2 WARM UP (15 minutes)Line up around the room. You need to place yourself in order of your birthdays, but you cannot speak to one another.Class is organized into groups according to birthday. How else could the class have been divided into groups?Why might you want to group or classify objects?
3 Who Needs a Classification System? How is your life organized?When you go to the grocery store, how do know how to find the milk?When you go to the clothing store, how do you know where to look for your favorite brand?Think about Halloween candy… On Halloween night, after returning from trick or treating, what do you and your friends do? Do you poor our your candy on the floor and separate the candy into piles based on how the candy items are the same, and how they are different? Chocolate goes in 1 pile, smartees into another, etc. Then do you further separate the chocolates into Twix, Snickers, etc? Scientists do the same thing with organizing organisms.
4 Why do Scientists Classify? Did you know that there are almost 2 million kinds of organisms on Earth?How could we possibly keep them all straight or study them without some form of organization?
5 What is does the word classification mean? Classification means the act of grouping living things by using a set of rules and similarities.The “SCIENCE” of classification is called taxonomy. Taxonomy is the field of biology that study how living things are classified.
6 Who first developed a system to classify organisms? As early as 350 B.C., the Greek PhilosopherAristotle created guidelines for groupingliving things. Aristotle grouped organismsbased on four characteristics:Body partsLife historiesActivitiesCharacter
7 The Modern Classification System The modern classification system wasdeveloped by the Swedish scientist, CarolusLinnaeus, in the mid 1700’s. His system was based upon classifying organisms according to the organism’s physical and structural similarities. Some characteristicshe used to classify organisms were outsideappearance, internal organs, and how bodysystems worked. Modern scientists are still using most of Linnaeus’s classification system.
8 Linneaus’ System of Scientific Names Binomial Nomenclature is a two word classification naming system developed by Linneaus.Each species of a living thing is given a DOUBLE NAMEEX: Just like your first and last nameFirst Name (Genus)Tells which group of similar species the living thing belongs to. Genus is ALWAYS capitalized.Second Name (Species)Tells the name of the one particular species in that genus. Species is NEVER capitalized.
9 How Living Things Are Classified? Organisms are ranked in a “Taxa” according to their characteristics.Taxa is a further broken-down level of classification found within each kingdom according to similarities. The broader the Taxa the more general its characteristics & the more species it contains.
10 How Are Living Things Classified? Broadest LevelThere are 7 levels in the classification system of organismsAs one goes from the Kingdom to the Species (DOWNWARD)…An increase in the similarity between organisms occurThere are fewer numbers of different kinds of organismsMost Specific
11 How Are Living Things Classified? Kingdom: The highest levelPhylum: A subdivision of a kingdomClass: Each phylum is divided into classesOrder: Each class is divided into ordersFamily: Each order is divided into familiesGenus: Each family is divided into generaSpecies: Lowest level (represents a single type of organism)
12 CLASSIFICATION OF CARS KINGDOMMechanical TransportationPHYLUMAutomobileCLASSSUVORDERFordFAMILYExplorerGENUSEddie BauerSPECIESAll Wheel Drive
13 How Are Living Things Classified? Homework: Write an original catch phrase for the categories of classification so that each word in the phrase begins with the letter of the category in their correct order from largest to smallestExample: Kids Play Cards On Fat Green StoolsSpeciesPhyllumOrderFamilyKingdomClassGenus
14 The Classification Game!! In the following few slides, you will find14 different organisms, each of them labeled with a letter. In your groups, write down two main classification (example red/green). Then place the corresponding letters underthe correct classification.
15 For Example These organisms have been classified by their color. Red Green
19 Did You Have Problems??There were actually several different ways to goabout classifying these 14 organisms. You mighthave done color, shape, size, number of legs… thepossibilities are endless. You might have encountered one or two that really did not fit into either of your two classifications, what should you do when this happens? Make a new classification of course! And this is what scientist have done as well through the years.
20 The 5 KINGDOMS of Classification A Kingdom is the largest group in the Classification system. It encompasses all the related species.
21 The 5 KINGDOMS of Classification In all, there are 5 Kingdoms of Life…MoneraProtistaFungiPlantaeAnimalia
22 The 5 Kingdoms of Classification The Kingdom, Monera consists of all Bacteria.Examples of Bacteria include:Cyan bacteria,Staphylococcus aureusEscherichia coli.This picture is of E. coli
23 The 5 Kingdoms of Classification The Kingdom, Protistaconsists of simpleeukaryotes (multi-cellularorganisms).Examples of Protistainclude:majority of molds suchas Saprolegnia (Water mold)Dictyostelium diccoideum (Slime Mold).
24 The 5 Kingdoms of Classification The Kingdom, Fungi consists of fungus & yeasts members. These break down organic materials to obtain food.Examples of different types of fungus include:Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Yeast)Amanita muscaria (Fly Agaric).
25 The 5 Kingdoms of Classification The Kingdom, Plantae houses all the plant members.Examples of plants include:FlowersCornMossFernsTrees
26 The 5 Kingdoms of Classification The last Kingdom, Animalia consists of Humans and ALL animals.Examples of Animalia include:InsectsMammalsReptilesBirdsAmphibians.
27 Using the Classification System Field guides help identify organisms.-they highlight differences between similar organisms (like trees)Taxonomic Key / Dichotomous Key) is a paired statements that describe the physical characteristics of different organisms
28 Taxonomic Key A B C D E F G H Norns belong to the genus Norno and can be divided into eight species that are generally located in specific regions of the world. Use the dichotomos key to identify the norns below.ABCHas pointed ears go to 31’ Has rounded ears go to 22.Has no tail Kentuckyus2’ Has tail DakotusEars point upward go to 53’ Ears point downward go to 4Engages in waving behavior Dallus4’ Has hairy tufts on ears CaliforniusEngages in waving behavior WalaWala5’ Does not engage in waving behavior go to 6Has hair on head Beverlus6’ Has no hair on head (may have ear tufts) go to 7Has a tail Yorkio7’ Has no tail, aggressive RajusDEFGH
29 REVIEWClassification means the act of grouping living things by using a set of rules and similarities.Taxonomy is the field of biology that study how living things are classified.The modern classification system was developed by Carolus Linnaeus. His system is based upon classifying organisms according to physical and structural similarities.Binomial Nomenclature is a two word classification naming system. Each species of a living this is give a double name. First name (Genus) is ALWAYS capitalized. The second name (Species) is NEVER capitalized.Organisms are ranked in a “Taxa” according to their characteristics. Taxa is a further broken-down level of classification found within each kingdom according to similarities. The broader the Taxa the more general its characteristics & the more species it contains.
30 REVIEW (Cont’d) There are 7 levels in the classification system Broadest LevelThere are7 levelsin theclassificationsystemMost Specific
31 REVIEW (Cont’d) The 5 Kingdoms Monera – all bacteria Protista – all simple eukaryotes (multi-cellular organisms, i.e. molds)Fungi – all fungus and yeasts (i.e. mushrooms)Plantae – all plantsAnimalia – all animals, reptiles, insects, birdsTaxonomic Key / Dichotomous Key) is a paired statements that describe the physical characteristics of different organisms