Early Classification – Aristotle 384- 322 B.C. z2 Kingdoms: Plants and Animals yPlants – Green, Non Mobile yAnimals – Not Green, Mobile
How would you classify this using the Plant/Animal system? Praying Mantis Green but.. Mobile Aristotle’s Grouping of life not specific enough
Carl Linnaeus 1707 - 1778 zSwedish botanist zStarted putting species in similar categories (taxa) zSystema Naturae
Linnaeus – Systema Naturae zLinnaeus changed Aristotle's system. He: 1.Did away with the plant/animal rules 2.Based his system on specific, similar traits (morphology) 3.Gave organisms taxa that described traits, and called them; gave scientific names (binomial nomenclature) 4.Kingdom Species System
Each category is called a taxon (plural taxa) 1. Kingdom 2. Phylum 3. Class 4. Order 5. Family 6. Genus 7. Species Systema Naturae Taxa – Linnaeus
Mnemonic Device – To help remember categories and order Kingdom - King Phylum - Phillip Class – Came Order – Over Family - For Genus - Great Species - Spaghetti
Example Classification zLion z1. Kingdom – Animalia (all Animals) 2. Phylum – Chordata (All vertebrate animals) x3. Class – Mammalia (All Mammals – mammary glands) 4. Order – Carnivora (Meat eaters) 5. Family – Felidae (includes all Cats) 6. Genus – Panthera (Includes all roaring Cats) 7. Species – leo (Lions)
Common name vs. Scientific name z What is this? zCommon name(s): yMountain lion yCougar yPanther yPuma zScientific name: yFelis concolor
zIn binomial nomenclature each species is assigned a two part scientific name zLanguage = Latin zWritten in italics: Genus species zIn writing the name, can’t italicize, so underline yHomo sapien (Genus and species of Human) yPanthera leo (Genus and species of Lion)
Classification of a Rose A rose by any other name… zKingdom: Plantae zPhylum: Anthophyta zClass: Magnoliopsida zOrder: Rosales zFamily: Rosaceae zGenus: Rosa zSpecies: multiflora
Why Classify? zNames won’t change zKeeps living things “universal” zDescriptions of living things cannot be mistaken or “lost in translation” among scientists
Why Classify? zUseful ID tool for scientists in the field of agriculture, forestry and medicine zExample: yA child eats berries from a poisonous plant; Poison control can identify the plant quickly, giving the info. to physicians to treat quickly
Human Taxonomy – Do you know how YOU are classified? zKingdom=Animalia zPhylum=Chordata zClass=Mammalia zOrder=Primate zFamily=Hominidae zGenus=Homo zSpecies=sapien What is our scientific name in binomial nomenclature? What does it mean?
7 Taxa of Linnaeus zKingdom zPhylum zClass zOrder zFamily zGenus zSpecies Animalia, Chordata, Mammalia, Carnivora, Canidae, Canis, familiaris
Match common names with scientific names…. zColumn 1Column 2 z________1. Zebraa. Magnolia grandiflora z________2. Collared lizardb. Mus musculus z________3. Praying mantisc. Pinus sylvestris z________4. Indian elephantd. Cucumis sativus z________5. Map turtlee. Mantis religiosa z________6. Atlantic salmonf. Equus caballus z________7. Giant pandag. Sphagnum affine z________8. Purple finchh. Ulnus americana z________9. Scotch pinei. Elephas maximus z_______10. Paper birchj. Ursus horribilis z_______11. White cloverk. Graptemys geographica z_______12. Southern magnolial. Betula papyrifera z_______13. Red maplem. Carpodacus pupureus z_______14. American elmn. Trifolium alba z_______15. House mouseo. Salmo salar z_______16. Sphagnum mossp. Camelus bactrianus z_______17. Horseq. Equus zebra z_______18. Grizzly bearr. Acer rubrum z_______19. Camels. Ailuropoda melanoleuca z_______20. Cucumbert. Crotaphytus collaris
Timeline of Classification 1. 384 – 322 B.C. Aristotle y2 Kingdom Broad Classification 2. 1735 - Carl Linnaeus y2 Kingdom Multi-divisional Classification yKingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family Genus, Species 3. Evolutionary Classification – (post-Darwin) yGroup by Evolutionary Descent 4. 5 Kingdom System – 1950s 5. 6 Kingdom System – 1990s 6. 3 Domain System – 1990s
Multi-Kingdom System z2 Kingdom System not efficient -- WHY? yMicroscope!!! xOpened a new world of organisms yBiochemical Testing zModern Classification System y3 Domain – “Superkingdom” y6 Kingdom
OLD VERSION: What are the 5 Kingdoms? Monera (bacteria) has been split into 2 Kingdoms!
6 Kingdom System Animalia Plantae Fungi Protista Eubacteria Archaeabacteria
3 Domains zEubacteria – Common Bacteria zArchaea Bacteria – ancient Bacteria zEukarya – Includes everything else - Protist, Fungi, Monera, Plants, and Animals
Modern Classification – which taxon is new? 1. *Domain – most general taxa 2. Kingdom 3. Phylum 4. Class 5. Order 6. Family 7. Genus 8. Species
Human Taxonomy – Do you know how YOU are classified? z*Domain = Eukarya zKingdom=Animalia zPhylum=Chordata zClass=Mammalia zOrder=Primate zFamily=Hominidae zGenus=Homo zSpecies=sapien
DomainKingdom BacteriaEubacteria ArchaeaArchaebacteria Eukarya Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia
Fan Diagrams zHow are fan diagrams different from cladograms?
Three Domain System 1. Domain Bacteria yCorresponds to Eubacteria Kingdom yUnicellular Prokaryotic Organisms xNo Nucleus xEcologically Diverse – live everywhere! xMetabolically Diverse yCell Walls contain substance called Peptidoglycan – special protein and sugar yTrait used to distinguish between Bacteria and Archaea yTarget of many Antibiotics
Three Domain System 2. Domain Archaea – “Ancient Bacteria” yCorresponds to Kingdom Archaeabacteria yUnicellular, Prokaryotes xMetabolically Diverse xNo nucleus xLive in Extreme environments like those of early Earth xCell walls without Peptidoglycan A trait used to distinguish between Archaea and Bacteria Domains
Three Domain System z3. Eukarya yContains Kingdoms: xProtista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia yEukaryotic, single or multi-cellular Organisms xNucleus xMost visible life Humans are in Domain Eukarya
The 6 Kingdoms NOTE: For now, we are going to just get an OVERVIEW of each kingdom – we will visit each one in detail the rest of the semester
For now we will only introduce the zImportant characteristics - yDomain yCell type xProkaryotic or eukaryotic? yCell arrangement xUnicellular, multicellular or both? yNutrition xAutotrophic, heterotrophic, chemotropic or some of each? yCell wall xIf yes, what’s it made of? (there are different kinds) yExamples and “facts”
Kingdoms 1 zArchaebacteria yarchae = Greek "ANCIENT“ xModern archaebacteria MAY BE directly descended from (and are very similar to) the first organisms on Earth xBiochemical & genetic properties differ from ALL other kinds of life yUNICELLULAR PROKARYOTES yNo distinct nucleus with membrane around it yCell wall = made of pseudopeptidoglycan yMost are heterotrophic, a few are autotrophic, and some are chemotrophic yLive in harsh environments xSulfurous hot springs, very salty lakes, and in ANAEROBIC environments, such as the intestines of mammals y 3 phyla: x Methanogens x Halophiles x Thermoacidophiles
Kingdoms 2 zEubacteria yEU = "TRUE“ yUNICELLULAR PROKARYOTES yNo distinct nucleus with membrane around it Cell wall = made from peptidoglycan ySome are heterotrophic, some are autotrophic, some are chemotrophic yExamples: xMost of the Bacteria (Germs) that affect your life xIncludes the disease-causing bacteria such as tooth decay or food poisoning E. coli, Salmonella, Streptococcus
Kingdom 3 zProtista y Eukaryotes y Lacks complex organ systems y Live in moist environments y Cell wall = variety: some are polysaccharide, some silica, some DON’T have one y Mostly unicellular (some colonial = multicellular) y Heterotrophic & Autotrophic y 3 types: plant-like, animal-like, fungus-like Examples: AMOEBA, PARAMECIUM, EUGLENA, ALGAE
Kingdom 4 zFungi yEukaryotes yHeterotrophs that do not move (sessile) yCell wall = made from chitin yMostly multicellular xA few are unicellular Examples: MUSHROOMS MOLDS & MILDEWS YEAST (unicellular)
Kingdom 5 zPlants yEukaryotes yMulticellular yAutotrophs ySessile yCell walls made of cellulose yHave complex organ systems Examples: MOSS, FERNS FLOWERING PLANTS, BUSHES, TREES
Kingdom 6 zAnimals yEukaryotes yMulticellular yHeterotrophs yNO CELL WALL yMOSTLY Motile yHave complex organ system Examples: INSECTS, JELLYFISH, HYDRA, CRABS, FISH, BIRDS, LIONS,TIGERS,BEARS (oh my !)
What would the 6 kingdoms say? zFor YOUR kingdom, create a comic/cartoon zInclude a color picture of the organism in its environment zGive your organism a dialog bubble where it can speak traits you can’t show in your drawing zBe creative! Make a lasting impression!
Evolutionary Classification System - Phylogeny Based on: 1. Comparative Morphology 2. Biochemistry 3. Derived Characteristics AND ALSO COSIDERED IS… PHYLOGENY: The evolutionary history of an organism
Phylogeny zEvolutionary relationships between Taxa zUses: yFossil record & comparative morphology yComparing Homologous DNA/RNA – xMitochondrial DNA xrRNA yMolecular Clocks yMakes Phylogenetic trees and cladograms
Molecular Clock can Determine Relationships and Derived Characters of Species We Know how newer species are related to ancestor orgs due to mutation patterns New mutations are added over evolutionary time; the more recent the organism, the more mutations are seen
Classification Problems zDiscovery of new organisms may warrant new categories yEX: a new family might be created In the fall of 2006, a new type of crab with a furry appearance, found near Easter Island in the Pacific Ocean, was so unusual it warranted a whole new family designation, Kiwaidae. It was found at a depth of ~2000ft, in area where the Antarctic sea-shelf is melting
Creepy Critters Lab zWhat would be your Kingdoms? Phyla? Classes? Orders? Families? Genera? Species? zWhat would have helped?
Summary zClassification of organism brings order to the great diversity of life zEach organism is assigned a 2-part latin name (genus & species) recognized by all scientists zTaxonomy today classifies organism on the basis of their evolutionary relationships – phyolgeny, cladistics
Summary (cont’d) zOrganisms are classified in a series of taxa zEach taxa represents a set of more specific characteristics y3 Domains of life contain yThere are 6 kingdoms ySpecies is the most specific taxa
No rest for the taxonomist! zNew environments Evolution Speciation new species continually forming zStill finding new extant organisms….Deep ocean, rainforest, etc
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.