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DO NOW Take out lab write up… finish last part (conclusion)

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1 DO NOW Take out lab write up… finish last part (conclusion)

2 DO NOW: What’s the difference? 1.Plant vs. Animal cells 2.Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic cells 3.Autotrophic vs. Heterotrophic organisms

3 Classification and Taxonomy Vocabulary: – Taxonomy – Binomial Nomenclature – Kingdom – Genus – Species – Eukaryote – Prokaryote – Heterotroph – Autotroph

4 Organisms are Organized Classification: grouping organisms Taxonomy – the branch of science that deals with naming and classification organisms Taxonomists – scientists who name and classify organisms

5 Classification 1.How are organisms classified? – Organisms (living things) are classified based upon physical (anatomical) and genetic (DNA) similarities

6 Classification 2.Why are organisms classified? – Classification of life is necessary to enable biologists to more easily study living things (organisms) – Reduces confusion Look up a word in the dictionary. It would be very hard if all the pages were ripped out and put in a random pile. Instead, words are arranged or classified for us in alphabetical order making it easier to locate words. – About 1.5 million different organisms living on Earth and more being discovered each year!

7 Categories for Classification Every known organism is placed into 5 large groupings known as KINGDOMS Organisms within a kingdom share many broad characteristics in common Taxon: – One of the 7 taxonomic groupings – Example: Kingdom, Phylum, Class

8 Do Now… on a separate sheet of paper 1.How would you classify these organisms? 2.Why did you classify them the way you did, explain.

9 5 Kingdoms Lets explore each kingdom and see how organisms are classified AnimalPlantFungiProtistaMonera Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic Autotroph or Heterotroph Unicellular or Multicellular Cell structures No cell wall or chloroplasts Cell wall (cellulose) and chloroplasts Cell wall (chitin) Cell wall (cellulose) in some, some have chloroplasts Certain structures on cell walls Why are organisms divided up like this? Can we make any other groups broader, or larger, than Kingdom?

10 5 Kingdoms 1.Monera  Unicellular (single cell)  Prokaryotic (no nucleus)  Example: Bacteria  Some can survive in extreme conditions  Very acidic  Very hot  Toxic fumes (toxic to most life) E. Coli Streptococcus

11 5 Kingdoms 2.Protists  Unicellular (single cell)  Eukaryotic (has nucleus)  Example: Ameba, Paramecium

12 5 Kingdoms 3.Fungi  Multicellular (has many cells)  Eukaryotic (has nucleus)  Heterotrophic  Have cell walls but CANNOT make own food!  Examples: Yeast, mold, lichens, mushrooms

13 5 Kingdoms 4.Plant  Multicellular (has many cells)  Eukaryotic (has nucleus)  Autotrophic  Have cell walls  Make on food by photosynthesis  Non-motile

14 5 Kingdoms 5.Animal  Multicellular (has many cells)  Eukaryotic (has nucleus)  Heterotrophic  Obtain food by ingestion  Motile

15 Categories of Classification Method to Memorize  King  Philip  Came  Over  From  Great  Spain  Kingdom  Phylum  Class  Order  Family  Genus  Species

16 Organisms grouped into 5 Kingdoms… but there still are differences! KINGDOM All organisms in animal kingdom are animals: -_____________,____________,____________ Still differences among animals. Want to get more specific! PHYLUM  Group similar animals together based on a common characteristic.  In this case, all animals with backbones  These animals will go into a smaller group, called a Phylum!  Not as many animals in a phylum!

17 Big to Small Phyla are then divided into even more narrow, specific, groupings of organisms called – Class – Order – Family – Genus – Species Species: Organisms in the same species are so similar they can reproduce Most specific/similar organisms

18 Wait a minute Annotate, write what is going on, in the picture. From species to kingdom: – Increase or decrease in number of organisms – Increase or decrease in similarity From species to kingdom: – Increase / decrease in number of organisms – Increase / decrease in similarity

19 Humans Classified.. Kingdom- Animalia Phylum- Chordata Class- Mammalia Order- Primates Family- Hominidae Genus- Homo Species- sapiens

20 Classification Worksheet Match the correct Taxon with the correct amount of organisms: 1.Genus_________ 2.Species_________ 3.Kingdom_________ 4.Order_________ 5.Class_________ 6.Family_________ 7.Phylum _________ A.2 million (organisms) B.1 (organism) C.100 D.500,000 E.750,000 F.75,000 G.10,000

21 Classification Worksheet 1.Family 2.Order 3.Class 4.Species 5.Phylum 6.Kingdom 7.Genus

22 Do Now 1.How are organisms classified? 2.Explain the difference between: – Kingdom vs. Phylum – Kingdom vs. Species 3.What are fungi? 4.Do organisms get more or less similar going from Kingdom to Species?

23 1.How is classification similar to how food items are organized at a supermarket so you can find them?

24 Icepack, napkins, red apple, green apple, pineapple, Ribeye steak, Ice cream, celery, lettuce, gummy bears 2.Create your own classification of these objects in a supermarket.


26 How do we write Scientific Names? Thank you Carolus Linnaeus!  Linneaus came up with binomial nomenclature Binomial Nomenclature:  Name of an organism uses Genus and Species  Genus is always capitalized  Species is always lowercase  Both names ALWAYS written in italics  Human: Homo sapiens

27 Humans Classified.. Kingdom- Animalia Phylum- Chordata Class- Mammalia Order- Primates Family- Hominidae Genus- Homo Species- sapiens

28 1.Scientific name for a wolf? How do you write it? 2.What are properties shared by the wolf family and cat family? 3.Members of which taxon share the most properties?

29 What is the scientific name for a “Killer Whale”?

30 Classification Tools Dichotomous Key – an organized set of couplets (pairs of descriptions) of different characteristics of biological organisms.  Simplifies the identification of biological organisms  Compare the characteristics of an unknown organism to an appropriate dichotomous key.  The key will begin general and lead to pairs of descriptions that get more specific  Follow the key, like a treasure hunt, and you will find the correct organism based on it’s features!

31 Dichotomous Key Practice Bird W- Bird X - Bird Y - Bird Z -

32 Numeric key with couplets presented together. The major advantage of this method of presentation is that both characteristics in a couple can be evaluated and compared very easily. 1a.Bean roundGarbanzo bean 1b.Bean elliptical or oblongGo to 2 2a.Bean whiteWhite northern 2b.Bean has dark pigmentsGo to 3 3a.Bean evenly pigmentedGo to 4 3b.Bean pigmentation mottledPinto bean 4a.Bean blackBlack bean 4b.Bean reddish-brownKidney bean W XY Z

33 Notes Using a Dichotomous Key: – If you have 2 organisms that are the same scientific name, then you made a mistake – Be very careful in your observations and following the key

34 Dichotomous Key Lab on SHARKS As you work on the lab, think about what your Aim, or goal, of the lab is!

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