2 Why Classify? To study the diversity of life, biologists use a classification system to name organisms &group them in a logical manner.
3 In other words, naming things. TaxonomyDefined:Discipline of classifying organisms and assigning each organism a universally accepted name.In other words, naming things.
4 Why common names don’t work Common names vary among languages.Example:United Kingdom – Buzzard refers to a hawkUnited States – Buzzard refers to a vultureRed-tailed HawkHoney BuzzardTurkey Vulture
5 Aristotle 384 BCClassified organisms as either plants or animals
6 Carolus Linnaeus(1707 – 1778)Created the system of naming we use today.In taxonomy, a group or level of organization is called a taxonomic category or taxon.
7 Binomial Nomenclature “Bi” means 2“nomial” means number“Nomen” means name“Clature” means the system ofDefined:In binomial nomenclature, each species is assigned a two-part scientific name.
8 Binomial Nomenclature Carolus LinnaeusIn binomial nomenclature, each species is assigned a two-part scientific name.The scientific name is always written in italics or underlined.The first word (the genus) is capitalizedThe second word (the species) is lowercased.EX- Genus species or Genus speciesHumans- Homo sapien
9 Example of Binomial Nomenclature Polar Bear is Ursus maritimusUrsus: genusUrsus contains 5 other kinds of bearsmaritimus: speciesThe Latin word, maritimus, refers to the sea.Polar bears often live on pack ice that floats in the sea.
10 Linnaeus's System of Classification A group or level of organization is called a taxonomic category, or taxonLinnaeus had 7-Kingdom “KingPhylum PhillipClass CameOrder OverFamily ForGenus GreatSpecies Spaghetti”
11 Definitions to know Genus: is a group of closely related species Species: Group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
12 Family: Group of genera that share many characteristicsOrder: Group of similar familiesClass: Group of similar ordersPhylum: Group of closely related classesKingdom: Largest taxonomic group,consisting of closely relatedphyla.
13 What do these mean?...lets see Here We Go… Polar BearSpecies: maritimusGenus: UrsusFamily: UrsidaeOrder: CarnivoraClass: MammaliaPhylum: ChordataKingdom: AnimaliaWhat do these mean?...lets see
14 What they mean Species: maritimus (lives in marine environment) *Do NOT have to write*Species: maritimus (lives in marine environment)Genus: Ursus (kind of bear)Family: Ursidae (larger category of bears)Order: Carnivora (meat-eating animals)Class: Mammalia (warm-blooded, hair, & milk)Phylum: Chordata (vertebrates)Kingdom: Animalia (there are 6 kingdoms)
15 How to remember: King Phillip Came Over For Green Salad Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
16 Uniqueness: Every name has to be unique. Rules of the GameUniqueness: Every name has to be unique.Universality: Zoologists have adopted, by international agreement, a single language to be used on a worldwide basis. All animals are given a generic (common name) and specific name in Latin (scientific name).These names are in italics or are underlined(i.e. Homo sapiens).
19 Checkpoint Questions: 1. How are living things organized for study?2. Describe the system for naming species that Linnaeus developed.3. What are the seven taxonomic categories of Linnaeus’s classification system?4. Why do scientists avoid using common names when discussing organisms?5. What is significant about members of the same species?