Presentation on theme: "G ENDER AND I NEQUALITIES OF G ENDER How does culture condition us to be masculine or feminine?"— Presentation transcript:
G ENDER AND I NEQUALITIES OF G ENDER How does culture condition us to be masculine or feminine?
S EX AND G ENDER I DENTITY Sex: classification of people as male or female based on biological characteristics Biological Determinism: behavioral differences are the result of inherited physical characteristics Lacks proof – most tendencies are so weak that they are overridden by cultural and social influences Parents stress characteristics of their children that fit society’s image of the ideal male or female. How do they do this? Clothing, walking, talking, activities, life aspirations This leads to… Gender Identity: sense of being male or female based on cultural values
B IOLOGICAL D IFFERENCES Physical Differences: Muscle-to-bone ratio, fat storage, reproductive organs Brain Differences: Male – more activity in regions associated with fighting, more left hemisphere specialization, listen with right ear Female – more activity in emotional regions, equal hemisphere specialization, listen with both ears
S OCIOLOGISTS ’ V IEW OF B EHAVIOR Gender-related behavior is not primarily the result of biology Mead (1950) – 3 primitive New Guinean peoples Arapesh – both consistent with traditional female role Mundugumor – both consistent with traditional male role Tchambuli – opposite of traditional Western roles GENDER ROLES ARE NOT FIXED AT BIRTH!!! Biological characteristics can be modified through social influences.
F UNCTIONALISM AND G ENDER Evolutionary Perspective: Division of labor benefitted humans Patriarchy: oldest man in house holds authority Males – hunted/protected; more expendable Females – less expendable because of reproduction Contemporary Perspective: Traditional division of labor has created dysfunctions
C ONFLICT T HEORY AND G ENDER Men keep the traditional division of labor intact = preserve the privileges they have Example: Taliban and gender apartheid See the traditional roles as outdated Women have every right to pursue non- traditional careers whether it is functional for society or not.
S YMBOLIC I NTERACTIONISM AND G ENDER Focus on how we learn to act the way we are “supposed to act.” Gender Socialization: the social process of learning how to act as a boy or girl Parents: clothing, toys, cuddling, encouragement, chores School: teacher encouragement, clothing, elections, social functions, after school activities Peers: mirroring traditional roles gains acceptance
I SSUES IN THE W ORKPLACE Glass Ceiling: mostly invisible barrier that keeps women from advancing to top levels of work Women take on supporting roles; lack mentors Glass Escalator: mostly invisible accelerators that push men into higher positions Men get higher in traditional female-role jobs Mommy Track: emphasizes career and family Criticism – women accept lower pay Fast Track: emphasizes career Criticism – no room for family
G ENDER I NEQUALITY Sexism: set of beliefs, attitudes, norms and values used to justify gender inequality Justifies men’s leadership and power in society Although gaps have gotten smaller, they’re still seen Some stats… Married women with children under 6 working outside home 1960 – 19% 2004 – 59.3% Occupational Sex Segregation: concentration of women in lower positions 12% of civil engineering jobs 29% of attorney jobs Women earn.80 for every dollar a man earns (2004) Women work 7 days to earn what a man does in 5
L EGAL AND P OLITICAL I NEQUALITY Passage of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act (1964) Nullified some laws hurting women Family and Medical Leave Act (1993) Good, but still encourages hiring of men over women Number of women holding public office in the US is among the lowest in the Western world.