-renewable Resources Renewable Resources Geological Human Replenishment can occur on a human time scale (Years, decades, centuries). Formed over a time scale involving geologic time. Once consumed, they disappear forever (unless recycled). Time Scale

8 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 2. The Renewable / Non-renewable Dichotomy Days Months Years Centuries Millennia Millions Infiniti Soils : 200 years (permanent vegetation cover) - 1000 years (mature). Erosion is extremely important because growing populations do not provide adequate time for soils to regenerate fully. Minerals (unless recycled) Fossil fuels (oil, coal) Food : Very short growth cycle (reason why preferred as food source). Rice (3-6 months). Chicken (12 weeks). Forests : In some areas, the rates of deforestation surpass the natural ability of the forest to regenerate. Rainforest: 65-100 years. Water : Rivers. Rain water. Aquifers. Irrigation has increased in many dry areas.

9 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 2. The Renewable / Non-renewable Dichotomy CHARACTERISTICOILWATER Quantity of resourceFinite Literally finite; but practically unlimited at a cost Renewable or Non- Renewable Non-renewable resource Renewable overall, but with locally non-renewable stocks FlowOnly as withdrawals from fixed stocksWater cycle renews natural flows Transportability Long-distance transport is economically viable Long distance transport is not economically viable Consumptive versus non- consumptive use Almost all use of petroleum is consumptive, converting high-quality fuel into lower quality heat Some uses of water are consumptive, but many are not. Overall, water is not "consumed" from the hydro-logic cycle Substitutability The energy provided by the combustion of oil can be provided by a wide range of alternatives Water has no substitute for a wide range of functions and purposes Prospects Limited availability; substitution inevitable by a backstop renewable source Locally limited, but globally unlimited after backstop source (e.g. desalination of oceans) is economically and environmentally developed

10 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Non-Renewable Resources Curve Time Usage Resource Peak Adoption Abandonment / transition

11 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Potential Depletion of Non-Renewable Resources Usage Time Extract, use and discard Recycle, technological improvements Recycle, reuse, reduce consumption, technological improvements

12 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 2. The Renewable / Non-Renewable Dichotomy ■ Renewable sources of energy are also dependent on non-renewable resources Photovoltaic cells consume non-renewable resources. Solar-thermal plants consume land and water from aquifers (arid areas). Geothermal power consumes water from aquifers. Wind energy consumes land, concrete, steel and rare earths (gearboxes). All energy supplies require distribution systems (electric wires) that consume land and resources. The term renewable energy is therefore misleading.

13 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 3. Resources, Technology and Society ■ Technology Definition: Processes according to which tools and machines are constructed. Insure a control of the physical environment. Comes from the Greek word teckne (manual expertise) and logia (field of knowledge). Technology means the control, or the science, of manual expertise. The more it is developed, the further the control and the transformation of matter is possible. Concept of resource is tied to: Technology (extent of available resources). Technological change (growth in available resources and the efficiency of their use). Culture controlling the technology (level of consumption).

14 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 3. Resources, Technology and Society ■ Nuance Technology requires the systematic usage of science and especially of the scientific method. Relationship between science, technology and production (the market). Scientific research helps discover or improve a technology. Changes production while creating new goods available or permitting a more efficient way to produce.

15 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 3. Resources, Technology and Society ■ The “Resource Curse” Paradox: Many resource-rich countries have the poorest population. Particularly for resources that have a high concentration level (e.g. oil, diamonds, gold). Resources as a power support structure: Prone to authoritarian rule, slow growth, corruption and conflict. Resources used to finance armies, corruption and patronage. Civil wars to gain control of resources. The “curse”: Instead of resources being a vector for development and capital accumulation, they become a factor of inequality. Under investment in infrastructures, utilities, health and education. Inverse relationship between natural resources and democracy.

16 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 3. Resources, Technology and Society ■ Resource loss due to destruction Natural and man causes can destroy resources. Natural hazards: Earthquakes. Weather hazards (hurricanes, tornadoes, flooding). Forest fires. Pollution: Reduces the quantity and quality of natural resources such as water. Conflicts: Destroyed huge quantities of resources, material and human alike, throughout history.

17 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 3. Sources of Energy Chemical Fossil fuels (Combustion) Nuclear Uranium (Fission of atoms) Chemical Fossil fuels (Combustion) Nuclear Uranium (Fission of atoms) Energy Non-Renewable Renewable Chemical Muscular (Oxidization) Nuclear Geothermal (Conversion) Fusion (Fusion of hydrogen) Gravity Tidal, hydraulic (Kinetic) Indirect Solar Biomass (Photosynthesis) Wind (Pressure differences) Direct Solar Photovoltaic cell (Conversion) Chemical Muscular (Oxidization) Nuclear Geothermal (Conversion) Fusion (Fusion of hydrogen) Gravity Tidal, hydraulic (Kinetic) Indirect Solar Biomass (Photosynthesis) Wind (Pressure differences) Direct Solar Photovoltaic cell (Conversion) Movement Stored (potential) Kinetic (used) Movement Stored (potential) Kinetic (used) World’s power consumption: 12 trillion watts per year (85% from fossil fuels) Ordered (mechanical energy) Disordered (thermal energy)

18 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 3. Chemical Energy Content of some Fuels (in MJ/kg)

19 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 3. Energy and Work Modification of the Environment Appropriation and Processing Transfer ■Making space suitable for human activities (20% of electricity in the US used for AC). ■Clearing land for agriculture. ■Modifying the hydrography (irrigation). ■Establishing distribution infrastructures (roads). ■Constructing and conditioning (temperature and light) enclosed structures. ■Extraction of resources (agricultural products and raw materials). ■Modifying resources (manufacturing). ■Disposal of wastes (Piling, decontaminating and burning). ■Movements of freight, people and information. ■Attenuate the spatial inequities in the location of resources by overcoming distance. ■Growing share of transportation in the total energy spent.

20 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Fuels Production Processes FuelSourcesProcess Liquid petroleum fuels (gasoline, diesel, kerosene, jet fuel, bunker fuel) Conventional oil fields (ground and shore-based). Non-conventional sources (tar sands) Refining Liquid synthetic fuelsNatural gas, coalGasification BiodieselOil seed cropsEsterification, hydrogenation EthanolGrain cropsSaccharification and distillation Sugar crops (cane)Distillation Advanced biodieselBiomass from crops or waste products Gasification Compressed natural gas (CNG)Natural gasGasification ElectricityCoal, gas, petroleum, nuclear, renewables (hydro, wind) Electric generator (source dependent) HydrogenNatural gasReforming, compression ElectricityElectrolysis Direct production using other sources High temperature process

21 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 4. Minerals ■ The earth’s crust Contains metallic and non-metallic minerals. Unequal concentration and distribution because of geology. ■ Metals Dominant mineral resources. ■ Ore Rock in which a mineral can be mined. Two factors for ore mining: Market value of the mineral. Concentration level in the ore. There are ore rocks all over the world. Only a small portion can be economically mined.

22 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Composition of the Earth’s Crust

23 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Global Plate Tectonics and Seismic Activity

24 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 4. Minerals ■ Metals Iron: Most common and used metal. Iron deposits can easily be mined and smelted for the ore. Used to make steel, a highly versatile metal. Aluminum: Second most used metal. Light weight and strength. Third most common element in the crust, but difficult to extract in its most common form (silicates). Bauxite: easier form to extract aluminum but energy intensive (electricity). ■ Nonmetallic minerals Vary wide variety and use. Clay. Limestone. Potash (fertilizer). Silica sand.

25 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 4. Some Minerals Used in Household Goods GoodMineral components Glass & ceramicSilica sand, limestone, talc, lithium, borates, soda ash, feldspar FertilizersPotash, phosphate, nitrogen, sulfur ToothpasteCalcium carbonate, limestone, sodium carbonate, fluorite LipstickCalcium carbonate, talc CaulkingLimestone, gypsum PaintTitanium dioxide, kaolin clays, calcium carbonate, mica, talc, silica ConcreteLimestone, gypsum, iron oxide, clay PencilGraphite, clay Sport equipmentGraphite, fiberglass Pots and pansAluminum, iron Automobile15 different metals and minerals Cell phone50 different metals and minerals

26 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue World Mineral Reserves (years of production left), 2002

27 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue B - CONVENTIONAL SOURCES OF ENERGY 1.Coal 2.Petroleum 3.Natural Gas 4.Nuclear

28 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 1. Characteristics ■ Nature Formed from decayed swamp plant matter that cannot decompose in the low-oxygen underwater environment. Coal was the major fuel of the early Industrial Revolution. High correlation between the location of coal resources and early industrial centers: The Midlands of Britain. Parts of Wales. Pennsylvania. Silesia (Poland). German Ruhr Valley. Three grades of coal.

29 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 1. Characteristics ■ Anthracite (7%) Highest grade; over 85% carbon. Most efficient to burn. Lowest sulfur content; the least polluting. The most exploited and most rapidly depleted. ■ Bituminous (75%) Medium grade coal, about 50-75% carbon content. Higher sulfur content and less fuel-efficient. Most abundant coal in the USA. ■ Lignite (18%) Lowest grade of coal, with about 40% carbon content. Low energy content. Most sulfurous and most polluting.

30 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 1. Main Coal Regions of the United States Bituminous Lignite Bituminous Powder River Basin (40%)

31 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 2. Coal Use ■ Coal use Thermal coal (about 90% use): Used mainly in power stations to produce high pressure steam, which then drives turbines to generate electricity. Also used to fire cement and lime kilns. Until the middle of the 20th Century used in steam engines (“Steam Coal”). Coking coal: Specific type of metallurgical coal derived from bituminous coal. Used as a source of carbon, for converting a metal ore to metal. Removing the oxygen in the ore by forcing it to combine with the carbon in the coal to form CO2. Used for making iron in blast furnaces (without smoke). New redevelopment of the coal industry: In view of rising energy prices. “Clean Coal” technologies, less ashes but same CO2.

32 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 2. Coal Consumption, 1965-2011 (in millions of tons of oil equivalent)

33 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 2. Coal as % of Energy Use and Electricity Generation, 1998

34 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 3. The Economic Importance of Petroleum ■ Nature Formation of oil deposits (biotic perspective): Decay under pressure of billions of microscopic plants in sedimentary rocks. “Oil window”; 7,000 to 15,000 feet. Created over the last 600 million years. A-biotic perspective. Exploration of new sources of petroleum: Related to the geologic history of an area. Located in sedimentary basins. About 90% of all petroleum resources have been discovered. Production vs. consumption: Geographical differences. Contributed to the political problems linked with oil supply.

35 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 3. The Economic Importance of Petroleum ■ Use Transportation: The share of transportation has increased in the total oil consumption. Accounts for more the 55% of the oil used. In the US, this share is 70%. Limited possibility at substitution. Other uses (30%): Lubricant. Plastics. Fertilizers. Choice of an energy source: Depend on a number of utility factors. Favoring the usage of fossil fuels, notably petroleum.

36 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Global Oil Market

37 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue West Texas Intermediate, Monthly Nominal Spot Oil Price (1970- 2012) First Oil Shock Second Oil Shock Third Oil Shock

38 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue World Annual Oil Production (1900-2011) and Peak Oil (2010)

39 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 4. Nature and Use ■ Natural gas formation Thermogenic: converted organic material into natural gas due to high pressure. Deeper window than oil. Biogenic: transformation by microorganisms. ■ Composition Composed primarily of methane and other light hydrocarbons. Mixture of 50 to 90% by volume of methane, propane and butane. “Dry” and “wet” (methane content); “sweet” and “sour” (sulfur content). Usually found in association with oil: Formation of oil is likely to have natural gas as a by-product. Often a layer over the petroleum.

40 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 4. Nature and Use ■ Use Mostly used for energy generation. Transition in use: Previously, it was often wasted; burned off. The major problem is transporting natural gas, which requires pipelines. Now more frequently conserved and used. Considered the cleanest fossil fuel to use. Gas turbine technology enables to use natural gas to produce electricity more cheaply than using coal.

41 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 4. Availability and Distribution ■ Reserves Substantial reserves likely to satisfy energy needs for the next 100 years. High level of concentration: 45% of the world’s reserves are in Russia and Iran. Regional concentration of gas resources is more diverse: As opposed to oil. Only 36% of the reserves are in the Middle East.

42 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 4. Proved Reserves of Natural Gas

43 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 4. Natural Gas ■ Liquefied natural gas (LNG) Growth of the global demand has created needs to move natural gas over long distances. Liquid form of natural gas; easier to transport. Cryogenic process (-256oF): gas loses 610 times its volume. Value chain: Extraction. Liquefaction. Shipping. Storage and re-gasification.

44 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 5. Nuclear Power Generation ■ Nature Fission of uranium to produce energy. The fission of 1 kg (2.2 lbs.) of uranium-235 releases 18.7 million kilowatt-hours as heat. A nuclear power plant of 1,000 megawatts requires 200 tons of uranium per year. Heat is used to boil water and activate steam turbines. Uranium is fairly abundant. Requires massive amounts of water for cooling the reactor. Relatively cheap: 2 cents per kWh (4 cents for coal).

45 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 5. Nuclear Power Generation ■ Nuclear power plants 436 operating nuclear power plants (civilian) worldwide. Very few new plants coming on line: Public resistance (NIMBY syndrome). High costs. Nuclear waste disposal. 30 countries generate nuclear electricity: About 15% of all electricity generated worldwide. Required about 77,000 metric tons of uranium. United States: 104 licensed nuclear power plants; about 20% of the electricity. Licenses are usually given for a 40 year period. Many US plants will are coming up for 20 years license extensions. No new nuclear power plant built since 1979 (Three Mile Island incident). 4-6 new units by 2018. China: 11 nuclear power plants. Plans to add 13 new nuclear reactors per year until 2020.

46 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 10 Largest Nuclear Power Users, 2009

47 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 5. Nuclear Power Generation ■ Uranium reserves Canada and Australia account for 43% of global reserves. The problem of “peak uranium”. 20 years of reserves in current mines. 80 years of known economic reserves.

48 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue C - ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF ENERGY 1.Hydropower 2.Hydrogen 3.Biomass 4.Solar 5.Wind

49 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 1. Hydropower Generation ■ Nature Generation of mechanical energy using the flow of water as the energy source. Gravity as source and sun as the “pump”. Requires a large reservoir of water (energy “storage”). 95% energy efficiency. Considered cleaner, less polluting than fossil fuels. Cheapest source of energy: 1 cent per kWh. ■ Utilization Water wheels used for centuries (grinding flour). Used during the industrial revolution to power the first machines. First hydroelectric plant; Niagara Falls (1879).

50 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 1. World Hydroelectric Generating Capacity, 1965-2009 (in megawatts)

51 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 1. Hydropower Generation ■ Controversy Require the development of vast amounts of infrastructures: Dams. Reservoirs. Power plants and power lines. Very expensive and consume financial resources or aid resources that could be utilized for other things. Environmental problems: The dams themselves often alter the environment in the areas where they are located. Changing the nature of rivers, creating lakes that fill former valleys and canyons, etc.

52 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 1. Commissioning of Large Dams

53 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 2. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells ■ Hydrogen Considered to be the cleanest fuel. Compose 90% of the matter of the universe. Non polluting (combustion emits only water and heat). Highest level of energy content. Almost three times more than methane. ■ Nuclear fusion Currently researched but without much success. It offers unlimited potential. Not realistically going to be a viable source of energy in the foreseeable future.

54 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 2. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells ■ Storage issues Hydrogen is a highly combustive gas. Find a way to safely store it, especially in a vehicle. ■ Delivery issues Distribution from producers to consumers. Production and storage facilities. Structures and methods for transporting hydrogen. Fueling stations for hydrogen-powered applications.

55 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 2. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells ■ Hydrogen production Not naturally occurring; secondary energy resources. Producing sufficient quantities to satisfy the demand. Extraction from fossil fuels: From natural gas. Steam reforming. Electrolysis of water: Electricity from fossil fuels not a environmentally sound alternative. Electricity from solar or wind energy is a better alternative. Pyrolysis of the biomass: Decomposing by heat in an oxygen-reduced atmosphere. Fossil Fuels Water Biomass Steam Reforming Electrolysis Pyrolysis

56 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 2. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells ■ Main potential uses Transportation: Most likely replacement for the internal combustion engine. Efficiency levels are between 55% and 65%. Stationary power stations: Connected to the electric grid; supplemental power and backup. Grid-independent generator. Telecommunications: Reliable power for telecom systems (e.g. cell phone towers, internet servers). Micro Power: For consumer electronics (e.g. cell phones and portable computers).

57 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 3. Biomass ■ Nature Biomass energy involves the growing of crops for fuel rather than for food. Crops can be burned directly to release heat or be converted to useable fuels such methane, ethanol, or hydrogen. Has been around for many millennia. Not been used as a large-scale energy source: 14% of all energy used comes from biomass fuels. 65% of all wood harvested is burned as a fuel. 2.4 billion people rely on primitive biomass for cooking and heating. Important only in developing countries. Asia and Africa: 75% of wood fuels use. US: 5% comes from biomass sources.

58 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 3. Energy Consumption, Solid biomass (includes fuel wood) 2001

59 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 3. Global Biomass

60 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 3. Biomass ■ Biofuels Fuel derived from organic matter. Development of biomass conversion technologies: Alcohols (ethanol) and methane the most useful. First generation biofuels: Food-based. Plant materials like corn, starch or sugar from cane. Second generation biofuels: Cellulosic based. Waste materials like plant stalks composed of cellulose. ■ Requirements for sustainable biomass use Production of biomass through low input levels: Labor, fuel, fertilizers and pesticides. Production of biomass on low value land. Low energy of conversion into biofuels.

61 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 3. Biomass Energy Sources SourcesFuelsUses Forest productsWood, woodchipsDirect burning or charcoal Agricultural residuesHusks, shells, stemsDirect burning Energy cropsSugarcane, cornEthanol, gasification TreesPalm oilBiodiesel Animal residuesManureMethane Urban wastesWaste paper, organic wastesDirect burning, methane

62 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 3. Global Ethanol Production, 1975-2009 (million gallons)

63 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 4. Solar Energy ■ Definition Radiant energy emitted by the sun. Large amount of solar energy reaching the Earth’s surface. 10 weeks of solar energy equivalent to all known fossil fuel reserves. ■ Advantages Widely available energy source. Limited environmental footprint. Limited maintenance. Affordable. ■ Drawbacks Limitations in temporal availability (e.g. night). Reconversion of existing facilities. Can be capital intensive for large projects.

64 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 4. Global Solar Energy Potential

65 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 4. Solar Energy ■ Photovoltaic systems Semiconductors to convert solar radiation into electricity. Better suited for limited uses that do not require large amounts of electricity. Costs have declined substantially: 9-10 cents per kilowatt-hour. Compared to about 3-5 cents for coal fired electrical power. Economies of scale could then be realized in production of the necessary equipment. Roofs of buildings (e.g. warehouses) suitable locations to effectively install solar panels.

66 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Solar Energy Consumption (Terawatt-hours), 1990-2011

67 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue 5. Wind Power ■ Potential use Growing efficiency of wind turbines. New windfarms are located at sea along the coast: The wind blows harder and more steadily. Does not consume valuable land. No protests against wind parks marring the landscape. United States: The USA could generate 25% of its energy needs from wind power by installing wind farms on just 1.5% of the land. North Dakota, Kansas, and Texas have enough harnessable wind energy to meet electricity needs for the whole country.

68 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue

69 5. Wind Power Farms are a good place to implement wind mills: A quarter of a acre can earn about $2,000 a year in royalties from wind electricity generation. That same quarter of an acre can only generate $100 worth or corn. Farmland could simultaneously be used for agriculture and energy generation. Wind energy could be used to produce hydrogen. ■ Limitations Extensive infrastructure and land requirements. 1980: 40 cents per kwh. 2001: 3-4 cents per kwh. Less reliable than other sources of energy. Inexhaustible energy source that can supply both electricity and fuel.

70 © Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue Cumulative Installed Wind Power Capacity in Top Ten Countries and the World, 1980-2011 (Megawatts)

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