Presentation on theme: "By Brad Pringle GMO’s are organisms that have had their genetic code altered. This is done to enhance a desired trait or remove an undesirable one."— Presentation transcript:
GMO’s are organisms that have had their genetic code altered. This is done to enhance a desired trait or remove an undesirable one. It can be done in most organisms including bacteria, plants, and animals. http://www.polyp.org.uk/cartoons/environment/polyp_car toon_GMO_Pusher.jpg
The desired gene is isolated and cut with a restriction enzyme. If it is an undesirable gene it is removed. If it is a desirable gene it is replicated through bacterial plasmids or PCR. There are 2 ways the gene can be inserted A vector Inserted into the embryo
Humans have been naturally genetically modifying plants and animals since agriculture began with selective breeding to produce the best offspring. First commercially available GM food was the FLAVR SAVR tomato in 1994. In 2006, 252 million acres of GM food were planted in 22 countries. Virtually everything we eat now has been genetically modified or has genetically modified ingredients in it. http://sitemaker.umich.edu/sec006group5/gm_food
Plants have increased resistance against herbicide and pesticides. Increased nutritional content. Increased amounts of food. GM foods have the ability to grow in unfertile areas. Reduce the area needed to grow food. Water conservation. Create new vaccines. Produce a new type of plastic that is more environmentally friendly. Ripen faster and stay ripe longer. Better taste. http://www.goldenrice.org/ http://calorielab.com/news/categories/weigh t-control-in-the-military/
Increase yield. Increased resistance to disease and better overall health. Better feed efficiency. Used to find treatments for diseases Modify animals to produce substances needed for treatments. Fish that mature quicker. Cows that are immune to “Mad Cow” disease. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/pop_ups/07/sci_nat_ cloning_hall_of_fame/html/3.stm http://bristol.indymedia.org/newswire.ph p?story_id=14589
GM foods will cause unknown allergies and cause antibiotic resistance. Genes will be transferred from one GM species to another or to wild species causing undesired characteristics. Ethical issues of tampering genes and determining the course of nature. Labeling of GM products is not mandatory. Advances made with genetic modification could only be directed towards developed countries. Monopoly over the world’s food production by a few corporations. http://www.sweetwheat.com/showpage.php?cat=non-gmo
Early testing methods included chemical analysis of micro and macro nutrients. Evaluation on the FLAVR SAVR tomato concluded that there was no significant changes to the proteins vitamins or minerals so it was safe to sell. Today all GM food products undergo thorough pre-market safety evaluation before it can be sold in Canada. Manufacturer must submit a detailed report to Health Canada on how the food was developed. Health Canada analyses: How the food compares to a non-modified counterpart. The potential for new toxins developing in the food. The potential for allergic reactions. The biological and chemical safety of the food.
The popularity of GMOs will continue to rise as more people accept the technology; however, there will always be those that oppose the idea. As safety regulations improve and the technology advances there will be fewer risks to GM foods. GMOs could be the answer to the food shortages throughout the world. Genetic modification to foods and animals could translate into further research into the modification of humans. As long as there are no major set backs, GM food is the food of the future.
Adamchak, R. W., & Pronald, P. C. (2008). Tomorrow's Table. New York: Oxford University Press. Genetically Modified Foods and Organisms. (2008, November 5). Retrieved April 14, 2009, from http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/gmfood.shtml Pusztai, A. (2001, June). Genetically Modified Foods: Are They a Risk to Human/Animal Health? Retrieved May 4, 2009, from http://www.actionbioscience.org/biotech/pusztai.html The Safety of Genetically Modified Foods. (2009, January 6). Retrieved April 21, 2009, from http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hl-vs/iyh-vsv/food-aliment/gm-tg-eng.php Thomson, J. A. (2006). Seeds For The Future. New York: Cornell University Press.