Presentation on theme: "External Analysis: The Identification of Industry Opportunities and Threats Porter, Five Forces and Industry Cycles."— Presentation transcript:
1 External Analysis: The Identification of Industry Opportunities and Threats Porter, Five Forces and Industry Cycles
2 Analyzing Industry Structure Opportunities and threats are competitive challenges arising for changes in industry conditions.Analytic tools such as the five forces model help managers formulate appropriate strategic responses.
4 Potential Competitors New entrants into an industry threaten incumbent companies.Barriers to entry:Brand loyaltyAbsolute cost advantagesEconomies of scaleSwitching costsGovernment regulationEntry barriers reduce the threat of new and additional competition.
5 Rivalry Among Established Companies The intensity of competitive rivalry in an industry arises from:Industry’s competitive structure.Demand (growth or decline) conditions in industry.Height of industry exit barriers.
6 Competitive Structure Continuum of Industry StructuresFragmentedMany firms,no dominantfirmFew firms,shared dominance (oligopoly)ConsolidatedOne firm or onedominant firm(monopoly)
7 The Bargaining Power of Buyers Buyers are most powerful when:There are many small sellers and few large buyers.Buyers purchase in large quantities.A single buyer is a large customer to a firm.Buyers can switch suppliers at low cost.Buyers purchase from multiple sellers at once.Buyers can easily vertically integrate to compete with suppliers.
8 The Bargaining Power of Suppliers Suppliers have bargaining power when:Their products have few substitutes and are important to buyers.The buyer’s industry is not an important customer to the supplier.Differentiation makes it costly for buyers to switch suppliers.Suppliers can vertically integrate forward to compete with buyers and buyers can’t integrate backward to supply their own needs.
9 Substitute ProductsThe competitive threat of substitute products increases as they come closer to serving similar customer needs.FarClose
10 A Sixth Force: Complementors Companies whose products are sold in tandem with another company’s products.Increased supply of a complementary product collaterally increases demand for the primary product.Example:Faster CPU chips fuel sales of personal computers.
12 Strategic Groups Within Industries The concept of strategic groupsWithin an industry, a competitor grouping using similar strategies that differ from other industry groups.Implications of strategic groupsThe closest industry competitors are those in the group.The various industry groups are differentially and competitively advantaged and positioned.Mobility barriers inhibit the movement of competitors from one strategic group to another.
13 Strategic Groups in the Pharmaceutical Industry FIGURE 3.3
14 Limitations of the Five Forces and Strategic Group Models Both models are static and ignore innovation.Their focus is on industry and group structures rather than individual companies.Innovation creates change in industry structures, altering the competitive environment.Industry structure cannot fully explain the performance differences between industry competitors.
15 Punctuated Equilibrium and Competitive Structure FIGURE 3.4
16 The Industry Life Cycle Model Stages in the industry life cycle:FIGURE 3.5
18 Network Economics As a Determinant of Industry Conditions The demand for primary industry products depends on the size of the total market for complementary products.Network economics result in positive feedback loops that foster rapid demand increases.Market competitors are protected by switching cost entry barriers.
20 Globalization and Industry Structure Globally dispersed production lowers costs and increases quality.Global markets are replacing national markets.Trend implicationsNo isolated national marketsMore competitors, more intense competitionMore rapid innovation and shorter product life cycles