Electromagnetic waves are transverse; the and fields are perpendicular to the direction of propagation and to each other. The direction of propagation is the direction of. Equations (32.17) and (32.18) describe a sinusoidal plane electromagnetic wave traveling in vacuum in the +x-direction. (See Example 32.1)
The electromagnetic spectrum covers a range of frequencies from at least 1 to 10 24 Hz and a correspondingly broad range of wavelengths. Visible light constitutes only a very small part of this spectrum, with wavelengths of 400 to 700nm.
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