Presentation on theme: "7-1. Scientists have made observations about the world for 1000’s of years Communication was very poor A universal system of classification was."— Presentation transcript:
Scientists have made observations about the world for 1000’s of years Communication was very poor A universal system of classification was necessary
The Greek society was full of scholars and scientists. Aristotle was the first scientist to begin classifying organisms He observed their appearance and behavior.
How did Aristotle begin to classify ? With Blood Vertebrates Life bearing Egg bearing Without blood Invertebrates Insects such as crustaceans Aristotle classified organisms into distinct groups
He thought of a classification system that he called the “Ladder of Life” This very simple chart included 11 degrees of life The first being plants and the last being humans!
Classification is the process of arranging organisms into groups based on their similarities
Taxonomy is the science of naming and classifying organisms A good system of taxonomy allows people to communicate about organisms Before 1700 scientists had not agreed on a system of naming and grouping Latin was the universal language choice for naming organisms because the language was no longer being used
The science of Taxonomy is related to the Greek word “taxis” which means arrangement Taxonomists are the scientists who classify and name organisms based on their similarities and differences Taxonomists study the relationships of species and compare them with other species
Taxonomists can also classify organisms according to their traits A trait is a characteristic or behavior that can be used to tell two species apart
Physical : what the organism looks like. What you can see with your eyes using direct observation. This type of observation helps scientists link species with evolution
Physical Evidence Are these locusts the same? What makes them Different? What is similar about them?
Cyanocitta c.cristata Turdidae sialia The class is still Aves!
Genetic : The use of laboratory machines to analyze DNA to link species on a cellular level Usually supports physical evidence.
Carolus Linnaeus developed systems for both naming species and organizing them into groups He named 4000 species!
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species The largest group of species in this classification system is Kingdom
A group of species that have similar characteristics is a genus Members of the same genus are very closely related. Genus: Felis
Linnaeus used Binomial Nomenclature to name species Binomial means “two names” Nomenclature means list of names
When writing names of organisms in scientific classification, the genus is written in italics and capitalized and the species is written next and is lowercase. Chameleo gracilis
So what would a dog be?? Kingdom- Animalia Phylum- Chordata Class-Mamalia Order-Carnivora Family- Canidae Genus- Canis Species- C.lupus Canis c-lupus
Species continue to grow as scientists discover new organisms or species. The scientific community are also learning new things about evolution and genetic make-up of species
New level of classification! The new level of classification that has been added to the system is Domain These are larger groupings that contain 3 levels on a cellular level
These Domains are Bacteria, Archea, and Eukarya Bacteria and Archea contain only organisms without a nucleus Eukarya are organisms with a nucleus and can be either unicellular or multi- cellular
Bacteria Unicellular No nucleus Reproduce by cell division
Archaea Unicellular Different chemicals than bacteria and are older Live in extreme conditions
Protista Multi cellular Has a nucleus Contain the hard to place organisms
Fungi Multi cellular Decompose other organisms Has a nucleus
Plantae Multicellular get energy from the sun has a nucleus and a cell wall
Animalia multi cellular eat food for energy have a nucleus